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BIO 1040 Exam 1 study guide

by: Michelle Notetaker

BIO 1040 Exam 1 study guide BIOL 1040

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 1040 > BIO 1040 Exam 1 study guide
Michelle Notetaker
GPA 3.67

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About this Document

This is the exam 1 study guide
General Biology II
Dr. William Surver
Study Guide
Bio, BIOL, BIO 1040, BIOL 1040, Biology
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Exam 1 Study Guide All of these terms can be found and explained more in depth in my notes that have been posted weeks’ prior. The Animal Body- Chapter 33  Form vs Function  Asymmetry  Radial Symmetry  Bilateral Symmetry  Limits of Size  SA to V ratio  As cell size increases, its SA:V ratio decreases  Insufficient SA to support a cell’s increasing V, a cell will either die or divide  Multicellularity  Specialization  Animal Bioenergetics  Animal Tissues  Epithelial Three shapes: Squamous, Cubodial, Columnar (know where they are located and their function)  Connective Loose, Dense, Cartilage, Bone, Adipose, Blood (know location, structure and function)  Muscle tissue Smooth, Skeletal, Cardiac (know location, structure and function)  Nervous tissue  Vertebrates have two major body cavities  Dorsal Cavity (brain and spinal cavity)  Ventral Cavity (thoratic acid and abdominopelvic cavity)  Be able to label the neuron and know what each part does  Two Types of Glial cells  Astrocytes  Oligodendrocytes  Define Homeostasis  Positive vs Negative Feedback  The Digestive System- Chapter 34  Digestion  Compartmentalization  Cellular  Define Herbivores/ Carnivores/ Omnivores  Sponges- food vacuoles  Incomplete Systems (only one opening)  Alimentary Canal (two openings)  Label Human Digestive system  Oral cavity- digestion begins here  Mechanical and Chemical digestion  Chewing  Tongue- tastes, creates bolus, moves bolus to pharynx  Salivary glands (what do they release)  Lingual Lipase (lipid digestion)  Peristalsis (esophagus to stomach)—how??  Stomach  Gastric juice consisting of Mucus Protein- digesting enzyme (begins in stomach) Strong acid- pH around 2  Some chemical digestion occurs in stomach  Pepsinogen vs Pepsin (how does HCl come into play here)  What protects the stomach from damage? --- Mucus  Small Intestine  Major organ of chemical digestion and absorption  Chyme (what does it do)  Alkaline pH- from pH of 2 in the stomach -> pH of 8 or 9 in small intestine  Pancreas (what does it do)  Surface area is increased by: Folds in the intestinal lining Villi Microvilli  Large intestine (Colon)  Cecum  Large populations of E. Coli which produce important vitamins  Helps form feces  Vestigial- non necessary body parts (ex. Appendix)  Food processing  Four stages- Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Elimination  Break down of macromolecules  Carbohydrates (what happens in this part of digestion, what enzymes are involved)  Proteins  Starts in stomach -> intestine  Know which enzymes are involved  Lipids (what do lipids do during digestion)  Neurons and the Nervous system- Chapter 35  Define a neuron  Unipolar  Bipolar  Multipolar  Psuedounipolar  Glial Cells ( Central vs Peripheral Nervous System Glial Cells)  Nervous Systems have two anatomical divisions  Central Nervous System  Peripheral Nervous System  Define and know what Sensory Input, Integration, and Motor Output do  Sensory Neurons  Interneurons  Motor Neurons  Define Simple Reflex Arc  Resting potential vs Action Potential  Propagation  Self propagated  All or nothing  Frequency of action potentials  Define Synapse  Chemical Synapse  Role of Neurotransmitters  Membrane potential graphs  Divergent vs Convergent circuit neurons/signals  Evolutionary trends  Cephalization and Centralization  Human Nervous System  Central nervous system Brain Spinal Cord  Peripheral Nervous System Motor Neurons  Somatic  Autonomic  Sympathetic  Parasympathetic Sensory Neuron  PNS is divided into two functional components  Motor System  Autonomic nervous system  Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic  Endocrine System – Chapter 37  Chemical Messengers  Hormones, Neurotransmitters, Local Signaling Molecules, Pheromones  Hormones use two signaling mechanisms to affect target tissues:  Surface and Internal  Three stages  Reception  Signal Transduction  Response  How to hormones function?  Two groups of molecules  Water- soluble  Lipid- soluble  Endocrine glands  Endocrine and non-endocrine functions  Hypothalamus/ pituitary interaction  Nervous system- fast and short term  Endocrine system- slow and long term  Pituitary Glands  Posterior  Anterior  Portal circulatory system  Hypothalamus-> Anterior pituitary-> Thyroid-> Thyroid hormone (negative feedback)  Pancreas secretes two antagonist hormones  Insulin  Glucagon  Know the glucose level cycle (insulin, glucose, glycogen, glucagon)


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