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WSU / Biology / CB 1510 / Why aren’t electrons flying away?

Why aren’t electrons flying away?

Why aren’t electrons flying away?

Description

School: Wayne State University
Department: Biology
Course: Basic Life Mechanisms
Professor: Nataliya turchyn
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Study Guide, BIO 1510, Wayne State, and Turchyn
Cost: 50
Name: Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guide (for Exam 1)
Description: A study guide that covers the material through January 27th. The exam will be on Monday, February 1st.
Uploaded: 01/29/2016
4 Pages 41 Views 4 Unlocks
Reviews

Tyrel Thiel (Rating: )

No all-nighter needed with these notes...Thank you!!!



Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guides


Why aren’t electrons flying away?



∙ Chapter 2

o Know the structure of an atom

o What are protons, neutrons, and electrons?

 What are their charges?

o Why aren’t electrons flying away? 

o Atom categorization

 Symbol, atomic #, atomic mass, atomic weight

 Units of weight of these subatomic particles

 Atomic weight vs. atomic mass

 How to find # of neutrons

o What are isotopes?

 Characteristics of isotopes

 Radioactive isotopes Don't forget about the age old question of How would you differentiate the three phosphate groups?

 Purpose of having them

o Carbon Dating

 Which isotope of carbon is being used?

 Predicts up to how many years?

 What does carbon turn into?


What happens when the fossil is too old this carbon?



 What is the half­life of this carbon?

 What happens when the fossil is too old this carbon?  What happens when there is uncontrolled exposure? o Energy levels (shells)

 Name which energy level from weakest to strongest  What is a valence shell

 What happens to paired electrons?

o Orbitals

 Name the orbitals and shape

 What is an orbital?

 The equation for orbitals

o Gaining/Losing electrons

 OIL RIG

o Chemical bonds

 Name bonds that are the strongest to the weakest

o Chemical reactions

 Factors that change the rate of chemical reactions

o Importance of water


What happens when there is uncontrolled exposure?



 Cohesion vs. Adhesion

 Surface tension vs. capillary action

 High Specific Heat/Vaporization

 Frozen ice being less dense purpose

 Universal Solvent Don't forget about the age old question of Is consent always voluntary?
Don't forget about the age old question of Who founded the theory on operant conditioning?

∙ Hydration shell

 Water organizes nonpolar or polar?

 Forms what ions?

o Characteristics of Acids and Bases

o Importance of Buffers

o Acidosis vs. Alkalosis 

∙ Chapter 3

o Micromolecule vs. Macromolecule

o Building Blocks of carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

o Carbs

 What is glucose, starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin?

∙ Which are structural? Which are for energy?

∙ Which are in plants? Which are in animals?

 Monomers and polymers of carbs

 What specific bond is associated with carbs?

 How is sucrose, maltose, and lactose made?

 What is amylose and amylopectin?

∙ Which is branched? Unbranched? Why is this important?

o Proteins

 Monomers and polymers of proteins

 Functions of proteins

 Examples of types of proteins

 How many amino acids are there? Don't forget about the age old question of What does value appropriation indicate?

 Make up of Proteins

 Proline vs. Methionine vs. Cysteine

 Nonpolar amino acids vs. polar amino acids

 Aromatic amino acids have what? Don't forget about the age old question of How is anaerobic different from aerobic respiration?

 What are ionizable amino acids and their properties?

 Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure

 Folding of proteins which are functional and which are nonfunctional?  Types of bonds that are related to polypeptide folding

 What are chaperons?

 Denaturation vs. Dissociation

o Nucleic acids

 DNA vs. RNA

 Tell the difference between DNA vs. RNA with diagram

 Nitrogenous bases

∙ A, G, C, T, and U

∙ Which bases goes with DNA? RNA?

o How many bonds are in each pairing? We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of apicomplexa protozoans?

∙ Purine vs. Pyrimidine

 Structure of DNA

 What is the modified nucleotide? Why is it important?

 Special bonds for nucleotides

o Lipids 

 Monomers and polymers of lipids

 Name the 3 types of lipids

 Some functions of Lipids

 What are triglycerides

 Saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acid

 Cis fats vs trans fats

 What are phospholipids? Steroids?

∙ Example for each one

o Functional groups

 Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, and methyl ∙ What macromolecules are associated with each functional group?

∙ Which functional group is acidic? Basic?

o Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis 

∙ Chapter 4

o Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

o Bacterial Cell composition

 What makes it different than animal or plant cells?

 What makes bacteria mobile?

o Gram­positive vs. Gram­negative bacteria

 Which one can be treated with penicillin? Why?

o Animal Cell 

 What is the composition? What makes it different than bacteria or plant  cells

o Plant cell

 What is the composition? What makes it different than bacteria or animal  cell?

o Endoplasmic Reticulum

 RER vs. SER

o Nucleus

 What makes up the nucleus?

 What is chromatin?

 What is the purpose of a nucleolus?

 What is a nuclear lamina?

o Ribosomes

 What is made in ribosomes?

o RER

 It synthesizes what?

 What are glycoproteins?

 Where do proteins go after the RER? (3 destinations)

 Where in the body are there lots of RER?

o SER

 It synthesizes what?

 Where in the body are lots of SER?

o Golgi Apparatus

 What is the function?

 What are glycolipids?

 Cis face vs. trans face

o Secretory pathway

 Is a transport vesicle an organelle?

 Where are transport vesicles derived from?

 Where are secretory vesicles derived from?

 Describe the route it takes for things to be secreted

o Lysosomes

 What is the function?

 What kind of environment works the best of lysosomes? o Central Vacuole

 What type of cell(s) can this be found in? Animal? Plant? Bacterial?  What is the tonoplast?

 Contractile vacuole vs. central vacuole

o Mitochondria

 What type of cell(s) can this be found in?

 What is a cristae? Matrix?

o Chloroplasts

 Found in what type of cell(s)?

 Function of chloroplasts

 What are thylakoids? Granum? Stroma?

 Do cyanobacteria photosynthesize? If so, how?

o The Endosymbiotic Theory what is it?

 What kind of evidence is out there to support it? (4 answers) o Cytoskeleton

 Functions of cytoskeleton

 Actin filaments vs. microtubules

∙ Functions of actin

∙ Where actin can be found

  Microtubule function

∙ Where can it be found?

 Which is dynamic? Actin? Microtubules? Both?

o Intermediate filaments function

o Motor proteins function

o Flagella and cilia

 Name the types of arrangements for it

o What is extracellular matrix? The function of it?

 What is collagen? Elastin? Fibronectin? Proteoglycan?

o Tight, anchoring, gap junction

o How do plant cells communicate? Through what process?

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