BIO 1144 Sec 03 Test 1 Study Guide
BIO 1144 Sec 03 Test 1 Study Guide BIO 1144
Popular in Biology II Thomas Holder
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jaren Davis on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Biology II Thomas Holder in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Jaren has the best notes period!
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Biology II Test 1 Study onlinequizlet.com/_1y6u3r 1. 2 Embryonic Protosomes and deuterostomes 14.Bacteria -proteobacteria "true bacteria" Development -cyanobacteria "blue greens" Mechanisms -photosynthetic 2. 4 Critical Innovationsof -Notochord 15.Bilateral -distinct head and tail ChordataBody Design -Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord Symmetry -only one line or cut produces equal -Pharyngeal Slits images -Postanal Tail 16.Bilateral -triploblastic (endoderm, ectoderm, 3. 4 Morph. and -body symmetry Symmetry mesoderm) Development Features -number of tissue layers Animals -presence/absence of a "true" 17. Binomial System -2-worded scientific name body cavity ofNomenclature -first word is a noun, second is an -patterns of embryonic adjective development 18.Body Cavity may not be a great character splitting 4. 5 Kingdom Concept Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, group Animalia 19.Body Cavity -bilateral only animals 5. Acoelomate -"without coelom" -non-existent in phylumporifera -nocavity;not surrounded by Md tissue 20.Body Symmetry -relative proportions the body has -the shape of the animal -flatworms 21.Bryophytes -PhylumHepatophyta (liverworts) 6500 6. Algae -"plant-like" (mostly) -autotrophic - "self-feeding" species -unicellular > multicelluar -PhylumAnthocerophyta (hornworts) 100 species 7. All Monera -difficult todetermine -PhylumBryophyta (mosses) 12,000 evolutionary relationships species 8. Amniotic Egg not laid in water, therefore they're 22.Bryophytes -reproduce spores (noseed) not reproductively tied towater -non vascular 9. Angiosperms -"enclosed seeds" -smallest plants 1 1/2 M -advanced and complex vascular -require external water for reproduction tissues 23.CarolusLinnaeus -1753 -seed:embryo, stored food, -dealt with plants protective coverings -looked at plants and animals and named -better "survival value" thembased on shape, color, size, roots, -flowers - attract pollinators etc. -fruits - enclose/protect seed and 24.ClassAmphibia -"living a double life" assist with seed dispersal -300,000+species -1st terrestrial vert.group -doesnt require external H2O for -most split life between aquatic stage and terrestrial stage reproduction -most lay eggs in water 10.Angiosperms -PhylumAnthophyta -tetrapod - 4 limbs (flowering/fruiting plant) 300,000 -frogs, salamanders, toads species -around 4,000 species 11.Archaea -"almost" nucleus -thin, moist skin -similar cytoplasmtoeuks -tiny lungs -specialized membranes 25.ClassAves -birds -can live in areas others can't -over 9,000 species (lava, ice, etc.) -most fly 12.Autonomy breaking off of body parts -evolved fromsmall dinosaurs -fossils 13.Autotrophic "self-feeding" -feathers -lightweight skeleton -air sacs (and lungs) 26. 32. ClassAves -birds have the highest food ClassReptilia -turtles, crocodilians, lizards, snakes, requirement dinosaurs -higher body temperature -over 8,000 species -organ reduction -thicker skin and scales -modified forelimbs - wings -enhanced kidneys -endothermic - high temperature -larger brain -ectothermic -larger limbs and muscles -oviparous -can live completely away fromwater -amniotic egg 27.Class -jawless fishes 33. Cephalospidomorphi -lampreys Conducting xylemand phloem -lack jaws Tissues -lack appendages 34.Corona -mostly fresh water -slime -simple brain -40 species -20,000 species -marine and fresh water -pseudocoelom -some parasitic/some filter feeders -alimentary canal - digestive tube (mouth to -notochord intoadulthood anus) -cartilaginous vertebral column -triploblastic 28.ClassChondrichthyes -"cartilaginous fishes" -protostomes -jaws -reproduction 1 asexual and sexual -paired appendages (parthenogenesis) -notochord intoadulthood 35.Dentary the largest single bone in the lower jaw -cartilaginous vert.column 36.Deuterostomes -happens second -over 850 species -sharks, snakes, rays -second opening becomes anus, the first is 29. the mouth ClassMammalia -75,000 -commonly called mammals 37.Diphyodont -condition of having twosets of teeth in a life Dentition time -reptilian ancestor (before birds) -most complex;advanced group of -baby teeth, then adult teeth animals 38.Dorsal Hollow -mass of nervous cord -size range:1.5g to100,000kg Nerve Cord -expanded/supported/protected by -endothermic vertebral column and/or notochord -mammary gland -earlier groups of animals had nerve cords -teeth 39.Endoskeleton vertebrates, echinoderms -increase in skull size 40.Eucoelomate -"true coelom" 30.ClassMyxini -hagfishes -advanced metazoa -marine -30 species -earthworm -jawless 41.Eukaryotic Cell Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia -nearly blind 42.Eukaryotic -nucleus -slime Cells -membrane bounded structure -weak skeleton -weakly developed vertebrate 43.Eumetazoa -1 or more tissue layers of organs 44.Eumetazoa -radial symmetry 31.ClassOsteichthyes -"bony fishes" -almost all have a true complete bony -bilateral symmetry skeleton 45.Exoskeleton most vertebrates -over 24,000 species 46.Fungal-like -"fungi-like" -bony skeleton and vertebrate Protista -saprotrophic - "absorb feeding" -some with notochord and cart.vert. -multicellular intoadulthood -most are microscopic -jaws -paired appendages -very successful group in fresh H2O and marine 47. 55. Gymnosperms -PhylumCycadophyta (cycods) 300 species Kingdom -2 Domains:Archaea and Bacteria -PhylumGinkgophyta (ginkgo) 1 species Monera -Prokaryotic Cells -PhylumGnetophyta (gnetophytes) 300 -Lack nucleus species -Lack membrane bound structures -PhylumConiferophyta (cone-bearing -Lack sexual reproduction trees) 500 species -Most abundant! -fossils - 3.5 billion years 48.Gymnosperms -cone-bearing trees -oldest living organism -species:reproductive -biggest organism 56.Kingdom -300,000+ species -tallest organism Plantaea -multicellular and eukaryotic -vascular tissues -xylemand phloem -autotrophic -"naked seeds" -mostly terrestrial -does not require external H2O for -food storage compound is starch reproduction -photosynthetic pigments 49.Heterodont -the condition of having different kinds or -cell wall Dentition types of teeth 57.Kingdom -earliest euks -incisors, canines, premolars, molars Protista -most environments -microscopic 50.Heterotrophic "ingest feeding" -DNA - many separate groups 51.Humans -nofunctional notochord -notochord is replaced with series of bony 58.Metazoans -parazoa -eumetazoa elements -large brain capacity 59.Mitochondrial access togenetic labels -nerve cord DNA -postanal tail:coccyx 60. Notochord phylumchordata -pharyngeal slits - 1 retained as eustachian tubes pair 61.Notochord -skeletal support (dorsal axis) -replaced by jointed backbone (vertebral 52.Invertebrates -fossils at 1.2 billion years column) -"without backbone" -remnants of notochord in discs between -95%of animal species vertebrae 53.Kingdom 1.5-3 million species 62.Order Primates -order that humans are placed in Animalia -single ancestor -grasping digits on all four limbs -35 animal phylum(s) -flat face -more similarity within animal genomes -flat nails than other kingdoms -binocular vision -multicellular, lack cell walls, sexual -complex learning behaviors reproduction -enhanced sense of touch -nervous tissues -enhanced parental investment of -proteins binding cells offspring -cell junctions:anchoring, gap, tight -increase in ratioof brain tobody size 54.Kingdom Fungi -largest organism 63.Oviparous -egg laying (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, -body is in soil or other material birds, mammals) -"conspicuous" portions -condition of egg laying outside the body -"recyclers" 64. -saprotrophic Ovoviviparous -live-bearing condition with retention of -the body > mycelium the eggs, but there's nomaternal -"fruiting bodies" and spores connection -fishes, reptiles -rhizomorphs and cell walls 65. Parazoa -phylumporifera -noorgans or tissues 66.Parthenogenesis egg develops without fertilization of the sperm 67.Pharyngeal Slits -pharynx:back of the mouth cav. -H2O enters mouth and out the slits (gills) 68. 77. Phloem conduct food Phylum -flatworms, flukes, tapeworms Platyhelminthes -many parasites 69.Phylum Annelida -segmented/ringed worms -15,000 species -20,000 species -triploblastic -segmentation -protostomes:simple organs, enhanced -eucoelomate -protostomes nerve net, 1 opening and gastrovascular activity, reproduction - asexual and -enhanced dig.system sexual (hermaph.) -enhanced nervous system -complete digestive system 78.Phylum Porifera -sponges -reproduction - asexual and sexual -lack tissues hermaphroditism -multicellular -different cell types with different 70.Phylum - insects, spiders, crustaceans Arthropoda -1.75-2 million species functions ->8,000 species (mostly marine) -segmented appendages -"pore" - filter H2O/food -exoskeleton -harden cuticle -reproduction - hermaphroditism -some sexual/some asexual -ecdysis -protostomes 79.Phylum Rotifera -swimin circles -enhanced brain and nervous system -corona -complex digestive system 80.Pinna flap of cartilage and loose connective -eucoelomate tissue tofunnel sound waves intothe 71. Phylum Chordata -deuterostomes outer ear -endoskeleton 81.Prokaryotic Cell Monera -few invertebrates, some vertebrates 82.Prokaryotic Cells -lack nucleus 72.Phylum Cnidaria -jellyfishes, corals, sea anemones -lack membrane bounded structures -9,000 species 83.Protosomes -happens first 73.Phylum -comb jellies -first opening becomes the mouth called Ctenophora -100 species the blastopore (the mouth) 74.Phylum -sea stars, sea urchins 84.Protostome split into2 (lines) flares (molecular) Echinodermata -deuterostomes 85. -7,500 species Protozoans -"animal-like" -heterotrophic -"ingest feeding" -nobrain, simple nervous system -reproduction - sexual -unicellular > multicellular -autonomy 86.Pseudocoelomate -"false coelom" -endoskeleton -body cavity is present, but not completely lined with 75.Phylum Mollusca -snails, slugs, oysters, squids, octopus -protostomes mesoderm/mesodermderived tissue -106,000 species -roundworm -eucoelomate 87.Pteriodophytes -extensive fossil records -3 "part" body -small 10 M 76.Phylum -roundworm -reproduce by spores Nematode -20,000 species vascular tissues (conducting) -"true" roots, stems, leaves -pseudocoelomate -cuticle - ecdysis (shedding) -require external water for reproduction -reproduction - mostly sexual 88.Pteriodophytes -PhylumLycopodiophyta (lycophytes) -complete digestive tract 1000 species -protostomes -PhylumPteriodophyta (ferns and allies) 12,000 species 89.Radial Symmetry simpler eumetazoa 90. Radial Symmetry -diploblastic (2 embryonic germ/tissue Animals layers:endodermand ectoderm) 91. Reproductive Modes oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous 92. Rhizomorphs Water transporting filaments 93. Ribosomal RNA breakdown of DNA sequence 94. Saprotrophic "absorb feeding" 95. Subphylum Cephalochordata -lancelets -25 species -marine -burrow intothe off shore -invertebrates -filter feeders 96. Subphylum Urochordata -tunicates -3,000 species -marine -invertebrates -filter feeders 97. Subphylum Vertebrata -"backboned" -vertebral column -endoskeleton -cranium -neural crest 98. Taxon Hierachy -KingdomAnimalia -PhylumChordata -Class Mammalia -Order Carnivora -Family Canidae -Genus Canis 99. Taxonomy The study of classifying and grouping organisms 100. Thecodont Dentition -condition where long rooted teeth are embedded in sockets of jaw bone -crocodiles 101. Tissue Layers -germlayers -aggregation of functionally similar cells intoa larger unit 102. Viviparous _"live-bearing" with retention eggs and a maternal connection (placenta) -reptiles, mammals 103. Xylem conduct H2O and minerals
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