Psych 101 Study guide for Midterm 1
Psych 101 Study guide for Midterm 1 101
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elena Yeroushalmi on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Prof Mccailife in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Intro Lab in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 01/28/16
Correlation and Causation 1. What is the MAIN reason why babies who drink bottled water are healthier? -‐ Parents have more money for health care and are likely more conscientious in general. 2. What is the MAIN reason why children with longer arms reason better than children with shorter arms? -‐ They are older. 3. Why are ice cream sales correlated with drowning deaths? -‐ Hot weather causes both. 4. Why do older women have higher feet -‐angles (i.e. toes pointed away from each other) than younger women? -‐ Because they were taught to walk that way when they were young, to walk like a ballerina. 5. What is the MAIN reason cigarettes are negatively correlated with GPA? -‐ Cigarettes tend to go along with lifestyles (drugs. drinking, recklessness) that does nor produce high GPAs. 6. Historically, the price of vodka is correlated with the salaries of dock workers. Why is this so? -‐ Inflation 7. What is the MAIN reason why United States Senators have higher life expectancies than average? -‐ Because they have to live lo ng enough to become Senators and that makes their life expectancy higher. 8. Name exactly two reasons why cancer death rates are higher in richer countries. Only the first two answers will be graded. 1. Better diagnosis. 2. Longer lives to get cancer Effects of Experience 1. Changing the left-‐right orientation of an object will decrease priming (compared to not changing the left-‐right orientation), only if the object ________________________________ -‐ appears in the same location. 2. On Day 1, I show you some pictures. On day 2, I show you the same pictures as you saw before, but Â½ of these pictures are left -‐right reflected versions of the original pictures. Will your memory for the left -‐right reflected pictures be as good as your memory for the pictu res that are identical? Hint: Think very carefully about your answer. -‐ For priming -‐-‐ different if given in same location, same if in new location. -‐ For recognition, identical better than left -‐right reflected. 3. Why did McAuliffe and Knowlton find a significant effect for left-‐right orientation in priming when previous experiments had found no significant effect? -‐ Because they had less variability 4. On Day 1, I show you some pictures. On day 2, I show you the same pictures as you saw before, but ½ of these pictures are larger versions of the original pictures. Will your memory for the larger pictures be as good as your memory for the pictures that are identical in size? Hint: Think very carefully about your answer. -‐ For priming -‐-‐ same, for recognition, same better than larger. 5. Consider the following response times for naming an object. X1 = The naming response time in the second(probe) phase of the experiment for an object previously seen which is facing in the same direction as previously seen.. X2 = The naming response time in the second(probe) phase of the experiment for an object previously seen which is facing in the opposite direction as previously seen.. Originally, it was believed that X1 and X2 were related in what way? ________________________ ________ Later on, it was shown by McAuliffe and Knowlton that X1 and X2 were related in a new way -‐-‐ that X1 was ___________________ X2, but only if the object named appeared in the same location. -‐ Equal, less than -‐-‐ in the same location Implicit Association Test 1. How does the implicit association test work? What does this test r eveal? -‐ By asking people to respond to a group of responses as one response, the test can measure what things are pre -‐grouped in people`s brains(1) With this method, we can determin e what automatic associations (e.g. racist) exist in people`s minds if they are aware of these and do not want to share them OR if they are unaware of them (1) 2. What test reveal people`s automatic associations (e.g. racist associations)? -‐ Implicit Association test Perception and Illusions 1. Draw and label the visual pathways and their functions. Diagram should include: -‐ 1/2 v1 -‐ 1/2 what pathway (inferior temporal 1/4) -‐ 1/2 where pathway (superior parietal 1/4) 3. The "what" pathway in the brain is located where? -‐ In the `ventral` stream that ends in the temporal lobe. 4. The "Where" pathway in the brain is located where? -‐ In the `dorsal` stream that ends in the parietal lobe. 5. Patient d.f. has damage to her ventral stream/ What kind of visual deficits does she ha ve? -‐ She cannot make explicit visual judgments. In other words, she reports not being able to "see" anything meaningful. 6. What causes the Herman Grid illusion where gray dots appear in the intersections of white lines on a black background (1 point). Why is it only present in the periphery (not in the center)(1/2)? -‐ It is NOT only neighboring inhibition (intersections appear darker because they have a brighter neighborhood and roads appear lighter because they have a darker neighborhood) because illusion is a gray dot, but neighboring inhibition should cause gradual blurring from center of intersection as neighborhood becomes gradually darker. More importantly, changing the straightness of the lines dramatically effects illusion. So illusion may be caused by neighboring inhibition AND straightness of lines, but not JUST neighboring inhibition. -‐ Effect occurs mainly in rods (periphery) 7. Give two reasons why don`t we notice the blind spot very much. Only the first two answers will be graded. -‐ 1. Overlap of visual fields (Right eye see what left eye does not) -‐ 2. Brain fills in information based on surrounding area. 8. If you are looking at a moving waterfall of water colored bright red for a long time and then look away at a white wall, what pe rception will you have (No need to explain why)? -‐ Green upward movement. 8. List four factors that can influence our visual perception. Only the firs t four answers will be graded. -‐ 1. image information -‐ 2. previous experience -‐ 3. conscious intent/goal -‐ 4. variability 10. What evidence suggests that perception is an active process? -‐ Ambiguous figures can be seen as 2 different perceptions. 11. What instructions must be given to Patient d.f. so that she can indicate the orientati on of a line? (patient d.f. has damage to the ventral visual stream) -‐ Ask her to mail a letter.
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