Study Guide for Exam 1, Psych 379
Study Guide for Exam 1, Psych 379 379
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ally Marcello on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 379 at Catholic University of America taught by Degnan, K. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Life Span Development in Psychlogy at Catholic University of America.
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DAY 2 LECTURE A theory should: ● Describe what it is trying to talk about ● Explain or predict something – like a hypothesis (asks why or how something works) ● Provide rules/tenets/guidelines for understanding How they work ● They must be scientifically testable/have predictions ● you can derive hypotheses from theory if it is good enough and you should be able to test that theory/hypothesis ● Generate new ideas based off of the theory ● Shouldn’t be the same as a different theory, should be a new idea Differences between theories and hypotheses ● Theorieshave overarching ideas of the way something works, or why something works. ○ NOT a statement of fact→ it is an idea, so it doesn’t mean the theory is actually true ○ NOT a summary of research findings. ■ you create a theory (idea), then you generate a hypothesis from this theory, then you perform the study and gather research findings ● if your hypothesis is incorrect, then you go back and change your theory. ● Hypotheses are developed from theories, it is what is actually testable Here are examples: 1. Blog entry on parenting states that children need to be given a glass of milk before bedtime (no research study is cited) ↳This is a theory because as far as we know, the author just has this idea, they didn’t provide proof 2. Parenting.com describes how children of affluent parents were found more likely to be exposed to multicultural perspectives in a recent study by researchers at X University ↳This is a research finding, therefore not a theory 3. Grandmother Hennessey always says that children will get sick if they don’t wear a coat in winter ↳Theory because she just has an idea 4. A prominent think tank posts on their website that children are becoming more and more egocentric in their thinking. ↳Theory there is no citation or research stated. It is possible that this is true, but more research is needed Psychological development theory ● Social and emotional stages (Erikson) ○ Psychosocial development theory a set of social and emotional stages that Erikson believed children and adults went through ● Continues over the lifespan ○ certain “crisis” happens and if they responded positively, they move on to the next stage because it showed that they learned enough and were ready for the next level of development. ○ If they respond negatively, they either redo the step, or carry their baggage with them to the next step. ● Transitions from interaction with society ○ This is about their role in society and how they feel they fit into society. How they were treated by others and how they related, influences how they adapt to society and development ● Development depends on cultural norms ○ sometimes the culture doesn’t speak to one of those stages ○ one of his stages is about finding a “mate”, but some cultures want you to work instead Learning Theory (Bandura) ● There are external influences on children and development in terms of the environment ○ Bandura believes that it is mostly environment influences development and that one’s behavior is the result of these experiences ○ He did an experiment in which he had kids watch a video of adults beating up a clown doll, then when the kids were introduced to the doll, the kids beat up the doll too ■ monkey see monkey do ● Behavior as a result of experiences ● Imitation and observing models Behaviorism ● Behaviorism believes that a child is like a blank slate where their behavior is driven by their experience ● Pavlov and Watson believed that environment could shape people’s behaviors, not just through observation. ● Classical conditioning where rewards or punishments are associated with the action happening to promote or stop the action being done. ○ more the association of something happening alongside what was happening ■ Pavlov’s dogs where he rang a bell every time the dogs ate, so when they heard the bell they would start to salivate and think it was time to eat ● Operant conditioning rewards and punishments for actions ● Behavioral therapy used with children with autism to teach them to make eye contact Cognitive Developmental Theory ● The belief that the way people think changes across time as they interact with the world around them (Piaget) how they interact with the world around them ○ about what I do as an active participant in the world ● Assimilationwhen you already have an idea of what something is, but when you find out it is a little differadd to your existing knowledge of that thing ○ for example: you have an idea of what a classroom looks like, but when you walk into one it is a little different. Now you add this new image into your existing idea of what a classroom is to know that classrooms can vary in looks ● Accommodation you have tochange your belief or understanding of something. ○ For example: you have never seen a certain animal before, so you imagine what it looks like. When you go to the zoo, you see that it is completely different than your imagination, so you have to change your imagination to fit reality. ● Child is an active participant, therefore the amount the child is engaged in the world drives ow they develop Contemporary Theories ● Ecological perspectiveimmediate environments affect development (households, neighborhood) ● Sociocultural perspectivell environments, and how everything affects each other, affects development ● Behavioral geneticsxperience/genetics ratio the weight environment and genetics has on development (is it mostly genetics or environment that influences development) ○ interested in “____% of aggression in children is determined by genes” ● Evolutionary perspective– how our adaptation over history influences our behavior ○ we all exist in a historical context ● Dynamic systems perspective – A single, coherent, and everchanging system with multiple layers and contexts they all influence eact the same timechanges in one layer affect changes in the other even if they don’t seem related Review of how these theories differ Studying change over time ● Cross sectional designs ○ when people are studied at the same point in time ○ it can indicate possible age differences or age changes, however agerelated differences may become confused with cohort or generational effects. ■ cohort: agerelated differences due to grouping by age ■ researchers comparing ability to recognize various kinds of facial expression across young adults, middleaged, and older adult groups. In this study, researchers saw that young individuals recognize facial expressions better than the other groups ○ Crosssectional research can be very useful because it is relatively quick to do. ● Longitudinal Designs ○ when the same individuals are studied over a period of time. This is beneficial because individual or group differences can be assessed over time. ○ There are some limitations though: ■ practice or testing effects: the same questions could be used in a test, so the subjects could get really good at the test ■ Study attrition hard to get people to agree to continue for so long ■ cost can be expensive and time needed to keep in touch to make accurate measurements ● some can go on for decades ● Sequential designs ○ Sequential designs allow for comparison of cohorts over time, while incorporating some degree of individual differences. ○ Age-group comparisons provide the same kind of information as a cross-sectional study would. ■ start with a sectional, then you change age groups each year ○ Comparisons of the scores or behaviors of participants in each group to their own scores or behaviors at ○ an earlier testing point provide longitudinal evidence at the same time. ○ Sequential designs also allow for comparisons of cohorts. Nature vs Nurture ● The classic debate on whether our genetics, or our environment affects our behavior more. (also referred to as heredity vs environment/ nativism vs empiricism) ● Nature ○ inborn propensities (genetic) ○ believes in biological influences and is individually based ● Nurture ○ learning from environmental experiences ○ internal models of experience ○ John Watson, early behaviorist, exemplifies this argument ■ “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, merchant, chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, abilities, vocations, and the race of his ancestors. ● can be both sometimes your genetics affect how you learn from the environment and vice versa RESEARCH SUPPORTS THIS CLAIM Human genome ● through our advances in mapping the human genome, we now know that no trait is linked to a single gene or set of genes having a certain gene just increases your risks→ this shows that environment has an influencs ○ Eugenics ● Environment always has an influence ○ On the activation of genes themselves ○ On whether genes impact outcomes- whether they lead to cancer or not ○ Genetic research and neuroimaging Heritability Studies ● Calculating the degree to which traits are influenced by genetic factors ● Criticisms: ○ Genetics and environment really work together ○ Impact of Genetics depends on Environment ○ Traits change over time ● Plus-side: ○ Scientists AGREED that studying genetics is necessary to understanding child development- it is not the only thing, but it is a piece of the puzzle Epigenesis ● Derived from Darwin & G. Stanley Hall ● Gradual process of development increases in complexity ○ Influenced by Genetics and Environment ● Little is pre-determined- just because they show certain traits, doesn’t mean that they have a certain future. ● Stem Cells ○ Undifferentiated “pre-cells” ○ Can become any complex set of tissue ○ Many psychological traits at birth are like stem cells! Plasticity and Canalization ● ¨Plasticityduring certain stages of life, the brain is flexible or ‘alterability’ in developmental trajectories ○ a.k.a. in Puberty and infancy ● Canalization: Inflexibility or ‘entrenchment’ of developmental trajectories ○ What our brain is hardwired to do- Most infants will learn to walk and talk ● Examples: ○ Plasticity- Social Skills ○ Canalization- Bipedalism Human Diversity ● Genetic Code ○ Trillions of cells with 23 pairs of chromosomes each (diploid) ○ Genes are segments of DNA (~3,000 base pairs) ■ Involved in production of a protein ● DNA ○ Adenine – Thiamine ○ Guanine – Cytosine ■ Order of these base pairs determines genetic code ○ Replicates itself, creating diversity in genotype when chromosomes switch places ● Genotype Phenotype Actual set of chromosomes Physical appearance Unique to the individual (unless identicalbehavior twins) can look different at different age ● Mitosis Meiosis Replication of normal cell DNA Cell division in gametes (sex cells) only Cell divides into an exact copy of itself Chromosomes are shuffles and mmixed before dividing diploid (2n)= 46 sets of chromosomes haploid (1n)= 23 sets of chromosomes ● Regulator genes ○ Do not influence traits ○ Switch plate for other genes= environmental things can tell these regulator genes to turn on or off ● Environment ○ Active partner with the genes ○ Ex: Serotonin 5-HTT gene influences vulnerability to deprein the presence of STRESS ● Mutations ○ Copying errors- not copied exactly correctly, this can influence your phenotype Ecological Perspective (Bronfenbrenner) ● Development happens in “niches” ○ Microsystem (individual)<Mesosystem (school)<exosystem (what affects family- media, neighborhood)<Macrosystem (law, race, culture) ○ Microsystem: proximal environment to the individual ■ Bidirectional & multifaceted- influences the others, and is influenced by the other, influences individual and VV ○ Mesosystem : links between micro-level settings- ex: relationship between daycare worker and the parents ■ Support vs conflict between settings ○ Exo-system: distal to adolescent- more community/neighborhood are depending on how general you want to be ○ Macrosystem- culture and history Genes IMPACT context too ● Gene-Environment Correlations (not causation)- they work together ○ Passive: parental genes and environments ■ Both get passed onto the child- the child doesn’t do anything except inherit them ○ Evocative: Individuals elicit certain responses ■ If an infant is constantly crying that is an evocative effect because it elicits a certain response from the environment (as in mother feeds baby) ○ Active: Individuals select certain contexts ■ “niche-picking” ■ Child actually saying what they’re interested in ● Relevance of each changes across development ○ The baby who can’t really talk, so they can’t pick their own context and can’t have an active gene-environment interaction. DAY 3 LECTURE Ch.3 Conception, Prenatal Development, and Birth ● How many months long is gestation? ○ Gestation is the period between conception and birth ● Zygote is the 1 celled organism formed after fertilization ● Embryo is the multi-cellular organism from implantation until all major structures are represented (until around month 2, week 8) ● Fetus is the period of growth and development from when it structurally resembles the adult form (month 2, week 8) through birth ● Review: Zygote happens right after conception and it changes over into an embryo are within the first month. By the second month (8 weeks) it becomes a fetus- it already has most of the structures (whether fully functional or not). Conception ● Ovulation is needed for a healthy conception ● sperm fertilizes an ovum either the first day or 48 hours after ● after conception, a zygote forms- it takes hours for the zygote to start replicating ● then, if all goes well, the zygote implants on the uterine wall and becomes an embryo ● Day 2 of conception: 1 cell becomes 4 and the zygote drifts down the fallopian tube--> by day 12 it buries itself in the lining of the uterus→ hormones are released to stop the woman’s menstrual cycle→ a blastocyst is 60–100 cells that begin to specialize into different developmental support parts. ○ Specialization is needed to support development. ■ cells will turn into placenta, umbilical cord, yolk sac, and the amnion Infertility (Infecund) ● the technical name for the biological incapability to conceive after one year is infecund, which is commonly confused with infertility which is the lack of conception after 12 months of trying. ● They are confused so often, it is now acceptable to say “infertile” for the inability to conceive. ● having regular unprotected sex within one menstrual cycle only yields a 20-25% chance of diagnosed pregnancy ○ could be more but many go undiagnosed do to reabsorption and miscarriage ■ ½ conceptions do not implant- something could have been wrong with cell division, or the uterus was not welcoming ■ ¼ embryos spontaneously aborted ● Both are natural things to happen for everyone ● Although 2 million U.S. couples/year have difficulty conceiving, most pregnancies and babies are healthy Chromosomal Abnormalities in Genome ● abnormalities affect growth and development ● sex-linked genetic abnormalities ○ some traits are linked to the y chromosome so they only show up in males ● Multifactorial inheritance- multiple things going on which affect how genes are expressed ○ ex: inheritance is influenced by the parents and the environment as well ■ Fetus in a harsh environment, that might affect the sensitivity of certain receptors in the baby’s brain which can affect neuronal growth and later influence growth/development Prenatal Sex Development ● Stage 1 (conception): Zygote is unisex in terms of structure ○ They either have XX or XY, it is just not expressed yet. ● Stage 2 (7wks): if there is a Y chromosome, testosterone is released and will stimulate the creation of male sex organs ● Stage 3 (10-12 wks): external genitalia form (you can actually seen on ultrasound) but you can’t know the sex for sure until 20wks ● Stage 4 (adolescence): ovulation is suppressed in males ● Testicular-Feminizing Syndrome– When there is female genitalia on a genetically male baby. This happens when the low testosterone levels in the male trigger the formation of female genitalia Embryo (Wks 3-8) ● Here there are 3 layers of cells: ○ Ectoderm= outer layer ■ Turns into the skin, nerves, sense organs ○ M esoderm= Middle layer ■ turns into the muscles, bones, circulatory system, organs ○ End oderm= inner layer ■ forms the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands ● Amniotic sac of amniotic fluid forms during this stage ○ around 12-20 weeks you can take an amniotic fluid sample for screening for certain diseases ● Structure and organs form and begin to function by week 8 ○ you can see the heart beat on the ultrasound ● Neurogenesis begins- this is when all of the neurons develop ○ considered a critical time in development Fetus (Weeks 8- birth) ● Growth continues and increase in complexity of organs and body parts ● Neurogenesis continues until about 24 weeks ● Behavior: ○ at 3 months the fetus can swallow the amniotic fluid and urinate it back out as digestive system “practice” for real urination, can hiccup, blink and yawn ○ 6 months- it can breathe, cry and starts to develop a sleep-wake pattern ○ 7-8 months- the fetus is less active, but when they are active the movements are more vigorous (such as flipping or hard kicks). → the activity is not continuous because the sleep-wake pattern is more developed. ● Growth ○ the fetus goes from ¼ of an ounce to up to an average of 7lbs in weight! ○ it also growth from 1in to an average 20in in length ○ A premie is viable at 24 weeks, however the biggest danger at this point in time is the lung development, so premature births at 24 weeks usually have respiratory distress ○ full term at week 37, but it is ideal to have a baby at 45 weeks. Pregnancy and Prenatal Development (First Trimester) ● Timeline: zygote implants in uterus→ cervix thickens and secretes mucus to protect embryo→ uterus shifts and puts pressure on bladder→ missed period, breast engorgement ● HCG is the chemical we look for to diagnose a pregnancy ● Care ○ Regular prenatal care critical at this time because all of the organs are forming during this time ○ Folic Acid is critical in the mother’s diet in order to decrease the risk of neuraltube defects- when the head and spine don’t fuse ■ can be found in beans and dark green vegetables ● Problems ○ Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in the fallopian tube), bleeding, or miscarriage ○ Spina Bifida or Anencephaly ○ Stress leads to premature birth, defects, etc The Mother’s expense: Second Trimester ● Timeline: weight gain→ uterus expands (“Showing”) → Ultrasound at 20 weeks can be used to monitor baby’s health. The risk of miscarriage drops. fetal movements (fluttering)→ Fetus grows rapidly. ● Care ○ Monthly doctor visits continue so they can monitor the baby and make sure that the heart beat isn’t irregular ○ Ultrasound around 20wks ● Possible Problems ○ Gestational diabetes (high blood glucose due to lactogen interfering with insulin receptors); it is temporary diabetes, but it increases the mother’s risk of developing type I and II diabetes ○ Rh incompatibility (antibodies from mom’s blood pass through placenta and attack fetus’s blood cells); ○ Increased blood pressure ○ Miscarriage; premature labor Pregnancy and Prenatal Development (Third trimester) ● Timeline: Colostrum is preparation for nursing the baby→ emotional connection develops between the mother and the baby and the baby grows→ Fetal hiccups and thumb-sucking visible on sonogram→ fetus has regular activity and rest periods ● Care ○ Weekly visits (beginning in 32nd week) ○ Later Ultrasound (37 weeks) to assess position, pelvic exam at 32 wks to check cervical dilation ● Problems ○ Increased blood pressure, bleeding, bladder infection because of pressure on the bladder ○ Premature labor Prenatal Behavior ● Fetuses can differentiate between familiar and novel (new) stimuli by 32 to 33 weeks (Lecanuet et al., 2000) ○ Fetal learning is evidenced by the remembering of familiar rhymes, a Dr. Seuss story, the mother’s heartbeat, and the odor of amniotic fluid. ○ Cat in the hat studies- they had moms read the cat in the hat to their fetuses, and after birth, they visited the mom and when the mom read the cat in the hat they sucked fast, but normal when a stranger did it. This showed that babies can hear during pregnancy ● Newborns can remember prenatal stimuli and react accordingly (Granier-Deferre et al., 2011) ● Very active fetuses ○ Earlier motor development ○ Anger prone to restraint ○ More confidence in childhood ● Ultrasound imaging helps to identify new information about fetal behavior. Fetal response to sounds and vibrations, as seen by changes in heart rate, head turns, and body movements, appears as early as Week 25 Problems in Prenatal Development ● Teratogens- anything that can harm the baby ○ Drugs ■ Prescription ■ Over-the-counter drugs ■ Marijuana- most frequently abused drug; tremors and sleep problems; infants show little interest in their surroundings for up to two weeks., methamphetamine, and heroin- can cause miscarriage, premature labor, early death, drug addiction; babies have high-pitched cries and suffer withdrawal. ■ Cocaine- babies can get addicted and go through withdrawals after birth- research is ambiguous due in part to the complex interaction between the drug and other teratogens to which the baby might be exposed. ■ Tobacco- correlated with lower birth weight (half a pound lighter); higher rates of learning problems, anti-social behavior, and ADHD ■ Alcohol (1 glass of wine, or binge drinking- all have bad effects)- FAS children are generally smaller, have facial changes, short, small heads, mild to severe mental retardation, and perceptual difficulties. ○ Maternal Viruses ■ Rubella (“German Measles”) ■ HIV ■ Other STDs can get passed in utero or during birth ○ Outcomes of using tobacco during pregnancy ■ Physical: ● Risk for ectopic pregnancy ● Low birth weight ● Oxygen deprivation in utero or during birth ● Double the rate of SIDS after birth ● Excitable and more difficult to calm ■ Psychosocial ● Lower IQ (average of 8 points) ● Poorer self-regulation ● ADHD diagnosis ● Conduct disorder diagnosis ● Earlier onset of tobacco use ● Other Problems during Prenatal Devevlopment ○ Malnutrition ■ neonate low birth weight ■ brain stunting (weight and volume of the brain are reduced) ■ fetal death (a.k.a. birth to a still born) ■ mental illness in adulthood ■ folic acid deficiencies are associated with neural tube defects such as spina bifida ○ Age ■ First pregnancies occurring later in the lifetime (around 25yo) ■ Women over 35 have higher risks for pregnancy complications ■ Teenage mothers have higher risks during and after birth bc of how they take care of themselves ● Environmental Hazards ○ Detrimental hazards: ■ Lead paint- bad for children and moms- fumes are bad for mom ■ Mercury (fish consumption)- good for omega 3 so eat low mercury fish ■ Insecticides (DDT) ■ Other chemicals ● Dental offices and outpatient surgery could be places which expose pregnant women to harmful gasses. ● Solvents: paint thinners, alcohol ● Parasite-bearing substances: animal feces; undercooked meat, poultry, or eggs. ○ Stress ■ Maternal stress and depression related to higher risks for fetus ■ Social support and counseling may help Childbirth ● Pituitary gland released oxytocin (We don’t know what starts pregnancy- we don’t know what triggers the oxytocin- they can use ‘fake’ oxytocin to induce labor) ○ Uterine contractions ○ Thinning of cervix (effacement) ○ you need to induce because if the baby gets too big it is hard to get the baby out, also the baby is swallowing and urinating-the might eventually start defecating in utero which can cause a respiratory infection ● Stage 1 ○ Cervix opens ● Stage 2 ○ Baby enters birth canal ○ Baby is born! ● Stage 3 ○ Placenta, Umbilical cord, etc is “birthed” ● Potential Complications ○ Positioning (breech- feet first, hammock) ○ Anoxia (oxygen loss) ■ Placental abruption ■ Placenta previa ○ C-section surgery Assessing the Neonate (LBW) ● Very Low Birthweight (VLBW): <1,500 grams, which is about 2.5lbs ● Low birthweight (LBW): Infants born at a low birthweight (2,500g or 5.5lbs) or preterm are at higher risks of dying in the first year of life than larger or later births ○ low birthweight infants makeup 8.2% of all births and 66% of all newborn deaths ● Desirable birth weight = 3500-4500 kg (7 lb. 12 oz.-10 lb.) → least likely to die within the first year of life ○ also have a better overall health status (less likely to develop CVD, lung disease, diabetes and hypertension) ● Risks ○ Respiratory distress syndrome due to the underdeveloped lungs ○ Cognitive deficits and language delays ○ Poorer immune system function ● Survival rate use to be 50% in 1960, but today survival rate is 90%! ● APGAR tests- immediately after birth, a quick, overall assessment of newborn well-being is done one minute and five minutes after delivery. ○ provides information about the baby’s physical health, and helps the physician determine if immediate or future medical treatment will be required. ○ APGAR measures the baby’s color/appearance, heart rate, reflexes/grimace, muscle tone and respiratory effort on a scale of 0-2. ■ if the total score is less than 4, the newborn is in critical danger ● Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) ○ The scale represents a guide that helps parents, health care providers and researchers understand the newborn's language. ○ Tracks development over two weeks ○ Responses to stimuli and reflexes are checked. ○ reflexes and social interaction ○ Motor skills, state (i.e. alertness), attention, central nervous system stability Infant Physical and Sensory Development ● Growth reflects nutritional adequacy, health status, and economic and other environmental influences on the family ○ slight weight variations in growth rate can result from illness, teething, inappropriate feeding position, or family disruption. ■ babies must be weight naked ■ measuring is a two man job, one holds the head while the other holds the legs straight ● The most rapid period of postnatal growth ○ babies double their weight in the first 6 months, and triple their birth weight in the first year General principles of Growth ● Babies grow directionally ○ Cephalocaudal growth: growth starts from the head, downward ■ This means that the development of the head and brain tends to be more advanced (because it occurs first) than the rest of the body. ○ Proximodistal growth : growth from the center, outward ■ This means that the head and trunk (torso) of the body grow first, followed by the arms and legs. ○ Independence of systems- not all parts of the body follow the same growth timetable ■ ex: nervous system develops most rapidly until around age 8, body size is gradual with a spurt around puberty, and sexual characteristics spurt around age 16. ○ Canalization- many systems in the body are genetically programmed to follow a certain course of development. If something affects this developmental course, a correction is made as soon as a change is possible- this is canalization ■ Norms r epresent average outcomes on some characteristic ● most adults are 5-6 feet tall and very few are 4 or 7. ■ Individual differences-There are a wide variation in individual differences within the normal range. ● ex: infants first walk and talk at about one year of age on average. But the range of individual differences in both achievements is considerable. Some walk at 10 months, others 18 months. Some say their first word at 9 months and some at 29 months Development of the central nervous system ● Brain development ○ rapid development in the first 2 years ○ Subcortical structuresthat control state (asleep, awake, etc. ) emerge first during prenatal brain development. → controls sleep/wake cycle of the fetus in the womb. ■ Midbrain – functions of vision, hearing, sleep-wake cycles, motor movement ■ Medulla – brain stem functions of respiration, heart rate, pain sensitivity, transmitting information from the rest of the brain to the body ○ Limbic system (inner cortex)hat manages emotions is next ○ The cortexand association areas of the brain concerned wawareness, attention, memory, and the integration of informatioleast developed at birth and emerge last- do not completely develop until late adolescence/early 20s. ● Neurons and Synapses ○ ○ Synaptogenesis- the development of connections between neurons through the growth of axons and dendrites ○ Synaptic pruning- the process of eliminating unused or unnecessary synapses ■ “use-it-or-lose-it” ■ the textbook uses a good example of two villages separated by a hill. There are many different pathways on, in, and around the hill, but over time, travelers have noticed that one path is more direct than the others. As a result, travelers only take this one path and the grass starts to grow again on the unused paths. Brain Plasticity ● Plasticity refers to the brain’s capability to be modified by experience. (just like plastic can be molded) ○ Young infants need sufficient stimulation and order in their environments to maximize the early period of rapid growth and plasticity. ● Myelin is the white fatty tissue that encases sections of the axons of the neuron. ○ myelination is the process of forming myelin sheaths around the axon in order to increase the speed and improves the information transmission between cells. ■ transmission speed actually triples after myelination occurs! ■ continues through adulthood ■ multiple sclerosis shows the importance of myelin sheaths, because the autoimmune system strips the axon of its myelin. This results in loss of motor control, deteriorating speech and vision, and eventually death. Autonomic Nervous system ● regulates involuntary actions such as breathing, blood flow, or digestion. ○ like autodrive- does the work for you ● We focus on cycles and states when talking about the development of the ANS ○ a baby’s activity appears random and episodic, however close examination shows that many different systems cyclein predictable rhythms. ■ the heart beats, the lungs expand and contract. ■ awake, active sleep and deep sleep all alternate ■ less frequent: kicking and rocking ○ regularity shows maturity of the nervous system Sleep ● sleep patterns stabilize with age ● newborns are saints and sleep 80% of the time ● by 2-4 months, the baby will begin to sleep through the night ● by 6 months, the babies average around 11-12 hours at night and nap for 2-3 hours during the day (total of 14) ● They have 5 states of sleep and wakefulness ○ Alert wakefulness→ fussing → drowsiness→ REM sleep→ Deep sleep→ light sleep in which the baby may wake up→ REM sleep ■ trying to eliminate wake up and continue with REM sleep throughout the night ● Influence of the environment ○ Sensitive caregiving ○ Carrying ○ Co-sleeping (mom and baby sleep together Reflexes ● At birth, much of the baby’s moves are reflexes, but by the toddler age the actions are more voluntary ● reflexes are involuntary responses to certain stimuli ○ many are designed to aid survival- this is calledadaptive significance ● 3 categories of reflexes: ○ 1. Approach reflexes- are breathing, rooting (when you brush the baby’s cheek and the baby turns towards the stimuli), and sucking (for finding and swallowing food) ○ 2. Avoidance reflexes- coughing sneezing, and blinking. ■ common characteristic of these reflexes is all-or-nothing- a.k.a. they occur in full blown strength ○ 3. Other reflexes- seem to have more meaning due to evolutionary history ■ Palmer Grasp- babies tighten their grip if whatever they are holding is suddenly raised so they can support their own weight for bief periods of time ■ Moro Response- the tendency for babies to swing their arms wide and bring them together again in the middle of their body (as if around a caregiver ● happens when the baby loses support ○ these reflexes disappear at round 4-8 months Health and Wellness: Breastfeeding and Bottle feeding Breastfeeding Bottle feeding nutritionally the best because the mother’s milk may be needed as a supplement for preterm has everything the baby needs- leads to a more babies rapid weight gain and size early health benefits- good for immunity special-needs formulas available Only nutrition needed for first 4-6 months can be high quality Good for mother-baby bonding, *however may allows more father participation not be possible for all mothers ● Common illnesses of newborns are diarrhea, gastroenteritis, bronchitis, ear infections, and colic as well as infant death ● *mothers should not breastfeed if they are using drugs, if they are substance abusers, or if they have AIDS Nutrition: Solid Foods ● early introduction of solid foods can interfere with nutrition - should introduce solid food at around age 5-6 months ○ they’re ready for solid foods when they can hold their head steady in the upright position ○ sit with support (high chair) ○ they show interest in what you are eating Healthcare and Wellness ● The first two years of an infant’s life are when the child is most prone to illness. ○ respiratory illnesses are common ○ higher rate of illness in children participating in child care programs due to high contact with other children ■ Daycare babies have 2x respiratory illnesses as stay-at-home babies. ○ chronic ear infections ● Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) ○ It is the leading cause of death in U.S. from infant 1-2yrs of age ○ Has relations to sleep apnea, sleeping on stomach, and maternal smoking Infant Mortality ● Infant mortality is defined as death within the first year of life. ○ 7 babies/1,000 in the U.S. ■ Mortality rate has declined steadily for several decades ■ higher in U.S. than in other industrialized country ○ Related to poverty as well (gets inadequate health care) ○ Related to prenatal care ○ varies widely among U.S. ethnic groups ■ Asian-American infants have the lowest mortality rate ■ African-American infants have the highest mortality rate ● Immunizations are one of the most important ways to keep your children and adolescents healthy. ● Must be immunized on time- each vaccine is given at different times and interval. ● Talk with your child's provider at every visit (both well and sick) to be sure your child is up-to-date on his or her immunizations. ● Children and adolescents will be protected against potentially life-threatening vaccine preventable diseases. Developing Body Systems and Motor Skills ● Gross motor development follows a more or less predictable sequence ○ until about 5 months, infants lie flat unless they’re being held. ○ by 6 months most babies can sit up on their own ○ by 8 to 10 months most infants start crawling ○ infants usually take their first steps at age 1 (can be 9/10 months or 18/20 months) ● Ossification- the process of hardening cartilage into bone ○ from prenatal development to puberty ○ motor development depends on ossification (to a large extent) ■ At birth, wrist is cartilage; by one to three years of age, it is separate bones: by adolescence, nine separate bones. This improves manipulative skills. ■ Standing is impossible without ossification ● Muscle fibers present at birth ○ ratio of muscle tissue to fat declines by age 1 ○ Change in muscle composition leads to an increase in strength ● Fine motor skills, such as palmar grasp and pincer grasp, take longer to develop. ○ pincer grasp is the baby’s ability to pick up small objects between the thumb and forefinger ● Motor skills follows cephalocaudal and proximodistal development Sensing and Perceiving: Vision ● The different senses appear to begin their development and achieve maturity at slightly different times ○ almost like concentrating energy on one system at a time ● babies actively seek visual stimulation ● Vision is terrible at birth (~ 20/200) and largely insensitive to color but steadily improves ○ At 1 mo.: can begin tracking images ■ Tracking slow-moving object before 2 months and more skilled at 6–10 weeks ○ 1 months: Red, blue, green colors distinguished- scan edges of the face (hairline and chin) ○ 2-3 months: color discrimination is improving- scan internal facial features, especially the eyes ○ 6-9months: Rapid improvements in vision ● Babies like to look at complex and symmetrical shapes, but they like faces the best ○ mother’s face and an active face are preferred ● Visual perception of emotions ○ 2-3 months infants can identify changes in emotional expression. ○ 7 months infants can interpret and respond to facial expressions. ○ 12 months infants can respond and distinguish wider variety of emotions (happy vs. surprised vs. angry vs. interested vs. sad) ○ Babies are so focused on emotional expressions in order to guide own actions. ○ The focus can h elp babies to anticipate others’ actions ● Depth perception ○ The Visual Cliff (1960) is an experiment by Gibson and Walk in which they put babies on a red and white checkered pattern that dropped off. The drop off is covered by clear glass. ■ Initial findings: 6-month-old babies would not cross the visual cliff because they can perceive depth ■ Recent findings: 1-month-olds have some depth perception (kinetic cues) Hearing ● Fetuses respond to sounds as early as the third month of gestation. ○ mother’s abdominal wall and uterus lower the intensity of sounds, but they change other characteristics very little. ● after birth, newborns are sensitive to human voice frequencies ● at 3 months, sounds have to be louder to be heard , but this improves quickly ● by the age of 4 months, babies reach in the direction of sound, even in the dark ● by the age of 6 months, their ability to detect the source of the sound as good as adults do ● Preference for Infant-directed speech (a.k.a. “motherese”) differs from normal adult-directed speech ○ we exaggerate tones and deliver them in a singsong rhythm (that weird voice we save when talking to babies and cute animals), repeating the simpler words we use, and we use less complex grammar ■ attracts and keeps the baby’s attention, communication intention and emotion, and facilitating the recognition of the mother’s voice. ● With continuous exposure to one particular language, and infant’s ability to distinguish sounds that are not part of their native language diminishes ○ use it or lose it phenomenon Sensing and perceiving: Taste ● Even though the new born baby has only tasted amniotic fluid, the baby still discriminates different tastes by preferring some over others. ● Neonates actually display different facial expressions when they tastes sour, bitter and sweet substances are placed on their tongues ○ sweet tastes evokes a satisfied expression (accompanied by a slight smile and sucking movements) ■ distressed preterm and term infants can be soothed by giving them a glucose solution to taste ■ sweet tastes hold a high value for infants because it ensures that infants will take breast milk (because it is slightly sweeter) ○ sour tastes evokes lip pursing (accompanied by wrinkling the nose and blinking eyes) ○ A bitter taste evokes an expression of dislike and disgust, often followed by spitting or even gagging. ● sense of smell in infants is also very advanced- they make appropriate reactions to different odors (which are the same adults make) ○ in fact, babies can smell and recognize the specific odor of their mother ■ researchers tested this by having a stranger and a mother wear a patch in their under arms during the night- and when the babies (both bottle fed and breastfed) were given the opportunity to turn their head to one smell, they picked their mother’s, but bottle fed babies could not recognize their mother’s scent ○ like sweet tastes, good and familiar scents can calm a fussy baby. Sensing and perceiving: touch ● infants use the sense of touch to learn about their world. ● by 6 months, babies reach for everything ○ Piaget emphasized the significance of touch when he proposed that simple sensorimotor behavior constitutes the foundation of knowledge. ● Infants react to a change in shape of the object by rotating it more, they respond to change in texture by touching it more. ● they throw, push away and drop new objects less often than familiar ones ● they study more complex objects more with less time getting distracted than observing simpler objects ● touch is important for establishing and maintaining intimacy and infant-parent attraction ● also important as a stronger motivator than food ○ in one study, researchers placed to fake mothers made out of wire in a monkey cage. One had a bottle in its hand, while the other was covered in padding and soft cloth. The monkey actually chose the cloth mother but would lean over to eat from the bottle without leaving the cloth mother every now and then. DAY 5: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY Measuring Cognition in Infancy ● Habituation is when a stimuli is shown over and over again to the baby until it gets “bored” of the picture, and doesn’t spend as much time looking at the stimulus. Develops a memory of the stimulus ● Novelty responsiveness is when the infant looks at a new stimulus more than the habituated one because they recognize the differences between the old and new pictures. ○ One can test how well a baby learns by using habituation and novelty responsiveness. You can measure how much a baby normally kicks while laying in their crib. Then, you can tie a string to the baby’s ankle and attach it to the mobile, so when they kick the mobile move/makes a sound. The baby recognizes this new stimuli and kicks abou 2 to 3 times more than usual. Then, you can retest the baby a few days later and they relearn this novelty much quicker than last time ● Many studies attempt to see if older infants can imitate a series of events after watching the adult perform them a few times Piaget’s Views of Cognitive Changes ● A quick review: ○ Assimilation- Process of putting together new information about a subject/idea to existing idea to make sense of experiences ■ you know what a classroom looks like, but when you walk in one, it is a little different. You add this new info to your existing idea of a classroom to “remold” your idea ○ Accommodation- Changing an idea to incorporate new information ■ you have an idea in you imagination of what a certain animal looks like that you’ve never seen before, but when you see it in the zoo it is completely different. Now you have to completely change your idea of this animal to fit reality. ○ Sensorimotor intelligence- Refinement of ideas by experiences of the senses and motor actions ■ pretty much being able to change and manipulate ideas one has of the world through certain experiences ○ When you have good sensorimotor intelligence, a person can feel an Equilibrium which is a state of balance where one feels like they understand the world through assimilation and accommodation ● Piaget believes that mental development unfolds in a fixed sequence of developmental steps ○ Sensorimotor stage- occurs during infancy (birth to 18 months) where “thinking” consists of putting sensory information with motor activity (as in they learn through actions such as looking, listening, touching, sucking, mouthing, and grasping ■ Learning object permanence (the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it is not visible ■ Mental representations are presentations to the mind in the form of an idea or image. In the sensorimotor stage, infants don’t have any mental representations yet because they can’t visualize yet (according to Piaget) ■ There are 6 stages in the Sensorimotor stage: ● 1. Basic Reflexes(birth to 1 month)- Mental development is minimal, but there are certain reflexes that the baby is born with (rooting, sucking, and grasping reflexes)- assimilation is slow at this stage ● 2. Primary Circular reflex1-4 months)- Babies start to discover actions pertaining to their own body by accident (trial and error) until they become a habit → not goal oriented! ○ The baby’s thumb ends up in its mouth by accident. and sucking occurs when the thumb hits the roof of the mouth. The more times this happens, the baby quickly learns to suck its thumb. ● 3. Secondary Circular Reaction(4-8 months)- infants become aware of their relationship with their environment ○ flailing arms around and they hit a rattle which makes noise upon contact. Eventually the baby will learn that when they hit the rattle, it makes a noise ○ *To remember which is primary and which is secondary*just know that before you can discover what is around you, you must first discover yourself ● 4. Coordination of Secondary Schemes(8-12 months)- Infants start to coordinate primary and secondary in order to solve a problem → more intentional and goal oriented ○ An infant sees that a toy is behind a box, so the infant pushes the box out of the way(secondary) and reaches (primary) for the toy ● 5. Tertiary circular reacti(12-18 months)- babies are curious and make discoveries through trial and error in order to create new novel reactions ○ a baby drops a ball from shoulder height. Then the baby gets curious and drops the ball at different heights and watches what happens. ● 6. Transition to Symbolic though(18-24 months)- infants use more symbolic thought as a way to workout problems in their head first ○ An 18 month old girl wants to open the lid of a box. To think about this, she opens and closes her hand repeatedly. Rather than work directly on the box, she first uses her hand motion as a way to “think” about how to open it. She is thinking about the box using a symbolic representation (her hand). ○ Infants and Imitation at 9 months ■ Deferred imitation is when the infant reproduces a series of actions (steps) that they saw at an earlier time ● remember this from the video about the infant girl who watched a man put his forehead on a box and it lit up when his head hit the box. She then went home with her mom and returned 24 hours later. When the same box was put in front of her, she immediately put her head on the box in order to illuminate it. ○ More recent research has shown that cognitive developments begin much earlier than Piaget was led to believe. Spelke’s Alternative Approach to Cognitive Changes ● Assumption: babies have an inborn understanding of objects and their movement ● Research Method: There is a violation of expectations- this happens when researchers move an object the opposite way from what the infant expects- an infant notices novelty (looks longer) ○ if a researcher rolls a ball and the ball is stopped when it hits a wall vs. if the researcher then rolls the ball and the ball goes through the wall. Summary: Piaget argues that infants are born with reflexes that help them learn about how the world works (step one of sensorimotor development-basic reflexes), and then they develop new schemes by accident that helps them to learn more about themselves and the world around them. Preferences, Interest, or Understanding ● Rational action: After habituation, look longer when laws of physics are broken ● Number sense : Initially will look longer when number of objects matches number of sounds heard ● Reasoning: Initially will look longer when unexpected probabilities are demonstrated ● Using neuroimaging and eye tracking (1 day olds): ○ Motor cortex responds differently to social vs nonsocial actions ● Learning, Categorizing, and Remembering ● Schematic learning : Organization of experiences into expectancies or “known” combinations (schemas) ○ built up over many exposures to a particular experience; help baby to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar. ○ Different categories ■ 7 months- at this age infants can oly distinguish between superordinate categories (animals versus furniture) ■ 12 months- at this age infants can understand basic and superordinate categories- but not at the same time ● animals that walk vs. animals that fly ■ 24 months- can use both at the same time, which hepls them understand subordinate categories ● dogs vs. cats vs. birds Beginning of Language ● by one month the infant can coo and babble ● by 24 months the infant can speak in gramatically correct sentences ● Pricilla Dunstan’s 5 newborn cries ○ When the infant uses the “Neh” sound it is signalling he/she is hungry by instilling the sucking reflex (tongue on the roof of the mouth) ○ When the infant uses the “Owh” sound it is signalling he/she is sleepy by instilling the yawn reflex ○ When the infant uses the “heh” sound to communicate discomfort (cold, itchy) ○ When the infant uses the “Eairh” sound it means the infant is experiencing a gassy lower abdomen ○ When the infant uses the “eh” sound it means the infant needs to burp. ● Early milestones of Language Development ○ Birth-1 month is just crying for communication ○ 1-2 months they can laugh and coo ○ by 6-7 months the infant can babble with consonants ○ by 9-10 months they can hand gesture and babble ■ Initially, babbling contains all kinds of sounds; by nine or ten months, babies typically begin to babble closer and closer to the language they hear. ○ by 12 months the first words come! ● Making and Understanding Sounds ○ Perception ■ Auditory system typically working well from birth ■ Perceive and categorize speech sounds ○ Sounds ■ Prelinguistic crying ■ Babbling – 1 snondistress communication ■ 6-10months the language of origin heard in babbles ● Word Recognition and Production ○ Receptive language: Ability to understand words ■ 8 months: begin to store words in memory ■ 9–10 months: understands 20–30 words ■ 13 months: 100 words ○ Expressive language : Ability to produce words ■ 12-13 months: Babies begin to say first words. ■ Words learned slowly in context with specific situations and cues ● Behaviorists view: Learning Theory ○ Parent-reinforced babbling and grammar use ○ Correct grammar reinforced, becomes more frequent ○ Non-grammatical words not reinforced ● The Nativist View: Noam Chomsky ○ Comprehension and production guided by Language Acquisition Device (LAD) ■ LAD = An innate language processor which contains the basic grammatical structure of all human language ■ LAD separates sounds into vowels and consonants. All human languages have the same form, according to Chomsky. ○ Basic grammatical structure for all human language ○ Tells babies there are 2 types of sounds (consonants and vowels) ○ Enables infants to divide, analyze, and learn sounds of the specific language they are learning ● Interactionist View: Social Influences on Language Development ○ Infant Directed Speech (stated previously)
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