ENGLISH 4703 Test #1 Study Guide (CH. 1-4)
ENGLISH 4703 Test #1 Study Guide (CH. 1-4) ENGL 4703
Arkansas Tech University
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENGL 4703 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Stanley Lombardo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Teaching English as a Second Language in Foreign Language at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Methods of Teaching English As a Second Language Test #1 Study Guide Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1: Introduction: Language Teaching Method- A coherent set of links between actions and thoughts in language teaching. o Asserts actions (activities, techniques) a teacher performs in the classroom must be based on thorough understanding of the process by which humans acquire language and what actions a teacher can take to facilitate that acquisition. One motivation principle: “Language is Culture” o Culture is inflected in the language. Bedrock for teaching a second language There is no perfect ESL teaching method o You may eventually find that a combination of Grammar-Translation, Direct Method, Desuggestopedia, and Total Physical Response techniques offers the best mix for your purposes. Language acquisition is such an integral part of humans’ psychological makeup that some anthropologists question whether language can be taught at all. This is to say that, upon being exposed to a language whether the primary language (L1) that an infant learns or a new language studied by an older child or adult(L2 or TL) –a person has the inherent ability to learn it without being taught. o In other words, some experts believe that it is misleading even to talk about “teaching a language: no actual teaching takes place; the student acquires the language by himself/herself. Then why do we teach methods of teaching second languages? o Simply because these methods offer us techniques by which we, as teachers, can facilitate that natural language-¬‐acquisition process. We can create environments conducive to language learning, we can provide structured situations in which students can practice the language they are in the process of acquiring, and we can offer models for the correct usage of a specific language. But the actual process is the result of an inborn ability to learn language, which Noam Chomsky has called: The Language-Acquisition Device (LAD). o You could say that as teachers, our job is to keep that device well-oiled and tuned, through use and encouragement. Chapter 2: The Grammar-Translation Method: 1 Whenever people of two different cultures came into contact with each other ‐ whether peacefully, as in commerce, or violently as in war ‐‐an exchange of languages took place. Presumably, before the invention of written language, this exchange occurred by what we now call: o The “natural” method: People learned a second language by listening to native speakers speak it, then acquiring it much same the way as a child acquires his or her primary language. The Grammar‐Translation Method is also known as The “Classical” Method because for centuries, it has been used to teach the classical (also sometimes called “dead”) languages. o Emphasizes vocabulary acquisition, drills in conjugating verbs and declining nouns, memorization of idiomatic expressions, and accuracy in translation from the literary texts’ original language (L2 or TL) into the students’ primary language (L1). o Philosophically, the underlying principles beneath The Grammar‐ Translation Method and its emphasis on the study of great literary works are that first, we learn more about a culture from studying its major literary works than we would by studying grocery lists or popular songs. A major difference between The Grammar‐Translation Method and several of the “natural” methods is that the teacher gives instructions, assignments, et al.in the students’ primary language (L1), and translation exercises may be from the target language (L2 or TL) to L1, or from L1 to L2. The natural methods of second‐language acquisition emphasize use of the target language only, with no L1 at all spoken in the classroom. This aspect of the natural method leads to another way in which The Grammar‐Translation Method differs from those methods designed to achieve mastery in a spoken language: o The emphasis on accuracy versus fluency Since a student can take a reasonable amount of time to produce a written translation from L2 to L1, the Grammar‐Translation Method emphasizes absolute accuracy in translation, rather than fluency. o This will be seen to be just the opposite of some of the more recent methods, which recognize the fact that mistakes are a natural part of the language‐acquisition process and that an L2 learner should strive for fluency, even at the cost of making mistakes in grammar and/or pronunciation. In further chapters: o Linguists since Noam Chomsky have hypothesized that humans acquire language not simply by imitation or conditioning, but by an internal process of rule formation. A child does not need to study a grammar book; instead, he/she listens to adults speaking the language and gradually, bit by bit, unconsciously assembles a vocabulary and a set of rules for communicating in that language. Most children manage to acquire a rather sophisticated mastery of their primary language by the age of three or four years. In fact, modern anthropologists and folklorists believe we learn more from studying popular culture than from reading the so‐ called “great” works of literature, which may be enjoyed and understood by only a relatively small percentage of the population. Chapter 3: The Direct Method: The first of the “natural” methods. o Natural because the student goes through essentially the same process of Listening, Creating a set of internal rules and a vocabulary (both to a greater or lesser degree unconsciously) for the TL, and finally, Speaking the TL when he/she feels ready to do so. Because this method intentionally reenacts the process by which a child learns his/her primary language, the most basic rule of the Direct Method is: “No translation is allowed.” o Since a child’s primary language is the first and, theoretically only language he/she learns, no translation is either possible or necessary. As with a child’s primary language acquisition, the Direct Method and other Natural methods emphasize the fact that language is primarily speech: even as students and teachers, most of us speak more than we read or write in our native language. o Natural methods are geared toward encouraging students to develop spoken fluency. The basic principle “No translation is allowed” underlies all of the “Total Immersion”: experiences, in which a second‐language learner commits to a prolonged period – anywhere from a week to a year –of isolation from his/her L1 and, instead, is totally immersed in the language and culture of the TL. The objective of all Total Immersion experience and, again, the underlying principle of the natural methods is to encourage the students to begin thinking in the TL as quickly as possible. o Translation is wasteful: It takes more time than thinking directly in the TL and encourages the students to be dependent upon their L1. As long as they cling to their L1 as a crutch, students will never achieve fluency in the TL. In the classroom: o The teacher gives all instructions in the TL. For Example: As the students read from a passage describing a map of the United States and adjacent countries, the teacher points to the geographical features described in the passage. o The teacher asks –in the target language –whether the students have any questions; they must ask these in the TL, as the teacher will answer them. o He answers questions by “recycling” vocabulary that the students have already acquired; he supplements the verbal explanations with gestures and real‐world examples. o After the students have asked whatever questions they have, the teacher begins to ask the students questions –in the TL, of course. He requires all answers to be made in complete sentences. o As we’ll see in discussing several other methods, answering in complete sentences accomplishes two goals simultaneously: 1) It instills the habit of responding in complete sentences, thereby ensuring that the students are expressing complete thoughts. 2) It automatically provides a context for vocabulary words, which helps the students to understand any new words. In conducting a class by The Direct Method: o The teacher is the ultimate authority in matters of vocabulary and pronunciation; hence, it is important that the teacher be a native speaker or have as near to native fluency and pronunciation as possible; otherwise, the students will learn to hear and speak with an accent and, worse yet, may learn altogether incorrect pronunciation and/or develop an imperfect understanding of characteristic English idioms. For example: If the students encountered the phrase “white elephant” in a passage, it would be essential that the teacher understand and can explain its idiomatic meaning, rather than the literal one, which would obviously not make sense in context. Technique of “Dictation” o Useful in enabling students to associate the sounds of spoken English with their written forms. A teacher will give students a passage to read overnight so that they will be familiar with the vocabulary for the dictation on the following day. The teacher reads the dictation twice and gives all punctuation orally. Dictations may also be given in “cloze” form –i.e., with the passage written out on a photocopied page, but with blanks left for key words; when the teacher reads the passage, the students then fill in the blanks. In addition to reading the works of notable authors in the TL, the students may discuss more popularly oriented writings (such as song lyrics) and even proverbial sayings. This broader application of literary materials acknowledges the fact that it is possible to learn as much from a culture’s popular entertainment as from a “great” work of literature or a textbook. “Realia”: o Eduspeak for materials other than textbooks or the kinds of prepared educational materials. Comprises posters, menus, comic books or comic strips, newspaper photos, matchbooks, bags of potato chips. . . virtually anything that people of the TL culture use in their everyday lives and which may have value in helping students acquire the TL. A useful out of‐class exercise: o A Realia Scavenger Hunt: In which the students hunt for items of realia about town, collecting everything from movie tickets to take‐menus to bring back to class and discuss. There are myriad instances of children learning multiple languages simultaneously; they do so easily and naturally and, providing the languages are acquired by or before the age of seven, they speak them with a perfect native accent. o There is some indication that acquiring multiple languages simultaneously slows down the child’s language‐acquisition process – obviously, since his/her internal Language‐Acquisition Device must assemble a separate vocabulary and rule set for each language. However, this delay is reflected only in a slightly later date for the child to begin speaking the TLs. That is, providing they stay out of MacDonald’s, Walmart, and whatever Disney World franchise happens to be operating in that country. o For example: “Under the rock, comma, Huck found a large, comma, fat worm period.” Chapter 4: The Audio-Lingual Method: The Audio-Lingual Method- a natural, oral‐based approach to second‐ language acquisition. o Based on the premise that language is primarily speech, which comprises far more than vocabulary and grammar: speech also embraces idiomatic expressions and even gestures. o Since the Audio‐Lingual Method was originally developed by the U. S. military in order to teach foreign languages to large numbers of G. I.s relatively quickly, it makes use of the psychological principles of stimulus and response in order to condition the language learner into a state of fluency (called “overlearning”) in the TL. Stimulus: o Anything that provokes or evokes some sort of reaction or response; responses can be: Instinctive: For example: the smell of food: o When our olfactory apparatus takes in the stimulus of the smell of food, our bodies respond instinctively by, first, salivating and then by releasing digestive juices (which is why our stomachs grumble when we smell food). Conditioned: Is exemplified by our reaction to the color and placement of the lights in a traffic signal: we’ve been conditioned to stop when we see the red light, go when we see the green light, and –depending on your personality type–either slow to a stop or accelerate rapidly when we see a yellow light. o For example: Pavlov’s infamous experiment involving conditioning dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell is a classic example of conditioned response. “To what extent is language a conditioned response?” “To what extent is it something else?” There is no simple answer, no one correct answer to either of them. o Experts disagree, BUT o In addition to Noam Chomsky’s hypothesis that language acquisition is a process of rule formation, we can add a certain amount of memorization, imitation, and conditioning. The value of conditioning is that once the subject (i e., learner) has been thorough conditioned, he/she responds to the stimulus without conscious thought, thus saving time and enhancing fluency. Most of us don’t need to think of a suitable response to “Good morning”: we simply respond immediately, “Good morning.” A fair amount of the dialogue we engage in on a daily basis is essentially preprogrammed: we don’t give a great deal of thought to responses to questions like “How are you?” (“Fine.”) or “What’s happening?” (“Nothing.”) The developers of the Audio‐Lingual Method believed that people can be conditioned to carry on more complex dialogues equally well; hence, the method involves memorizing dialogues, typically involving real‐world situations like trips to the grocery store or Walmart. o As with the Direct Method, all teaching and exercises are conducted in the TL, with none of the students’ L1 being spoken. Although memorization is frequently frowned upon in “progressive” educational circles, it remains an excellent means of learning material ranging from vocabulary lists to dialogues. In conjunction with memorization, repetition is also an essential component of learning: depending upon the skills involved, it may take primary‐school students over 200 repetitions of a word, phrase, or sentence before they have truly acquired it. This extensive repetition is an integral component of conditioning. For the Audio-Lingual Method and its emphasis on conditioning, o The goal is to create a state of “overlearning” –that is, to condition the student so thoroughly that his/her responses become, in effect, instinctive. By this stage, the student has begun to think in the language and can respond to standard questions without thinking. Obtain more complex questions: o For example: “Why is a raven like a writing desk?” “What is the airspeed of an unladen swallow?” These questions will obviously require more conscious thought, but the student can usually shape his/her answers to conform to one of the previously conditioned responses. And, though many language teachers would deny this assertion vehemently, everyone learns stalling strategies to prevent dead air space during a conversation: o Gambits like “Well, I’ll have to think about that” or “Hmm. . . That’s a good question. Let’s talk about it. What do you think?” All of us use these conversational strategies in our native language without consciously thinking about it, and speakers of other languages employ similar devices. The dialogues used in the Audio‐Lingual Method provide a plausible basis for role‐playing activities, which the students usually enjoy participating in. o As the students progress in an ESL class, you can assign them to write their own dialogues (subject to your approval and possible revision), which can be videotaped and replayed for the class. This approach enables the students to exercise creativity in recycling already‐acquired words, phrases, and sentences. A whole new dialogue can be created by the substitution of one term such as “supermarket” for “post office” or “zoo” for “Walmart.” As with other techniques that emphasize the use of complete sentences and, in the case of the A‐L Method, meaningful dialogues, the Audio‐Lingual Method introduces the students to words and phrases in: o Context, which is an extremely important concept. A word is inherently meaningless outside of a specific context: does the word “mail” refer to a kind of written communication (whether transmitted via snail or the Internet) or a type of flexible armour made of interlocking steel links? You don’t know until you see the word used in the context of a sentence. o Dialogues automatically provide context. The practice of using only the TL in the classroom: o Effectively prohibiting the use of the students’ L1 –considerably lessens the interference between the TL and students’ L1. A certain degree of interference between the two languages is unavoidable, especially if they contain numerous cognates. However, the lesser the extent of interference, the easier it is for the learner to keep the two languages separate and, therefore, to learn to think in the TL when that is the language being spoken. A cognate- a word in the TL which looks and/or sounds like a word in the students’ L1 but which may have a significantly different meaning. For example, the word rice (pronounced “reechuh”) in Anglo‐Saxon sounds like “rich” in modern English but means “kingdom.”
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