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Psych 101 Study guide for Midterm 1

by: Elena Yeroushalmi

Psych 101 Study guide for Midterm 1 101

Marketplace > University of California - Los Angeles > Psychlogy > 101 > Psych 101 Study guide for Midterm 1
Elena Yeroushalmi
GPA 3.96

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About this Document

These notes are my helpful study guide for the first midterm in Psych 101. Good luck studying!
Intro Lab
Prof Mccailife
Study Guide
Studyguide, midterm, psych101
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elena Yeroushalmi on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Prof Mccailife in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Intro Lab in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
Correlation  and  Causation   1. What  is  the  MAIN  reason  why  babies  who  drink  bottled  water  are  healthier?   -­‐  Parents  have  more  money  for  health  care  and  are  likely  more  conscientious  in  general.   2. What  is  the  MAIN  reason  why  children  with  longer  arms  reason  better   than  children  with   shorter  arms?     -­‐              They  are  older.   3. Why  are  ice  cream  sales  correlated  with  drowning  deaths?       -­‐ Hot  weather  causes  both.   4. Why  do  older  women  have  higher  feet -­‐angles  (i.e.  toes  pointed  away  from  each  other)  than   younger  women?       -­‐ Because  they  were  taught  to  walk  that  way  when  they  were  young,  to  walk  like  a  ballerina.   5. What  is  the  MAIN  reason  cigarettes  are  negatively  correlated  with  GPA?       -­‐ Cigarettes  tend  to  go  along  with  lifestyles  (drugs.  drinking,  recklessness)  that  does  nor   produce  high  GPAs.   6. Historically,  the  price  of  vodka  is  correlated  with  the  salaries  of  dock  workers.  Why  is  this  so?     -­‐              Inflation   7. What  is  the  MAIN  reason  why  United  States  Senators  have  higher  life  expectancies  than   average?     -­‐            Because  they  have  to  live  lo ng  enough  to  become  Senators  and  that   makes  their  life  expectancy  higher.                8.  Name  exactly  two  reasons  why  cancer  death  rates  are  higher  in  richer  countries.  Only  the  first  two       answers  will  be  graded.     1.  Better  diagnosis.     2.  Longer  lives  to  get  cancer     Effects  of  Experience   1. Changing  the  left-­‐right  orientation  of  an  object  will  decrease  priming  (compared  to  not  changing   the  left-­‐right  orientation),  only  if  the  object  ________________________________       -­‐ appears  in  the  same  location.   2. On  Day  1,  I  show  you  some  pictures.  On  day  2,  I  show  you  the  same  pictures  as  you  saw  before,   but  Â½  of  these  pictures  are  left -­‐right  reflected  versions  of  the  original  pictures.  Will  your   memory  for  the  left -­‐right  reflected  pictures  be  as  good  as  your  memory  for  the  pictu res  that  are   identical?  Hint:  Think  very  carefully  about  your  answer.       -­‐ For  priming  -­‐-­‐  different  if  given  in  same  location,  same  if  in  new  location.     -­‐ For  recognition,  identical  better  than  left -­‐right  reflected.   3. Why  did  McAuliffe  and  Knowlton  find  a   significant  effect  for  left-­‐right  orientation  in  priming   when  previous  experiments  had  found  no  significant  effect?       -­‐ Because  they  had  less  variability   4. On  Day  1,  I  show  you  some  pictures.  On  day  2,  I  show  you  the  same  pictures  as  you  saw  before,   but  ½  of  these  pictures  are  larger  versions  of  the  original  pictures.  Will  your  memory  for  the   larger  pictures  be  as  good  as  your  memory  for  the  pictures  that  are  identical  in  size?  Hint:  Think   very  carefully  about  your  answer.       -­‐ For  priming  -­‐-­‐  same,  for  recognition,  same  better  than  larger.   5. Consider  the  following  response  times  for  naming  an  object.   X1  =  The  naming  response  time  in  the  second(probe)  phase  of  the  experiment  for  an  object   previously  seen  which  is  facing  in  the  same  direction  as  previously  seen..   X2  =  The  naming  response  time  in  the  second(probe)  phase  of  the  experiment  for  an  object   previously  seen  which  is  facing  in  the  opposite  direction  as  previously  seen..   Originally,  it  was  believed  that  X1  and  X2  were  related  in  what  way?   ________________________ ________   Later  on,  it  was  shown  by  McAuliffe  and  Knowlton  that  X1  and  X2  were  related  in  a  new  way   -­‐-­‐  that   X1  was  ___________________  X2,  but  only  if  the  object  named  appeared  in  the  same  location.   -­‐ Equal,  less  than  -­‐-­‐  in  the  same  location     Implicit  Association  Test   1. How  does  the  implicit  association  test  work?  What  does  this  test  r eveal?   -­‐ By  asking  people  to  respond  to  a  group  of  responses  as  one  response,  the  test  can  measure   what  things  are  pre -­‐grouped  in  people`s  brains(1)  With  this  method,  we  can  determin e  what   automatic  associations  (e.g.  racist)  exist  in  people`s  minds  if  they  are  aware  of  these  and  do   not  want  to  share  them  OR  if  they  are  unaware  of  them  (1)   2. What  test  reveal  people`s  automatic  associations  (e.g.  racist  associations)?       -­‐ Implicit  Association  test       Perception  and  Illusions   1.  Draw  and  label  the  visual  pathways  and  their   functions.     Diagram  should  include:   -­‐ 1/2  v1   -­‐ 1/2  what  pathway  (inferior  temporal  1/4)   -­‐ 1/2  where  pathway  (superior  parietal  1/4)   3. The  "what"  pathway  in  the  brain  is  located   where?   -­‐ In  the  `ventral`  stream  that  ends  in  the  temporal  lobe.   4. The  "Where"  pathway  in  the  brain  is  located  where?   -­‐ In  the  `dorsal`  stream  that  ends  in  the  parietal  lobe.   5. Patient  d.f.  has  damage  to  her  ventral  stream/  What  kind  of  visual  deficits  does  she  ha ve?   -­‐ She  cannot  make  explicit  visual  judgments.  In  other  words,  she  reports  not  being  able  to   "see"  anything  meaningful.   6. What  causes  the  Herman  Grid  illusion  where  gray  dots  appear  in  the  intersections  of  white  lines   on  a  black  background  (1  point).    Why  is  it  only  present  in  the  periphery  (not  in  the  center)(1/2)?   -­‐ It  is  NOT  only  neighboring  inhibition  (intersections  appear  darker  because  they  have  a   brighter  neighborhood  and  roads  appear  lighter  because  they  have  a  darker  neighborhood)   because  illusion  is  a  gray  dot,  but  neighboring  inhibition  should  cause  gradual  blurring  from   center  of  intersection  as  neighborhood  becomes  gradually  darker.  More  importantly,   changing  the  straightness  of  the  lines  dramatically  effects  illusion.  So  illusion  may  be  caused   by  neighboring  inhibition  AND  straightness  of  lines,  but  not  JUST  neighboring  inhibition.   -­‐ Effect  occurs  mainly  in  rods  (periphery)   7. Give  two  reasons  why  don`t  we  notice  the  blind  spot  very  much.  Only  the  first  two  answers  will   be  graded.   -­‐            1.  Overlap  of  visual  fields  (Right  eye  see  what  left  eye  does  not)   -­‐            2.  Brain  fills  in  information  based  on  surrounding  area.                      8.  If  you  are  looking  at  a  moving  waterfall  of  water  colored  bright  red  for  a  long  time  and  then  look   away  at  a  white  wall,  what  pe rception  will  you  have  (No  need  to  explain  why)?                                    -­‐            Green  upward  movement.   8. List  four  factors  that  can  influence  our  visual  perception.  Only  the  firs t  four  answers  will  be   graded.   -­‐  1.  image  information   -­‐  2.  previous  experience   -­‐  3.  conscious  intent/goal   -­‐  4.  variability   10.  What  evidence  suggests  that  perception  is  an  active  process?       -­‐  Ambiguous  figures  can  be  seen  as  2  different  perceptions.   11.  What  instructions  must  be  given  to  Patient  d.f.  so  that  she  can  indicate  the  orientati on  of  a  line?   (patient  d.f.  has  damage  to  the  ventral  visual  stream)       -­‐  Ask  her  to  mail  a  letter.  


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