January 2529, 2016
HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan
∙ Most historians and technicians call this period (Industrial Revolution) the “Industrial Evolution.” There were many changes that took place during this time.
∙ Agricultural Revolution: an urban phenomenon, predates the industrial revolution, but helps fuel it
o Europeans used to farm only enough for what they needed; their techniques were very primitive.
o This changed in the early 18th century. It started in England, but there were many breakthroughs by the Dutch as well. People began to
experiment with farming (saw influence of Enlightenment and scientific theories on farming – had dramatic results). English aristocrats began getting involved in farming – it was fashionable for them to experiment on their land. The results were dramatic.
If you want to learn more check out How does an electron behave like a wave?
Increases in yields – got more out of a single unit of land
∙ Jethro Tull: Invented a seed drill that was a major
breakthrough (cut straighter lines and turned over the earth
in a more thorough way); seeds were now planted in a
straight row (“improved seedratio”)
∙ They learned to fertilize in a more effective manner; they
added clay and fodder to it.
∙ Nitrogen seeded crops (clover, alp alpha, etc.)
o Planted turnips – made the land more productive
o Turnip Townsend: major proponent of growing
turnips, was an enthusiast/spokesperson for the
turnips (also helped with growing herds of animals)
Improvements in livestock – people began to exert control over breeding If you want to learn more check out What was the reason for common sense?
∙ Towns used to have common pastures for their animals, but
people began to breed animals on their own land. They got
bigger offspring as a result. This put more protein in the
∙ Convertible Husbandry – takes something that was a
pasture and convert it to arable, which means you can plant
and farm on it (animal droppings had fertilized it when it
was a pasture) – they switched between pasture and
farmland to utilize the soil’s fertility
There were major increases in agricultural productivity.
January 2529, 2016
∙ Better food meant healthier people, more consumers.
∙ Birth rates went up and death rates went down. Don't forget about the age old question of What is an atom with its electrons in the lowest possible levels?
Demand increased with the increase of population.
o “Demand always precedes a technological revolution.”
∙ Industrialization: machine production, mechanization, shift of population from countryside into towns (factories), new sources of power
o Sources of power used to include livestock, water, and wind.
o The big breakthrough was use of steam as a source of power. James Watt perfected the steam engine around 1760 (was
originally created by Newcoming).
o Iron industry – in the early 18th century their was an energy crisis (demand for English iron was too high) If you want to learn more check out What is free fall?
We also discuss several other topics like What do we already know about gorgias?
Created an alternative energy source for smelting iron – coal ∙ Pig iron was full of impurities and was brittle.
Henry Cort: “Puddling and Rolling” – process when you combine smelted iron with coal, you stir it (makes carbon come to the top so it can be removed), then you roll it/squeeze it to remove any
∙ This process eliminated pig iron. It also allowed for the Don't forget about the age old question of Are huguenots and calvinists the same?
ample production of steam engines.
The steam engine further helped the iron industry, the mining industry, and the textile industry.
o Textile industry – improvement in creation of cloth, thread, etc. Scale of production increased dramatically
Hargreaves: created the SpinningJenny (helped to make thread much faster)
Arkwright: created the Water Frame to help produce thread as well o Ceramic industry – production of dishes/china goods (Cox/Wedgewood) Made better, more sanity dishes to eat off of (they used to eat off of wood and other unsanitary things)
∙ Helped improve the overall health of the population
∙ The steam engine really had an effect on all of these industries. It made production more efficient and effective in each of these fields.
∙ England is the world’s first industrial economy, that’s why it industrialized way before the rest of the world.
o England had so many natural resources that were perfect for
industrialization (iron ore, coal, etc.).
o England had the financial means to industrialize. It had a financial structure that made loaning money to inventors and entrepreneurs much easier. A national bank was established to help with the loaning of money.
January 2529, 2016
o England became a constitutional (limited) monarchy, which helped it grow economically. Parliament reflected business interests, so government policies tended to be probusiness/promiddleclass.
o England experienced a major transportation revolution in the 18th and 19th century – they were able to move tremendous amount of materials and finished products from point A to point D.
Canals: England had a lot of waterways, and they began to connect the waterways via canals.
∙ Belgium was the first other country to industrialize > Germany > France > Italy ∙ The industrial revolution created many social problems
∙ Effects of industrial revolution:
o Urbanization – there was a rapid growth in cities, the labor force moved from the country to major towns and cities, half way through the century just about half of the population had moved to the city, new cities were born in the industrial zones
o Environmental consequences – it is an environmental disaster, there are no regulations, so there is much air pollution (smoke), the cities were filthy, people are drinking and doing drugs more than ever (Gin is cheap and popular), pawn shops were prevalent (showed the amount of poverty), rivers/waterways were polluted by sewage (finding safe water became a huge problem), 1858 The Great Stink of London, everything smelled so bad (especially the River Thames)
o Housing problems – the cities didn’t have housing for the large number of people moving in, people ended up living in dark/damp attics/basements (entire families lived in one room), entrepreneurs began quickly building cheap cities homes (jammed together) to accommodate the rapid growth in population (this added to the widespread sewage issue)
o Disease – because of the filthy living conditions disease ran rampant and people fell ill to unsanitary based diseases: typhus, typhoid fever, cholera, influenza (killed many people)
o Diets – working class lived primarily on bread, potatoes, beer, tea, lard, and bacon, they didn’t have much access to meat (when they bought it, it was usually spoiled), their diets were very fatty/procarbohydrate, most working people didn’t have stoves, they had to cook over fireplaces, they usually only had one pot to cook everything and bathe babies in
∙ Labor conditions – work in the industrial era was very different than in the preindustrial era, which was “task oriented,” in the industrial era people were working many, many more hours, later the government and labor unions tried to intervene and cut back work hours to 1314 hours a day
January 2529, 2016
o Inside the factory people didn’t really know each other (they really only knew the manager who made sure they kept working, discipline was pretty harsh (they beat people for slacking off), industrial accidents were prevalent (many people lost limbs or even died)
o Everyone in the family worked (including women and children), they are split up and worked where they could find work, industrialization did not mean employment (the employment was very unstable), conditions were especially bad for women and children, they were used more in textile factories and in the mining industry (their hands/bodies were smaller and they were paid way less), grueling labor kept children out of school
∙ Changes in the social structure of Europe – preindustrial was very hierarchically arranged, the aristocrats dominated the government, economy, etc. o Decline of the aristocracy – industrialization was a big blow to the aristocrats, the wealth was not worth as much anymore, the big money was in owning factories/industrial businesses, big time entrepreneurs, merchants, and business owners became the wealthy of this era (they took over the power and eclipsed the aristocracy), it’s not over for the aristocrats, but this was the start of the decline
o Rise of a proletariat – a working class in a modern industrial sense, they work in big factories, don’t know anyone they work with, lives are very hard, paid wages (they have all the problems previously discussed)
o The rise of the middle class – it used to be small, but it became a lot bigger and made more money, made out big with industrialization, become a force in society (ranged from super wealthy entrepreneurs to professionals to small business owners, etc.), based on the wealth they accumulate during industrialization
o Victorian Womanhood – Queen Victoria reigned for most of the 19th century (ruled the longest), the middle class really came into it’s own (it dominated), the middle class’s values and ideas came to be practiced throughout society, in their homes (using textiles) they could wall off the outside, the Victorian home came to be known as an “escape” from the ugly industrial world, people’s dress was very layered (they showed little to no skin), this was the great age of the corset
“Stay at home Victorian mother and wife” – the wife should stay at home to take care of the home and family, create a warm/safe
environment at home for the family (this was seen as a status
symbol: they had enough money for her to stay at home and not
work in the factories), the wife could focus on the domestic sphere ∙ Responses to the problems of industrial society – not all that horror happened without people pointing it out
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o Luddites: protested industrialization and the rise of the machine, they took mallets and hammers and attacked machines to try and break them (today it refers to people against technology)
o Unions: they were able to form and argue for better conditions for the proletariat
o Government Reforms – as a response to the unions, the government made new laws to try and make the working class’ life a little bit better ∙ Age of ideology – Conservatism, Liberalism, Socialism – shaped by Enlightenment ideas:
o Natural law – impact of the scientific revolution (gravity/inertia), Isaac Newton’s work demonstrated that the universe is like a clock that operates according to natural law (gravity/inertia), people believed the economy should be self regulating according to natural law, things function on their own [very powerful idea in 18th and 19th century]
o Reason – there is a rational order to the universe, the natural laws are rational, orderly, and predictable, they can be understood, this paves the way for societal progress
o Progress – becomes a cultural value, people celebrated change that they felt was progress in nature
o Natural rights – this idea emerged in the West with John Locke, there are certain rights that are part of the state of nature/order (there are certain rights built in), life + liberty + property (pursuit of happiness)
All of these ideas had an impact on the Revolution (they drove the Revolution) and they continue to drive political discourse in the
∙ Conservatism: is a political ideology that is closely related with the aristocracy o Included a reluctance to see major changes, many were aristocrats who did not like the Enlightenment, they were antireform/revolution, hated the French revolution
Edmund Burke: Englishman, wrote “Reflections on the Revolution in France,” he was horrified by the ideas of the revolution and the Enlightenment – he believed rights were earned over time
(especially through families), he preferred the idea of tradition,
o The conservatives dominated the Congress of Vienna (that’s why the outcome was conservative for the most part)
The excesses of the French Revolution (had gotten so extreme) – discredited a lot of the Enlightenment ideas