BIO 1040 Exam 1 study guide
BIO 1040 Exam 1 study guide BIOL 1040
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Exam 1 Study Guide All of these terms can be found and explained more in depth in my notes that have been posted weeks’ prior. The Animal Body- Chapter 33 Form vs Function Asymmetry Radial Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry Limits of Size SA to V ratio As cell size increases, its SA:V ratio decreases Insufficient SA to support a cell’s increasing V, a cell will either die or divide Multicellularity Specialization Animal Bioenergetics Animal Tissues Epithelial Three shapes: Squamous, Cubodial, Columnar (know where they are located and their function) Connective Loose, Dense, Cartilage, Bone, Adipose, Blood (know location, structure and function) Muscle tissue Smooth, Skeletal, Cardiac (know location, structure and function) Nervous tissue Vertebrates have two major body cavities Dorsal Cavity (brain and spinal cavity) Ventral Cavity (thoratic acid and abdominopelvic cavity) Be able to label the neuron and know what each part does Two Types of Glial cells Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Define Homeostasis Positive vs Negative Feedback The Digestive System- Chapter 34 Digestion Compartmentalization Cellular Define Herbivores/ Carnivores/ Omnivores Sponges- food vacuoles Incomplete Systems (only one opening) Alimentary Canal (two openings) Label Human Digestive system Oral cavity- digestion begins here Mechanical and Chemical digestion Chewing Tongue- tastes, creates bolus, moves bolus to pharynx Salivary glands (what do they release) Lingual Lipase (lipid digestion) Peristalsis (esophagus to stomach)—how?? Stomach Gastric juice consisting of Mucus Protein- digesting enzyme (begins in stomach) Strong acid- pH around 2 Some chemical digestion occurs in stomach Pepsinogen vs Pepsin (how does HCl come into play here) What protects the stomach from damage? --- Mucus Small Intestine Major organ of chemical digestion and absorption Chyme (what does it do) Alkaline pH- from pH of 2 in the stomach -> pH of 8 or 9 in small intestine Pancreas (what does it do) Surface area is increased by: Folds in the intestinal lining Villi Microvilli Large intestine (Colon) Cecum Large populations of E. Coli which produce important vitamins Helps form feces Vestigial- non necessary body parts (ex. Appendix) Food processing Four stages- Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Elimination Break down of macromolecules Carbohydrates (what happens in this part of digestion, what enzymes are involved) Proteins Starts in stomach -> intestine Know which enzymes are involved Lipids (what do lipids do during digestion) Neurons and the Nervous system- Chapter 35 Define a neuron Unipolar Bipolar Multipolar Psuedounipolar Glial Cells ( Central vs Peripheral Nervous System Glial Cells) Nervous Systems have two anatomical divisions Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Define and know what Sensory Input, Integration, and Motor Output do Sensory Neurons Interneurons Motor Neurons Define Simple Reflex Arc Resting potential vs Action Potential Propagation Self propagated All or nothing Frequency of action potentials Define Synapse Chemical Synapse Role of Neurotransmitters Membrane potential graphs Divergent vs Convergent circuit neurons/signals Evolutionary trends Cephalization and Centralization Human Nervous System Central nervous system Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Motor Neurons Somatic Autonomic Sympathetic Parasympathetic Sensory Neuron PNS is divided into two functional components Motor System Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Endocrine System – Chapter 37 Chemical Messengers Hormones, Neurotransmitters, Local Signaling Molecules, Pheromones Hormones use two signaling mechanisms to affect target tissues: Surface and Internal Three stages Reception Signal Transduction Response How to hormones function? Two groups of molecules Water- soluble Lipid- soluble Endocrine glands Endocrine and non-endocrine functions Hypothalamus/ pituitary interaction Nervous system- fast and short term Endocrine system- slow and long term Pituitary Glands Posterior Anterior Portal circulatory system Hypothalamus-> Anterior pituitary-> Thyroid-> Thyroid hormone (negative feedback) Pancreas secretes two antagonist hormones Insulin Glucagon Know the glucose level cycle (insulin, glucose, glycogen, glucagon)
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