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Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guides
∙ Chapter 2
o Know the structure of an atom
o What are protons, neutrons, and electrons?
What are their charges?
o Why aren’t electrons flying away?
o Atom categorization
Symbol, atomic #, atomic mass, atomic weight
Units of weight of these subatomic particles
Atomic weight vs. atomic mass
How to find # of neutrons
o What are isotopes?
Characteristics of isotopes
Radioactive isotopes Don't forget about the age old question of How would you differentiate the three phosphate groups?
Purpose of having them
o Carbon Dating
Which isotope of carbon is being used?
Predicts up to how many years?
What does carbon turn into?
What is the halflife of this carbon?
What happens when the fossil is too old this carbon? What happens when there is uncontrolled exposure? o Energy levels (shells)
Name which energy level from weakest to strongest What is a valence shell
What happens to paired electrons?
Name the orbitals and shape
What is an orbital?
The equation for orbitals
o Gaining/Losing electrons
o Chemical bonds
Name bonds that are the strongest to the weakest
o Chemical reactions
Factors that change the rate of chemical reactions
o Importance of water
Cohesion vs. Adhesion
Surface tension vs. capillary action
High Specific Heat/Vaporization
Frozen ice being less dense purpose
∙ Hydration shell
Water organizes nonpolar or polar?
Forms what ions?
o Characteristics of Acids and Bases
o Importance of Buffers
o Acidosis vs. Alkalosis
∙ Chapter 3
o Micromolecule vs. Macromolecule
o Building Blocks of carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
What is glucose, starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin?
∙ Which are structural? Which are for energy?
∙ Which are in plants? Which are in animals?
Monomers and polymers of carbs
What specific bond is associated with carbs?
How is sucrose, maltose, and lactose made?
What is amylose and amylopectin?
∙ Which is branched? Unbranched? Why is this important?
Monomers and polymers of proteins
Functions of proteins
Examples of types of proteins
How many amino acids are there? Don't forget about the age old question of What does value appropriation indicate?
Make up of Proteins
Proline vs. Methionine vs. Cysteine
Nonpolar amino acids vs. polar amino acids
Aromatic amino acids have what? Don't forget about the age old question of How is anaerobic different from aerobic respiration?
What are ionizable amino acids and their properties?
Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure
Folding of proteins which are functional and which are nonfunctional? Types of bonds that are related to polypeptide folding
What are chaperons?
Denaturation vs. Dissociation
o Nucleic acids
DNA vs. RNA
Tell the difference between DNA vs. RNA with diagram
∙ A, G, C, T, and U
∙ Which bases goes with DNA? RNA?
o How many bonds are in each pairing? We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of apicomplexa protozoans?
∙ Purine vs. Pyrimidine
Structure of DNA
What is the modified nucleotide? Why is it important?
Special bonds for nucleotides
Monomers and polymers of lipids
Name the 3 types of lipids
Some functions of Lipids
What are triglycerides
Saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acid
Cis fats vs trans fats
What are phospholipids? Steroids?
∙ Example for each one
o Functional groups
Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, and methyl ∙ What macromolecules are associated with each functional group?
∙ Which functional group is acidic? Basic?
o Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
∙ Chapter 4
o Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
o Bacterial Cell composition
What makes it different than animal or plant cells?
What makes bacteria mobile?
o Grampositive vs. Gramnegative bacteria
Which one can be treated with penicillin? Why?
o Animal Cell
What is the composition? What makes it different than bacteria or plant cells
o Plant cell
What is the composition? What makes it different than bacteria or animal cell?
o Endoplasmic Reticulum
RER vs. SER
What makes up the nucleus?
What is chromatin?
What is the purpose of a nucleolus?
What is a nuclear lamina?
What is made in ribosomes?
It synthesizes what?
What are glycoproteins?
Where do proteins go after the RER? (3 destinations)
Where in the body are there lots of RER?
It synthesizes what?
Where in the body are lots of SER?
o Golgi Apparatus
What is the function?
What are glycolipids?
Cis face vs. trans face
o Secretory pathway
Is a transport vesicle an organelle?
Where are transport vesicles derived from?
Where are secretory vesicles derived from?
Describe the route it takes for things to be secreted
What is the function?
What kind of environment works the best of lysosomes? o Central Vacuole
What type of cell(s) can this be found in? Animal? Plant? Bacterial? What is the tonoplast?
Contractile vacuole vs. central vacuole
What type of cell(s) can this be found in?
What is a cristae? Matrix?
Found in what type of cell(s)?
Function of chloroplasts
What are thylakoids? Granum? Stroma?
Do cyanobacteria photosynthesize? If so, how?
o The Endosymbiotic Theory what is it?
What kind of evidence is out there to support it? (4 answers) o Cytoskeleton
Functions of cytoskeleton
Actin filaments vs. microtubules
∙ Functions of actin
∙ Where actin can be found
∙ Where can it be found?
Which is dynamic? Actin? Microtubules? Both?
o Intermediate filaments function
o Motor proteins function
o Flagella and cilia
Name the types of arrangements for it
o What is extracellular matrix? The function of it?
What is collagen? Elastin? Fibronectin? Proteoglycan?
o Tight, anchoring, gap junction
o How do plant cells communicate? Through what process?