PSYC 3060 Study Guide
PSYC 3060 Study Guide PSYC 3060 - 001
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
Popular in Psychlogy
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Gearhart on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
PSYC Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Some people feel that sexuality education should be the responsibility of the parents yet fewer than one third of college students report ever having a meaningful discussion with their parents about sex Most young people turn to 1 and 2 for information about sex but much of what they learn in incorrect The best alternative would be for children to receive factual information in school Surveys indicate that more than 3 of Americans favors sexuality education in school Sex is only a part of 4 which encompasses all of the sexual attitudes feelings and behaviors associated with being human Sexual behaviors and attitudes such as what is considered to be sexually attractive vary from culture to culture and can even change within a culture over time American sexual attitudes are both permissive and repressed and as a result many people in the US have ambivalent feelings about sex The idea that the primary purpose of sex is for procreation to have children originally came from 5 but they also had a very positive attitude about their bodies and sexual pleasure between husbands and wives The early 6 affirmed the procreational purpose of sex but completely denied its pleasurable aspects Sexual desire even within marriage was now associated with guilt The biggest proponent of this view within Christianity was 7 In Western culture negative attitudes about sex reached their zenith during the reign of 8 of England During this time the medical profession contributed many incorrect negative beliefs about engaging in sex including the belied that excess sex particularly masturbation could lead to serious medical problems and eventually to insanity The industrial revolution slowly changed American s lives including their sex lives With shorter workdays and workweeks and greater mobility automobiles than in past generations people now had more free time to spend together With the availability of 9 during World War II and the marketing of 10 in 1960 the United States entered the sexual revolution The manner in which society shapes behaviors and attitudes is called 11 There is probably no other socializing agent with as much of an impact on young people s attitudes and behaviors as 12 especially television Many advertisements whether on television or in magazines provide little product information but instead use sex to sell their products in a process called 13 Sexual socialization does not occur as a result of a single exposure but instead is a slow and cumulative process The sexual content in the media is omnipresent but the manner in which sex is portrayed may be just as important as the quantity Because of these anti sexual attitudes of the Victorian era scienti c study of human sexuality was slow to develop 14 who emphasized the sexuality of all people including children and 15 who published seven volumes about the psychology of sex were two researchers of the Victorian era who attempted to counter anti sexual attitudes However it has only been within the last 50 years that scienti c and medical communities have accepted sex as a subject for serious discussion and research The rst largescale surveys were done by 16 in the 19405 and early 19505 17 published their physiological investigations of human sexual behavior in 1966 TF 18 The Old Testament presents a positive view of sex within marriage TF 19 American sexual behaviors are considered to be the norm by the rest of the world TF 20 Because of AIDS all states now require that public schools offer education about sexually transmitted infections TF 21 The larger the number of people in a survey the more accurate it always is TF 22 All cultures consider women s breasts to be highly erotic TF 23 Kissing is one sexual behavior that is done worldwide TF 24 One good method of obtaining a random sample is to randomly pick names from a phone book TF 25 Half of all Americans will get at least one sexually transmitted infection in their lifetime TF 26 Over half of all American teenagers have had sexual intercourse by the time they graduate from high school TF 27 The era of permissiveness known as the quotsexual revolutionquot started during the Victorian era TF 28 Kinsey s surveys are a good example of the use of random sampling techniques TF 29 A strong positive correlation two variables is evidence of a cause and effect relationship TF 30 Starting in the 19905 there has been a decline in the percentage of teenagers engaging in sexual intercourse and in teenage pregnancies TF 31 According to historian Phillipee Aries the idea of childhood did not exist in medieval society TF 32 The biblical immaturity of children is an irrefutable fact but childhood is a social concept TF 33 In some cultures girls are expected to marry and begin having intercourse before puberty TF 34 Schoolbased sexuality education is a socializing agent TF 35 Children who watch a lot of television shows with sexual content are no more likely than others to have begun sexual intercourse TF 36 In a controlled experiment teenagers who had just watched television shows with a lot of sexual content gave more negative ratings to casual sex than teens who had not watched the programs 37 A Victorianera physician who emphasized that sexuality of children and adults 38 He viewed sex for procreation as an unpleasant necessity and equated guilt with sexual desire 39 Conducted the rst largescale physiological study of human sexual behavior 40 They believed that the purpose of sex was for procreation but had a very positive attitude about sexual relations between husband and wife 41 They believed in an ascetic philosophy Wisdom and virtue come from denying physical pleasures 42 He conducted the rst large scale survey of American sexual attitudes and behaviors 43 A Victorian era sex researcher with a tolerant attitude about sexuality 44 They held anti sexual attitudes that were reinforced by the mistaken medical beliefs of that time 45 He headed the first survey of a nationally representative sample of adults living in households 46 Anthropologists believe the most sexually repressed society in the world to be the 47 Four important in uences that led to the sexual revolution were a B C D 48 A random sample is properly de ned as a sample drawn from a population in a manner so that has an equal chance of being selected 49 Believed that intellectual love could lead to immortality 50 A major in uence on early Christian thought was the Greek philosophy of dualism which separated and 51 Victorian physicians called nocturnal emissions because they believed they were caused by the same thing that causes gonorrhea 52 In the National Health and Social Life Survey sex or quothad sex was de ned as 53 has been called quotthe most powerful storyteller in American culture one that continually repeats the myths and ideologies the facts and patterns of relationships that de ne our world and legitimize the social orderquot Chapter 2 Anatomy Women s genitalia are collectively known as the 1 This includes the 2 3 4 5 6 and 7 The 8 and 9 become covered with hair at puberty The 10 has no known function other than to focus pleasurable sensations It is most similar to in structure to a man s 11 The 12 meet at the top to form the clitoral hood The area between the labia minora is called the 13 Sexually inexperienced women have a thin membrane called the 14 that partially covers the vaginal opening A woman s breasts are not part of her reproductive anatomy but in culture s where men consider them to be erotic they are part of her sexual anatomy One in 15 women will get breast cancer sometime in their lifetimes A women s internal reproductive system includes the 16 17 18 and 19 The 20 is the depository for sperm the birth canal and the exit route for menstrual uids It is a selfcleansing organ and its odor is generally not offensive The walls of the inner two thirds of the 21 are relatively insensitive to touch but about 10 of all women have an area of heightened sensitivity on the front wall called the 22 When a mature ovumegg is released from an 23 it is picked up by a 24 which then transports it to the 25 lf fertilized by sperm the egg usually implants in the 26 of the uterus Women should have regular pelvic exams and pap smears to test for 27 Men s external anatomy consists of the penis and the 28 which contains the 29 Erection of the penis occurs when two 30 and the 31 become engorged with blood The rounded end of the penis called the 32 is covered by 33 unless the excess skin has been surgically removed in an operation called 34 The American Academy of Pediatrics favors routine circumcision of newborns Men s internal reproductive system includes the 35 which produce sperm and the male hormone 36 and a fourpart duct system starting from the testicles consisting of the 37 38 39 and 40 which transport sperm out of the body During ejaculation sperm are mixed with uids from the 41 and 42 to form 43 A small amount of uid is released by the 44 before a man reaches orgasm Cancer of the 45 is the most common type of cancer in men aged 15 to 24 The most common cancer other than skin cancer among all men in the US is cancer of the 46 TF 47 The testicles in adult men normally produce millions of new sperm everyday TF 48 It is normal for one testicle to hang lower in the scrotum than the other TF 49 Sperm can only be produced in an environment that is several degrees lower than normal body temperature TF 50 Most doctors routinely check for sexually transmitted infections when they perform pelvic exams TF 51 Most women have a G spot TF 52 The American Cancer Society advises that women should have mammograms starting at age 40 TF 53 The ovaries produce hundreds of new eggs every month during a women s reproductive years TF 54 The American Academy of Pediatrics presently favors the routine circumcision of boys for health reasons TF 55 The use of feminine hygiene sprays and douches is a recommended part of normal feminine hygiene TF 56 There is no direct physical pathway between the ovaries and the Fallopian tubes TF 57 The labia majora are hairless and meet at the top to form the clitoral hood TF 58 Deep pleasurable vaginal sensations during intercourse are due to sensitive vaginal walls TF 59 Erections in men are due in part to a bone that protrudes into the penis TF 60 If a woman does not bleed vaginally during intercourse it is a good indicator that she had previously had sexual intercourse TF 61 A woman s sexual responsiveness is related to breast size 62 Areola 63 Mons veneris 64 Perineum 65 lntroitus 66 Corpora Cavernosa 67 Bulbocavernosus muscle 68 Corona 69 Fimbria 70 Glans 71 Bartholin s glands 72 Smegma 73Puboccygeus 74 Vestibular bulbs 75 Spermatic cord 76 The American Cancer Society recommends that men over the age of 50 should have an annual examination to check for cancer of the 77 In women the two outer elongated folds of skin that extend from the mons to perineum are called the 78 The innermost layer of the uterus which is sloughed off and discharged from the women s body during menstruation is called the 79 In men an erection results from the spongy tissues of the penis becoming engorged with 80 When a man becomes sexually aroused a few drops of a clear uid produced by the may appear at the tip of the penis 81 Breast size in women is determined by the 82 The best time for most women to examine their breasts for abnormal lumps is 83 After sperm travel through the vas deferens they enter the paired 84 Most of the uid in an ejaculation comes from the 85 The best time for a man to examine his testicles for abnormal lumps is 86 Two glands that secrete small amounts of alkaline uid into ducts at the base of the labia minora are called 87 Sperm are produced in the of the testicles 88 Both the penis and the have corpora cavernosa 89 The muscle surrounding the vagina and bladder is called the muscle 90 In women who have a G spot it is located on the wall of the vagina 91 The pituitary hormone that causes production of milk is Chapter 3 Hormones Hormones are chemical substances that are released into the bloodstream by ductless 1 glands The ovaries and testicles are part of this system The testicals produce the quotmale hormonequot 2 and the ovaries produce the quotfemale hormones 3 and 4 Hormones from the 5 cause the ovaries and testicals to produce their hormones In adult women an egg matures on an average of every 6 days The pituitary hormone that starts the menstrual cycle is called 7 This hormone stimulates the development of a 8 in the ovary During the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle also called the 9 phase estrogen from the follicle promotes growth of the 10 inhibits release of 11 and stimulates release of 12 The 13 surge signals the onset of 14 at which time the ovum is expelled into the 15 and is picked up a 16 During the postovulatory phase of the cycle also called the 17 phase the 18 secretes progesterone in large amounts If the egg is fertilized by a sperm it normally implants in the 19 If the egg is not fertilized the corpus luteum degenerates and the 20 is sloughed off and discharged in a normal physiological process called 21 Although the average length of the menstrual cycle is 28 days about half of women have cycles that vary in length by 22 In most nonhuman mammalian species this cycle of hormonal events is called the 23 cycle Unlike human women females of species with this type of cycle are sexually receptive to males only during 24 Some cultures have menstrual 25 that prohibit contact with a menstruating woman Even in our own culture many women and their partners avoid sexual intercourse during menstruation but this generally re ects inaccurate information andor negative culturally learned responses Menstrual discharge consists simply of 26 27 and 28 In men FSH stimulates 29 while 30 stimulates the production of 31 in the Leydig s cells of the testicles Misuse of anabolic steroids derivatives of testosterone can cause serious harmful effects such as 32 three effects Some women experience menstrual related problems The absence of menstruation is called 33 Emotional and or physical changes taking place 34 days before the start of menstruation are referred to as 35 What distinguishes this from other emotional states is that it ends 36 The major cause of 37 painful menstruation is an overproduction of 38 Endometriosis refers to a condition in which 39 Women who use tampons but do not change them frequently risk getting a serious bacterial infection called 40 In men sexual desire appears to be related to circulating levels of 41 Studies of women after menopause or after surgical removal of the ovaries suggest that women s sexual desire is not strongly affected by the hormones 42 or 43 Other studies indicate that the hormone 44 does in uence sexual desire in women TF 45 Hormones are important for women s sexual desire but not for men s TF 46 Testosterone is only found in men and estrogen is found only in women TF 47 All female mammals have menstruation cycles TF 48 Most women s menstrual cycles are 28 days in length TF 49 It is medically safe for a man to have sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman TF 50 Women who use tampons should change them three or four times a day even if the tampons are advertised long lasting TF 51 Women show a dramatic increase in sexual desire around the time of ovulation TF 52 Women s ovaries produce new eggs throughout their lifetimes TF 53 Near the end of the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle there is an LH surge TF 54 There is some evidence suggesting that women s menstrual cycles can be altered by odorless body secretions TF 55 Only women can get toxic shock syndrome TF 56 Estrogen according to most research is the primary hormone respsonsible fir sexual desire in women 57 Endocrine system 58 Testosterone 59 Luteinizing hormone 60 Estrogen 61 FSH 62 Follicular phase 63 Corpus luteum 64 Amenorrhea 65 Luteal phase 66 Dysmenorrhea 67 Mittelshmerz 68 Inhibin 69 Ovulation 70 Prostaglandis 71 Premenstural Syndrome 72 Endometriosis 73 The gland located at the base of the brain that secretes follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone is the gland 74 Natural body scents that can affect the behavior of other members of the same species are called 75 Each immature ovum is surrounded by other cells within a thin capsule of tissue to form what is called a 76 During ovulation the cells that surround the ovum in the follicle remain in the ovary and are then referred to as the 77 If you wish to avoid pregnancy the safest phase of the menstrual cycle to have unprotected intercourse is 78 If an egg is fertilized by a sperm and implantation occurs the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone from the developing placenta called 79 The hypothalamic hormone that causes release of FSH and LH from the pituitary is called 80 In the female hormone feedback loop LH production is suppressed primarily by 81 In the male hormone feedback loop LH production is suppressed primarily by 82 In the male hormone feedback loop FSH production is suppressed by 83 The pituitary hormone associated with milk release labor and orgasmic contraction and romantic attraction is called 84 In a woman s menstrual cycle the fertile period is days before and day after ovulation 85 For numbering purposes Day 1 of the menstrual cycle is Chapter 4 Sexual Response Cycle 1 observed and recorded physiological responses from hundreds of people engaged in sexual activity They divided the physiological responses during sex into four phases 2 3 4 and 5 This pattern of responses is often referred to as the 6 Other researchers have organized the responses into fewer or more phases and this cheater follows the model of sex therapist 7 and includes 8 as the rst phase The rst physiological response in the excitement phase for both men and women is a 9 response which results in 10 in men and 11 in women However in women physiological arousal does not correlate well with 12 which depends more on relationship and intimacy needs During the 13 phase in women the tissues of the outer third of the vagina become swollen with blood causing the vaginal opening to narrow This response is referred to as the 14 Also during this phase the clitoris 15 Early in the plateau phase 16 of all women and about 25 of all men experience a rash on the skin called 17 At the time of orgasm both men and women have 18 in speci c tissues that initially occur every 08 second However recent studies indicate that the real essence of orgasm is not in the genitals but in 19 Men s and women s descriptions of orgasm are 20 Men s orgasm occur in two stages 21 and 22 The expulsion of semen from the penis is called 23 After men have an orgasm their physiological responses generally dip below plateau during which time they cannot have another orgasm This period of time is called the 24 Unlike most men some women can have 25 de ned as two or more orgasms in quick succession without dropping below the plateau level The return to the unaroused state is called 26 By most estimates only 25 of adult women experience orgasm regularly during sexual intercourse Masters and Johnson claimed that all women in good health are capable of reaching orgasm during intercourse but Helen Kaplan and others believe that many women are incapable of reaching orgasm during intercourse without simultaneous 28 stimulation Freud believed that there were two types of female orgasm one cased by 29 stimulation and another by 30 sensations Masters and Johnson originally claimed that all female orgasms were identical and were focused in the 31 However some women report having experienced different types of orgasms and work conducted in the 1980s revealed that many of these women had a sensitive area in the 32 wall of the vagina called the 33 Stimulation of this area sometimes resulted in 34 during orgasm In some women the uid was identi ed as urine but in others it contained an enzyme found in secretions from men s 35 Most women say that the size of a partner s penis is 36 for their pleasure during intercourse Many people have tried to enhance their sexual desire or performance by taking substances called 37 but there is little evidence that they have any real effect People with disabilities may have special problems communicating or engaging in the physical act of sex but sexuality is more than just the physical responses described by Masters and Johnson It includes emotional and spiritual feelings and how we relate to others We are all sexual human beings TF 38 The rst physiological signs of arousal in men occur within seconds but take several minutes to begin in a woman TF 39 Many women do not separate desire from excitement arousal TF 40 Vaginal lubrication is actually super ltered blood plasma TF 41 The presence of vaginal lubrication means that a woman is ready to begin sexual intercourse TF 42 Both men and women can experience nipple erection during the excitement phase TF 43 When the clitoris pulls back and disappears beneath the clitoral hood it means that a woman is less sexually aroused than before TF 44 The secretion of uids from the vaginal walls may slow down if the plateau phase is prolonged TF 45 Generally speaking descriptions of orgasm written by women can be easily distinguished from those written by men TF 46 Orgasm and ejaculation occur at the same time in men are actually the same event TF 47 The rhythmic muscular contractions during orgasm recorded by Masters and Johnson are not strongly related to a person s subjective sensations of pleasure TF 48 A full orgasm for men with ejaculation is almost always followed by a refractory period TF 49 Some people who have suffered severe spinal chord injuries can experience orgasm TF 50 The walls of the inner two thirds of the vagina are very sensitive to touch thus making penis length an important factor during intercourse TF 51 There is more variation in penis length in the unaroused condition than in the erect state TF 52 Alcohol excites the central nervous system and enhances sexual performance TF 53 Use of marijuana generally improves sexual performance TF 54 A man s penis size is related to his height weight and race TF 55 Regular use of cocaine often leads to erectile problems and difficulties reaching orgasm TF 56 There is a strong relationship between vaginal vasocongestion and a woman s subjective sense of sexual arousal 57 Desire 58 Excitement phase 59 Plateau phase 60 Orgasm phase 61 Resolution phase 62 Vasocongestive response 63 Tissues become lled with blood during sexual arousal is called 64 Some women emit a uid during orgasm that comes from the 65 Most women and many men get a skin rash called the when they become highly sexually aroused 66 The engorgement and swelling of the outer third of the vagina was named the by Masters and Johnson 67 A sensitive area that is found on the front wall of the vagina in about 10 of women is called the 68 After ejaculating most men have a period of time called the during which it is impossible for them to have another orgasm 69 Two theories of why women have orgasms are a and b
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