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Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guide (for Exam 1)

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by: Michelle Notetaker

Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guide (for Exam 1) Bio 1510

Marketplace > Wayne State University > Biology > Bio 1510 > Chapter 2 3 and 4 Study Guide for Exam 1
Michelle Notetaker
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

A study guide that covers the material through January 27th. The exam will be on Monday, February 1st.
Basic Life Mechanisms
Dr. Nataliya Turchyn
Study Guide
Study Guide, BIO 1510, Wayne State, Turchyn
50 ?




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"No all-nighter needed with these notes...Thank you!!!"
Tyrel Thiel

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Mechanisms in Biology at Wayne State University.


Reviews for Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guide (for Exam 1)

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Date Created: 01/28/16
Chapter 2, 3, and 4 Study Guides  Chapter 2 o Know the structure of an atom o What are protons, neutrons, and electrons?  What are their charges? o Why aren’t electrons flying away?  o Atom categorization  Symbol, atomic #, atomic mass, atomic weight  Units of weight of these subatomic particles  Atomic weight vs. atomic mass  How to find # of neutrons o What are isotopes?  Characteristics of isotopes  Radioactive isotopes  Purpose of having them o Carbon Dating  Which isotope of carbon is being used?  Predicts up to how many years?  What does carbon turn into?  What is the half­life of this carbon?  What happens when the fossil is too old this carbon?  What happens when there is uncontrolled exposure? o Energy levels (shells)  Name which energy level from weakest to strongest  What is a valence shell  What happens to paired electrons? o Orbitals  Name the orbitals and shape  What is an orbital?  The equation for orbitals o Gaining/Losing electrons  OIL RIG o Chemical bonds  Name bonds that are the strongest to the weakest o Chemical reactions  Factors that change the rate of chemical reactions o Importance of water  Cohesion vs. Adhesion  Surface tension vs. capillary action  High Specific Heat/Vaporization  Frozen ice being less dense purpose  Universal Solvent  Hydration shell  Water organizes nonpolar or polar?  Forms what ions? o Characteristics of Acids and Bases o Importance of Buffers o Acidosis vs. Alkalosis   Chapter 3 o Micromolecule vs. Macromolecule o Building Blocks of carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids o Carbs  What is glucose, starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin?  Which are structural? Which are for energy?  Which are in plants? Which are in animals?  Monomers and polymers of carbs  What specific bond is associated with carbs?  How is sucrose, maltose, and lactose made?  What is amylose and amylopectin?  Which is branched? Unbranched? Why is this important? o Proteins  Monomers and polymers of proteins  Functions of proteins  Examples of types of proteins  How many amino acids are there?  Make up of Proteins  Proline vs. Methionine vs. Cysteine  Nonpolar amino acids vs. polar amino acids  Aromatic amino acids have what?  What are ionizable amino acids and their properties?  Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure  Folding of proteins which are functional and which are nonfunctional?  Types of bonds that are related to polypeptide folding  What are chaperons?  Denaturation vs. Dissociation o Nucleic acids  DNA vs. RNA  Tell the difference between DNA vs. RNA with diagram  Nitrogenous bases  A, G, C, T, and U  Which bases goes with DNA? RNA? o How many bonds are in each pairing?  Purine vs. Pyrimidine  Structure of DNA  What is the modified nucleotide? Why is it important?  Special bonds for nucleotides o Lipids   Monomers and polymers of lipids  Name the 3 types of lipids  Some functions of Lipids  What are triglycerides  Saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acid  Cis fats vs trans fats  What are phospholipids? Steroids?  Example for each one o Functional groups  Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, and methyl  What macromolecules are associated with each functional group?  Which functional group is acidic? Basic? o Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis   Chapter 4 o Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes o Bacterial Cell composition  What makes it different than animal or plant cells?  What makes bacteria mobile? o Gram­positive vs. Gram­negative bacteria  Which one can be treated with penicillin? Why? o Animal Cell   What is the composition? What makes it different than bacteria or plant  cells o Plant cell  What is the composition? What makes it different than bacteria or animal  cell? o Endoplasmic Reticulum  RER vs. SER o Nucleus  What makes up the nucleus?  What is chromatin?  What is the purpose of a nucleolus?  What is a nuclear lamina? o Ribosomes  What is made in ribosomes? o RER  It synthesizes what?  What are glycoproteins?  Where do proteins go after the RER? (3 destinations)  Where in the body are there lots of RER? o SER  It synthesizes what?  Where in the body are lots of SER? o Golgi Apparatus  What is the function?  What are glycolipids?  Cis face vs. trans face o Secretory pathway  Is a transport vesicle an organelle?  Where are transport vesicles derived from?  Where are secretory vesicles derived from?  Describe the route it takes for things to be secreted o Lysosomes  What is the function?  What kind of environment works the best of lysosomes? o Central Vacuole  What type of cell(s) can this be found in? Animal? Plant? Bacterial?  What is the tonoplast?  Contractile vacuole vs. central vacuole o Mitochondria  What type of cell(s) can this be found in?  What is a cristae? Matrix? o Chloroplasts  Found in what type of cell(s)?  Function of chloroplasts  What are thylakoids? Granum? Stroma?  Do cyanobacteria photosynthesize? If so, how? o The Endosymbiotic Theory what is it?  What kind of evidence is out there to support it? (4 answers) o Cytoskeleton  Functions of cytoskeleton  Actin filaments vs. microtubules  Functions of actin  Where actin can be found   Microtubule function  Where can it be found?  Which is dynamic? Actin? Microtubules? Both? o Intermediate filaments function o Motor proteins function o Flagella and cilia  Name the types of arrangements for it o What is extracellular matrix? The function of it?  What is collagen? Elastin? Fibronectin? Proteoglycan? o Tight, anchoring, gap junction o How do plant cells communicate? Through what process?


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