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by: Katharyn Taylor

BIO 150 – STUDY GUIDE 1 Biol 150

Katharyn Taylor

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About this Document

This is the study guide for Exam 1! It is based on the outline Dr. Keck gave us. I have included the information for the topics he listed, as well as a few extra topics I thought might be important...
Organismal and Ecological Biology
Dr. Benjamin Keck
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 150 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Benjamin Keck in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 400 views. For similar materials see Organismal and Ecological Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 01/28/16
BIOLOGY  150  –  STUDY  GUIDE  1   •   ICHTHYOLOGY  –  the  study  of  fish.  This  is  what  Dr.  Keck  studies   •   Learning  Objectives:     o   EVOLUTION  –  the  way  that  organisms  have  changed  over   time,  both  in  ways  they  chose  and  in  ways  out  of  their   control   o   STRUCTURE  AND  FUNCTION  –     everything  alive  has  specific  structures  and  ways  those   structures  interact   o   INFORMATION  FLOW  AND  STORAGE  –     organisms  use  different  signals  and  the  transfer  of  biological   information  in  order  to  stay  alive.  It  happens  inside  each   organism  and  between  organisms   o   TRANSFORMATIONS  OF  ENERGY  AND  MATTER  –     everything  alive  needs  some  sort  of  nutrient  or  energy  to   live,  and  each  organism  changes  what  they  take  in  somehow   in  order  to  use  it     o   SYSTEMS  –     living  things  interact,  with  each  other  and  their   environments,  and  all  of  these  interactions  can  be  grouped   in  many  different  ways   •   MECHANISMS  OF  DIEVERSIFICATION   –  these  explain  why  there  are   so  many  species  and  how  they  got  to  be  so  different.  We  can  use   these  to  understand  how  living  things  are  related  and  why     •   AXES  OF  DIVERSIFICATION   o   VICARIANCE  –  when  organisms  who  used  to  be  able  to   reproduce  and  swap  genes  get  separated  into  different   populations,  they  evolve  separately,  and  eventually  will  form   two  independent  species   o   SEXUAL  SELECTION  –  organisms  that  reproduce  sexually  will   evolve  in  ways  that  make  them  more  desirable  to  a  mate   o   TROPHIC  MORPHOLOGY  –  organisms  will  evolve  over  time  in   favor  of  a  bodily  structure  that  works  better  than  the  one  they   had  before   •   ECOLOGY  –  the  study  of  all  the  interactions  between  the  living  and  the   non-­‐living  parts  of  ecosystems   •   HUMANS  –  we  have  the  greatest  impact  on  the  ecology  and  evolution  of   all  other  organisms.  This  is  because  we  have  the  greatest  ability  to  live  in   and  make  an  impact  on  every  environment  on  the  planet  with  our   advanced  technology   •   99.9%  of  all  species  that  have  ever  lived  are  extinct  now   •   EXTINCTION  RATE  –  currently  approximated  to  be  about  100  extinctions   per  million  species  every  year   •   SPECIATION  RATE  –  lower  than  it  used  to  be  and  should  be   •   Species  discovery  is  not  finished.  We  are  still  discovering  new  ones   •   SPECIES  DIVERSITY  –  it  matters  because  it  helps  preserve  resources  we   value,  and  it  provides  the  backbone  for  lots  of  research  and  ecotourism   •   SCIENTIFIC  METHOD:   o   OBSERVE/HYPOTHESIZE   o   EXPERIMENT/ANALYZE   o   CONCLUDE   2   •   DEDUCTIVE  REASONING  –  applying  a  broad,  nonspecific  theory  to  a   specific  scenario  or  example   •   INDUCTIVE  REASONING  –  applying  a  theory  geared  toward  a  specific   scenario  to  a  larger  system   •   CORRELATION  –  a  relationship  or  pattern  between  two  occurrences  (this   thing  happened  and  it  mirrors  the  other  thing  that  happened)   •   CAUSATION  –  the  implication  that  one  circumstance  occurs  due  to  the   occurrence  of  the  other  circumstance  (this  thing  for  sure  happened   BECAUSE  that  thing  happened)   •   INDEPENDENT  VARIABLE  –  the  variable  that  is  set  in  degree,  also  called  a   ‘treatment.’  The  x-­‐axis  in  the  graph  generally   •   DEPENDENT  VARIABLE  –  the  variable  that  you  observe  a  change  in   depending  upon  the  treatment,  generally  the  y-­‐axis  in  a  graph   •   QUALITY  OF  INFORMATION  –primary  literature  (written  first  hand  by  the   specialists  who  observed  it)  is  usually  the  most  trustable.  Peer  review  is   necessary  for  scientific  data  to  be  considered  a  legit  source  to  check  for   BIAS  (the  writer  has  a  personal  opinion  that  is  getting  in  the  way  of  fact)   or  PSEUDO  SCIENCE  (fake  science  that,  though  it  seems  scientifically   viable  at  the  surface,  is  not  valid)   •   GENOTYPE  –  an  organism’s  specific  inherited  trait  or  ALLELE   •   PHENOTYPE  –  the  organism’s  physical  features  and  characteristics   •   DNA  STRUCTURE  –  double  helix,  two  winding  strands  composed  made   up  of  nucleotides   •   TRANSCRIPTION  –  production  of  RNA  from  DNA  (creating  a  working  copy   of  the  DNA)   •   TRANSLATION  –  production  of  proteins  from  RNA  (building  things  for  the   cell  that  the  RNA  plan  codes  for)   •   CHROMOSOME  –  condensed  DNA.  Different  organisms  have  different   numbers  of  these  guys   3   •   GENES  –  these  are  sets  of  nucleotides  that  code  for  certain  proteins.   Think  of  a  cookbook:  different  sections  tell  you  how  to  make  differ ent   things.  Genes  that  code  for  things  are  called  PROTEIN  CODING  GENES,   and  there  are  other  genes  that  are  just  excess  DNA   •   INTRONS  –  sections  within  a  gene  that  do  not  code  for  anything  and  are   removed  during  transcription   •   EXONS  –  sections  of  the  gene  that  are  important  to  the  code.  When   introns  are  removed,  the  exons  are  attached  to  each  other   •   ALTERNATIVE  SPLICING  –  the  process  of  removing  introns  and  attaching   the  exons  together.  Splicing  genes  different  ways  allows  for  one  gene  to   code  for  lots  of  different  proteins   •   GENOME  –  collection  of  all  the  organism’s  genetic  information.  The   number  of  genes  an  organism  has,  i.e.  genome  size,  is  influenced  by  gene   regulatory  systems  like  alternative  splicing   •   VARIATION  –  differences  created  through  genetic  mutation,  and  these   differences  in  the  phenotypes  of  organisms  within  a  population  are   important  to  evolution  and  ecology   •   POINT  MUTATIONS  –  change  in  a  single  codon  (group  of  three   nucleotides)  happen  during  replication,  and  if  they  are  not  corrected,  the   new  cell  has  the  mutation.  Occur  most  often  in  noncoding  portions  of   DNA  (introns)   o   SILENT  –  mutates  but  doesn’t  change  anything,  so  the  new  cell  is   unaffected  by  the  mutation   o   NONSENSE  –  mutates  and  “confuses”  the  cell,  so  the  cell  quits   replication  to  avoid  a  detrimental  mutation   •   TRANSITION  –  purine  to  purine  or  pyrimidine  to  pyrimidine   •   TRANSVERSTION  –  a  rarer  occurrence,  switch  of  a  purine  and  pyrimidine   or  vice  versa.  Changes  number  of  hydrogen  bonds  between  the  strands   at  that  nucleotide,  so  could  change  the  overall  structure   4   •   PHENOTYPIC  CHANGE  DUE  TO  POINT  MUTATION  –  since  protein  coding   genes  are  not  at  a  1:1  ratio  with  proteins  produced,  a  mutation  is  likely   to  have  more  than  one  effect.  So,  although  most  mutations  do  not  make   large  changes,  they  have  to  potential  to   •   CROSSING  OVER  –  occurs  when  homologous  chromosomes  bend  across   each  other  and  reattach.  In  other  words,  two  chromosomes  that  are  the   same  kind,  one  from  each  parent,  trade  a  corresponding  section  of  their   DNA.  This  results  in  RECOMBINANT  CHROMOSOMES .  Since  the   offspring’s  DNA  is  now  completely  unlike  either  parent,  a  ‘novel   combination’  is  formed,  and  that  offspring  is  potentially  much  more  fit   than  its  parents   •   RATES  OF  REPRODUCTION  –  asexual  faster  because  they  can  all   reproduce,  sexual  slower  because  the  ‘males’  of  the  group  can’t   reproduce   •   ASEXUAL  VARIABILITY  –  since  the  offspring  are  essentially  clones  of  the   parents,  variability  is  greatly  reduced  and  they  can ’t  adapt  well  even   through  generations   •   MUTATION  TYPES  –  translocation,  inversion,  deletion,  missing   chromosome,  extra  chromosome,  duplication   •   POLYPLOID  –  the  total  number  of  chromosomes  is  increased  by  a  factor.   Haploid  =  1N,  Diploid  =  2N,  Triploid  =  3N,  Tetraploid  =  4N .  Polypoid   mutations  cause  leaps  in  evolution  (cause  quick  diversification)  and  they   are  rare  natural  occurrences  that  cause  extreme  variation   •   POPULATION  GENETICS  –  identifies  the  distribution  of  alleles  in  a   population  over  time   •   GENETIC  VARIABILITY  –  genotype  differences  that  can  be  assessed   through  DNA  sequencing   •   GENE  POOL  –  all  of  the  alleles  available  in  a  population     5   •   When  most  of  the  genetic  variability  is  found  within  a  population  instead   of  among  populations,  the  individuals  have  mostly  the   same  DNA.   People  have  low  genetic  diversity  compared  to  other  species.  This  is   because  of  our  RAPID  EXPANSION  (we  moved  all  over  the  world  at  a   faster  rate  than  most  organisms  would’ve  been  able  to)  and  HIGH  GENE   FLOW  (common  passing  of  genes  between  groups)   •   GEOGRAPHIC  STRUCTURE  –  division  of  a  population  because  of   geography.  Prevents  the  gene  flow  between  the  groups   •   HARDY-­‐WEINBERG  EQUILIBRIUM  –  the  frequency  of  alleles  in  a   population  will  be  constant  from  generation  to  generation  without  other   evolutionary  pressure   •   SPECIATION  –  a  process  by  which  two  groups  within  a  population   become  two  distinct  species  through  genetic  isolation.  The  exact  split   can  be  tracked,  but  is  often  difficult  to  pinpoint   •   SCALES  OF  CLASSIFICATION  –  from  most  specific  to  least  specific:   Species,  Genus,  Family,  Order,  Class,  Phylum,  Kingdom   •   There  are  more  than  26  species  concepts,  and  what  truly  defines  a   species  is  highly  debatable.  Ernst  Mayr’s  Biological  Species  Concept  says   that  two  organisms  are  the  same  species  if  they  can  reproduce  to  form  a   viable  fertile  offspring,  but  asexual  organisms  and  extinct  organisms  are   excluded.  Dr.  Keck’s  definition  of  a  species  is  that  the  offspring  resemble   the  parents     Good  luck  on  the  exam  everyone!  If  you  have  any  questions  or  want  to   study,  feel  free  to  email  me:   Thanks  for  the  support!               -­‐Kat   6  


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