BIO 150 – STUDY GUIDE 1
BIO 150 – STUDY GUIDE 1 Biol 150
Popular in Organismal and Ecological Biology
Popular in Biology
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Thursday January 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 150 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Benjamin Keck in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 400 views. For similar materials see Organismal and Ecological Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
Reviews for BIO 150 – STUDY GUIDE 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/28/16
BIOLOGY 150 – STUDY GUIDE 1 • ICHTHYOLOGY – the study of fish. This is what Dr. Keck studies • Learning Objectives: o EVOLUTION – the way that organisms have changed over time, both in ways they chose and in ways out of their control o STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION – everything alive has specific structures and ways those structures interact o INFORMATION FLOW AND STORAGE – organisms use different signals and the transfer of biological information in order to stay alive. It happens inside each organism and between organisms o TRANSFORMATIONS OF ENERGY AND MATTER – everything alive needs some sort of nutrient or energy to live, and each organism changes what they take in somehow in order to use it o SYSTEMS – living things interact, with each other and their environments, and all of these interactions can be grouped in many different ways • MECHANISMS OF DIEVERSIFICATION – these explain why there are so many species and how they got to be so different. We can use these to understand how living things are related and why • AXES OF DIVERSIFICATION o VICARIANCE – when organisms who used to be able to reproduce and swap genes get separated into different populations, they evolve separately, and eventually will form two independent species o SEXUAL SELECTION – organisms that reproduce sexually will evolve in ways that make them more desirable to a mate o TROPHIC MORPHOLOGY – organisms will evolve over time in favor of a bodily structure that works better than the one they had before • ECOLOGY – the study of all the interactions between the living and the non-‐living parts of ecosystems • HUMANS – we have the greatest impact on the ecology and evolution of all other organisms. This is because we have the greatest ability to live in and make an impact on every environment on the planet with our advanced technology • 99.9% of all species that have ever lived are extinct now • EXTINCTION RATE – currently approximated to be about 100 extinctions per million species every year • SPECIATION RATE – lower than it used to be and should be • Species discovery is not finished. We are still discovering new ones • SPECIES DIVERSITY – it matters because it helps preserve resources we value, and it provides the backbone for lots of research and ecotourism • SCIENTIFIC METHOD: o OBSERVE/HYPOTHESIZE o EXPERIMENT/ANALYZE o CONCLUDE 2 • DEDUCTIVE REASONING – applying a broad, nonspecific theory to a specific scenario or example • INDUCTIVE REASONING – applying a theory geared toward a specific scenario to a larger system • CORRELATION – a relationship or pattern between two occurrences (this thing happened and it mirrors the other thing that happened) • CAUSATION – the implication that one circumstance occurs due to the occurrence of the other circumstance (this thing for sure happened BECAUSE that thing happened) • INDEPENDENT VARIABLE – the variable that is set in degree, also called a ‘treatment.’ The x-‐axis in the graph generally • DEPENDENT VARIABLE – the variable that you observe a change in depending upon the treatment, generally the y-‐axis in a graph • QUALITY OF INFORMATION –primary literature (written first hand by the specialists who observed it) is usually the most trustable. Peer review is necessary for scientific data to be considered a legit source to check for BIAS (the writer has a personal opinion that is getting in the way of fact) or PSEUDO SCIENCE (fake science that, though it seems scientifically viable at the surface, is not valid) • GENOTYPE – an organism’s specific inherited trait or ALLELE • PHENOTYPE – the organism’s physical features and characteristics • DNA STRUCTURE – double helix, two winding strands composed made up of nucleotides • TRANSCRIPTION – production of RNA from DNA (creating a working copy of the DNA) • TRANSLATION – production of proteins from RNA (building things for the cell that the RNA plan codes for) • CHROMOSOME – condensed DNA. Different organisms have different numbers of these guys 3 • GENES – these are sets of nucleotides that code for certain proteins. Think of a cookbook: different sections tell you how to make differ ent things. Genes that code for things are called PROTEIN CODING GENES, and there are other genes that are just excess DNA • INTRONS – sections within a gene that do not code for anything and are removed during transcription • EXONS – sections of the gene that are important to the code. When introns are removed, the exons are attached to each other • ALTERNATIVE SPLICING – the process of removing introns and attaching the exons together. Splicing genes different ways allows for one gene to code for lots of different proteins • GENOME – collection of all the organism’s genetic information. The number of genes an organism has, i.e. genome size, is influenced by gene regulatory systems like alternative splicing • VARIATION – differences created through genetic mutation, and these differences in the phenotypes of organisms within a population are important to evolution and ecology • POINT MUTATIONS – change in a single codon (group of three nucleotides) happen during replication, and if they are not corrected, the new cell has the mutation. Occur most often in noncoding portions of DNA (introns) o SILENT – mutates but doesn’t change anything, so the new cell is unaffected by the mutation o NONSENSE – mutates and “confuses” the cell, so the cell quits replication to avoid a detrimental mutation • TRANSITION – purine to purine or pyrimidine to pyrimidine • TRANSVERSTION – a rarer occurrence, switch of a purine and pyrimidine or vice versa. Changes number of hydrogen bonds between the strands at that nucleotide, so could change the overall structure 4 • PHENOTYPIC CHANGE DUE TO POINT MUTATION – since protein coding genes are not at a 1:1 ratio with proteins produced, a mutation is likely to have more than one effect. So, although most mutations do not make large changes, they have to potential to • CROSSING OVER – occurs when homologous chromosomes bend across each other and reattach. In other words, two chromosomes that are the same kind, one from each parent, trade a corresponding section of their DNA. This results in RECOMBINANT CHROMOSOMES . Since the offspring’s DNA is now completely unlike either parent, a ‘novel combination’ is formed, and that offspring is potentially much more fit than its parents • RATES OF REPRODUCTION – asexual faster because they can all reproduce, sexual slower because the ‘males’ of the group can’t reproduce • ASEXUAL VARIABILITY – since the offspring are essentially clones of the parents, variability is greatly reduced and they can ’t adapt well even through generations • MUTATION TYPES – translocation, inversion, deletion, missing chromosome, extra chromosome, duplication • POLYPLOID – the total number of chromosomes is increased by a factor. Haploid = 1N, Diploid = 2N, Triploid = 3N, Tetraploid = 4N . Polypoid mutations cause leaps in evolution (cause quick diversification) and they are rare natural occurrences that cause extreme variation • POPULATION GENETICS – identifies the distribution of alleles in a population over time • GENETIC VARIABILITY – genotype differences that can be assessed through DNA sequencing • GENE POOL – all of the alleles available in a population 5 • When most of the genetic variability is found within a population instead of among populations, the individuals have mostly the same DNA. People have low genetic diversity compared to other species. This is because of our RAPID EXPANSION (we moved all over the world at a faster rate than most organisms would’ve been able to) and HIGH GENE FLOW (common passing of genes between groups) • GEOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE – division of a population because of geography. Prevents the gene flow between the groups • HARDY-‐WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM – the frequency of alleles in a population will be constant from generation to generation without other evolutionary pressure • SPECIATION – a process by which two groups within a population become two distinct species through genetic isolation. The exact split can be tracked, but is often difficult to pinpoint • SCALES OF CLASSIFICATION – from most specific to least specific: Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom • There are more than 26 species concepts, and what truly defines a species is highly debatable. Ernst Mayr’s Biological Species Concept says that two organisms are the same species if they can reproduce to form a viable fertile offspring, but asexual organisms and extinct organisms are excluded. Dr. Keck’s definition of a species is that the offspring resemble the parents Good luck on the exam everyone! If you have any questions or want to study, feel free to email me: firstname.lastname@example.org Thanks for the support! -‐Kat 6
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'