Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guide (for Exam 1)
Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guide (for Exam 1) Bio 1510
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Mechanisms in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guides Chapter 2 o Know the structure of an atom o What are protons, neutrons, and electrons? What are their charges? o Why aren’t electrons flying away? o Atom categorization Symbol, atomic #, atomic mass, atomic weight Units of weight of these subatomic particles Atomic weight vs. atomic mass How to find # of neutrons o What are isotopes? Characteristics of isotopes Radioactive isotopes Purpose of having them o Carbon Dating Which isotope of carbon is being used? Predicts up to how many years? What does carbon turn into? What is the halflife of this carbon? What happens when the fossil is too old this carbon? What happens when there is uncontrolled exposure? o Energy levels (shells) Name which energy level from weakest to strongest What is a valence shell What happens to paired electrons? o Orbitals Name the orbitals and shape What is an orbital? The equation for orbitals o Gaining/Losing electrons OIL RIG o Chemical bonds Name bonds that are the strongest to the weakest o Chemical reactions Factors that change the rate of chemical reactions o Importance of water Cohesion vs. Adhesion Surface tension vs. capillary action High Specific Heat/Vaporization Frozen ice being less dense purpose Universal Solvent Hydration shell Water organizes nonpolar or polar? Forms what ions? o Characteristics of Acids and Bases o Importance of Buffers o Acidosis vs. Alkalosis Chapter 3 o Micromolecule vs. Macromolecule o Building Blocks of carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids o Carbs What is glucose, starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin? Which are structural? Which are for energy? Which are in plants? Which are in animals? Monomers and polymers of carbs What specific bond is associated with carbs? How is sucrose, maltose, and lactose made? What is amylose and amylopectin? Which is branched? Unbranched? Why is this important? o Proteins Monomers and polymers of proteins Functions of proteins Examples of types of proteins How many amino acids are there? Make up of Proteins Proline vs. Methionine vs. Cysteine Nonpolar amino acids vs. polar amino acids Aromatic amino acids have what? What are ionizable amino acids and their properties? Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure Folding of proteins which are functional and which are nonfunctional? Types of bonds that are related to polypeptide folding What are chaperons? Denaturation vs. Dissociation o Nucleic acids DNA vs. RNA Tell the difference between DNA vs. RNA with diagram Nitrogenous bases A, G, C, T, and U Which bases goes with DNA? RNA? o How many bonds are in each pairing? Purine vs. Pyrimidine Structure of DNA What is the modified nucleotide? Why is it important? Special bonds for nucleotides o Lipids Monomers and polymers of lipids Name the 3 types of lipids Some functions of Lipids What are triglycerides Saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acid Cis fats vs trans fats What are phospholipids? Steroids? Example for each one o Functional groups Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, and methyl What macromolecules are associated with each functional group? Which functional group is acidic? Basic? o Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis Chapter 4 o Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes o Bacterial Cell composition What makes it different than animal or plant cells? What makes bacteria mobile? o Grampositive vs. Gramnegative bacteria Which one can be treated with penicillin? Why? o Animal Cell What is the composition? What makes it different than bacteria or plant cells o Plant cell What is the composition? What makes it different than bacteria or animal cell? o Endoplasmic Reticulum RER vs. SER o Nucleus What makes up the nucleus? What is chromatin? What is the purpose of a nucleolus? What is a nuclear lamina? o Ribosomes What is made in ribosomes? o RER It synthesizes what? What are glycoproteins? Where do proteins go after the RER? (3 destinations) Where in the body are there lots of RER? o SER It synthesizes what? Where in the body are lots of SER? o Golgi Apparatus What is the function? What are glycolipids? Cis face vs. trans face o Secretory pathway Is a transport vesicle an organelle? Where are transport vesicles derived from? Where are secretory vesicles derived from? Describe the route it takes for things to be secreted o Lysosomes What is the function? What kind of environment works the best of lysosomes? o Central Vacuole What type of cell(s) can this be found in? Animal? Plant? Bacterial? What is the tonoplast? Contractile vacuole vs. central vacuole o Mitochondria What type of cell(s) can this be found in? What is a cristae? Matrix? o Chloroplasts Found in what type of cell(s)? Function of chloroplasts What are thylakoids? Granum? Stroma? Do cyanobacteria photosynthesize? If so, how? o The Endosymbiotic Theory what is it? What kind of evidence is out there to support it? (4 answers) o Cytoskeleton Functions of cytoskeleton Actin filaments vs. microtubules Functions of actin Where actin can be found Microtubule function Where can it be found? Which is dynamic? Actin? Microtubules? Both? o Intermediate filaments function o Motor proteins function o Flagella and cilia Name the types of arrangements for it o What is extracellular matrix? The function of it? What is collagen? Elastin? Fibronectin? Proteoglycan? o Tight, anchoring, gap junction o How do plant cells communicate? Through what process?
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