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isertonic

isertonic

Description

School: Mississippi State University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Physiology
Professor: James stewart
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Exam 1
Description: study guide made from notes taken in class for exam 1, covers chapters 1-4.
Uploaded: 01/29/2016
12 Pages 7 Views 9 Unlocks
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Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide


What percentage of the body is interstitial fluid?



1. Which is not a major theme of physiology?

a. structure and function are closely related  

b. living organisms need energy- energy source, transfer, storage, and use

c. Information flow coordinates body function

d. homeostasis maintains internal stability despite external variables

e. bones create the structure of the body

2. During early development all cells are the same which is called?

a. Beginning stage

b. Original status

c. Stem cell origin

d. Early cells

3. What level of bodily organization consists of small molecules, macromolecules, cells, and their  functional subunits?

a. Chemical level

b. Basic level

c. Bottom level  

d. First level

4. Which is not one of the four types of tissues?

a. Epithelium- covers the body’s surface


What is the extracellular matrix?



b. Connective- provides support

c. Cranial- provides the mass of the brain

d. Muscle- controls movement

e. Nervous- controls communication

5. What is Physiology?

a. The study of how living organisms function

b. The study of organic compounds

c. The study of molecular functions

d. The study of the parts of the body

6. Which describes organism level?

a. more than one tissue functioning together

b. multiple organs working together for a common purpose

c. highest level, all simpler organs working together in unison

d. smallest element of life that can be seen

7. What do you call the body fluid in blood and surrounding cells?

a. Cavity fluid

b. Outside fluid We also discuss several other topics like bgsu login

c. Intracellular fluid

d. Extracellular fluid

8. What percentage of the body is interstitial fluid?


What do the myofilaments contain?



a. 75-80%

b. 20-25%

c. 30-35%

d. 15-20%

9. Which is considered homogeneous interstitial fluid or extracellular fluid? a. Interstitial fluid

b. Extracellular fluid

10. There is _____________ fluid inside the cells than outside Don't forget about the age old question of differences among individuals in the composition of their genes or other dna segments

a. More

b. Less

11. ___ of body fluids is outside of cells, ___ is inside cells

a. 30%, 70%

b. 70%, 30%

c. 10%, 90% If you want to learn more check out john buckingham pepperdine

d. 90%, 10%

12. ________ solution produces a lower osmotic pressure than within the cell a. Isertonic

b. Isotonic

c. Hypertonic

d. Hypotonic

13. What is the extracellular matrix?

a. a system of nerves connecting cells

b. a dead cell filled with keratin

c. an equation used to determine body fluid levels

d. a maze-like structure found in the cell

14. As physiologist we study how body parts work together (___________) how various levels of  organization are integrated (_______) and overall function of the human body a. Mechanistic approach, integrated function

b. Integrated Function, Mechanistic Approach

c. Functional capabilities, organizational capabilities

d. Organizational capabilities, functional capabilities

15. How does the extracellular matrix affect diabetic patients?

a. It enables them to function better with insulin

b. The matrix delivers the insulin more quickly than intravenously

c. It causes their wounds to be harder to heal

d. It protects them from getting infections

16. Which tissue type connect tissues and bind organs together, holds in body fluids, basis of the  skeletal structure, stores and carries nutrients, surrounds all vessels and nerves, protect the  body against infection, is supportive, keeps cells in line, and gives organs their shape? a. Muscle tissue

b. Joint tissue

c. Skin tissue

d. Connective tissue

17. What is found wherever two environments meet, made up of a sheet of cells, covers the bodies  surface, and lines the body cavities, forms glands, functions as protection for the body, secretes  mucous (like in the lungs and the sinuses), absorbs minerals and nutrients, transports ions cross  membranes, filters what goes into the body/organs, forms slippery surfaces? If you want to learn more check out eric lybbert byui

a. Epithelial tissue

b. Joint tissue

c. Connective tissue

d. Muscle tissue  

18. What is an example of connective tissue?

a. Brain

b. Fat

c. Muscle

d. skin

19. The formula for diffusion rate is known as?

a. Fick’s Law

b. Charles’s law

c. Darwin’s Law

d. Pascal’s Law

20. What enables muscles to contract?

a. Their placement

b. Neurons

c. Their ability to contract

d. The body

21. What do the myofilaments contain? If you want to learn more check out why do you think de vaca called for better treatment of native americans after having been held prisoner by them?

a. Protein and water

b. DNA and enzymes

c. Substrates and intracellular fluid

d. Actin and myosin

22. Which is NOT one of the three types of muscle tissue?

a. Skin

b. Cardiac

c. Smooth  

d. skeletal

23. Specialized nerve cells conduct impulses composed of Cell body, dendrite, axon a. Supporting cells (glial cells)

b. Neurons

24. With time each cell becomes specialized based on their function which is called? a. Specialization

b. Cell differentiation

c. Determination

d. Cell signaling  

25. Non-conducting nerve cells that nourish, insulate and protect neurons a. Supporting cells (glial cells)

b. Neurons

26. Which is NOT true about nervous cells?

a. They do not replicate (no mitosis)

b. They are terminally differentiated

c. They have a short lifespan unlike many other cells

d. They have a high metabolic rate and are now dependent on insulin

27. What is the term that means “if the  amount is to remain constant and gain  must be corrected with equal loss”?  

28. ________- energy released in wave  form

29. ___________- the state where steady  energy is going in to maintain  

homeostasis

30. What is the term that means the body  changes to maintain homeostasis?  31. ____________- the state where no  energy is going in and homeostasis is  being maintained Don't forget about the age old question of psych 108

32. ________- combination of potential  and kinetic energy—is a movement of  charged particles along a diffusion  gradient; from high energy to low  energy

33. _________- enhances the production of  the product- doesn’t recognize the set  point of homeostasis and keeps adding  energy causing some sort of bodily  event like childbirth

34. ___________- spontaneous natural  processes increase overall  

disorganization

35. ___________- has a set stopping point  at homeostasis, once the process  reaches the homeostatic level the  process is shut off

36. _________- energy transfer between  systems

37. Animals rely on what three types of  energy? 1.___ 2.____ 3._____

38. What is the biggest factor in physiology;  a state of reasonably stable balance  within the body no matter the  

variables- the most common variations  are within a range of “normal”?  

39. ________- combination of potential  and kinetic energy, used to move things  from place to place

40. ___________- the “normal” range that  the body works to maintain

41. _______- when molecules disperse  randomly in the available space, from  the high concentration to areas of low  concentration

42. _________- energy can neither be  created nor destroyed but it can change  forms, and flow from one place to  another—but the total energy must  remain the same

a. Homeostasis

b. Law of mass balance

c. Dynamic consistency

d. Equilibrium

e. Steady state

f. Set point or operating point

g. Positive feedback system (feed  forward)

h. Negative feedback system

i. The law of conservation of energy j. The law of entropy

k. Energetics

l. Chemical

m. Radiant energy

n. Mechanical energy

o. Electrical energy

p. Diffusion

43. A group of cells working together to perform a common function is what level of bodily  organization?

a. Cellular level

b. Tissue level

c. Organ level

d. Organism level

44. What is the energy available to do work?

a. Loose energy

b. Creative energy

c. Usable energy

d. Free energy

45. What is the energy required to reach the transition state?

a. Activation energy

b. Free energy

c. Transition state

d. Exothermic energy

46. If thermal energy is increased what does NOT happen?

a. Molecules move faster

b. Chemical reaction rates become faster

c. Molecules increase in size

47. What type of reaction takes heat in?

a. Exergonic

b. Exothermic

c. Endothermic

d. endergonic

48. Enzymes must come into contact with _____ in order to speed the reaction rate. a. Proteins

b. Microtubules

c. Catalysts

d. Substrates

49. What type of reaction releases heat?

a. Endothermic

b. Exothermic

c. Exergonic

d. Endergonic

50. _______ model suggests that the enzyme is a general shape and moves to fit around the  substrate when it joins

a. Lock-and-key

b. Induced fit

51. Cofactors are usually ________ and organic coenzymes are usually ________. a. Heavy metals; vitamins

b. Vitamins; heavy metals

c. Proteins; carbohydrates

d. Carbohydrates; proteins

52. The _______model suggests that the enzyme is in the exact shape to take on the substrates— like a puzzle

a. Lock-and-key

b. Induced fit

53. What process gains electrons (reductase) adding negatively charged electrons will reduce the  electric charge

a. Oxidation

b. Hydrolysis

c. Reduction

d. dehydration

54. What process involves splitting large molecules by adding water?

a. Oxidation

b. Reduction

c. Dehydration

d. hydrolysis

55. What process removes water to make larger molecules from several smaller molecules? a. Dehydration

b. Oxidation

c. Reduction

d. Hydrolysis  

56. What process transfers electrons from donor to oxygen (oxygenase)—remove electrons and  hydrogen from the donor using dehydrogenase—like rust on iron

a. reduction

b. oxidation

c. hydrolysis

d. dehydration

57. What reaction adds a functional group?

a. Subtraction

b. Addition

c. Catabolic

d. anabolic

58. What is the sum of all chemical reactions that take place in an organism? a. catabolism

b. anabolism

c. energy

d. metabolism

59. What process releases energy through the breakdown of large biomolecules? a. Catabolism

b. Anabolism

c. Hydrolysis

d. subtraction

60. What process uses energy to synthesis large biomolecules?

a. Catabolism

b. Anabolism

c. Hydrolysis

d. subtraction

61. Which is not one of the four types of bonds?

a. Van der Waals Forces  

b. Hydrogen bonds  

c. Narrow bonds

d. Ionic bonds  

e. Hydrophobic bonds

62. What bonds are conducted when an atom with transient dipole affects the distribution of  electrons in another atom?

a. Hydrogen bonds

b. Ionic bonds

c. Hydrophobic bonds

d. Van der waals interactions

63. What bonds are made from ions, an ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or  more electrons?

a. Hydrogen bonds

b. Ionic bonds

c. Hydrophobic bonds

d. Van der waals interactions

64. What reaction removes a functional group?

a. Addition

b. metabolism

c. Subtraction

d. anabolic

65. What bonds are formed due to mutual aversion (“phobia”) to water?

a. Hydrogen bonds

b. Ionic bonds

c. Hydrophobic bonds

d. Van der waals

66. What bonds are the asymmetric sharing of electrons between two atoms? a. Hydrogen bonds

b. Ionic bonds

c. Hydrophobic bonds

d. Van der waals interactions

67. Which is NOT a rate of diffusion factor?

a. Size of concentration gradient (dC/dX)

b. Size of molecule used to calculate the diffusion coefficient (Ds)

c. Diffusion area (A)

d. Size of container (V)

68. _____- meaning “same tension” will produce no change in the size due to the net water inside  the cell (same concentration of water inside the cell as there is outside the cell so it isn’t gaining  or losing water)

a. Hypertonic

b. Isotonic

c. Hypotonic

d. Isertonic

69. _________ solution is one that exerts a greater osmotic pressure than the cell contents a. Hypotonic

b. Isotonic

c. Hypertonic

d. isertonic

a. Lipids b. triglycerides c. phospholipids d. amphipathic e. steroids

f. proteins g. Amino acids h. nucleic acids i. replication j. translation

k. transcription l. Purines m. pyrimidines n. dorsal body cavity

o. ventral body cavity p. pleural cavity q. pericardial cavity

r. Abdominal cavity s. pelvic cavity t. macrostructures u. microstructures

70. _______ which is adenine and guanine; they are made of double rings of nitrogen and carbon 71. _________ are similar in overall structure to triglycerides but the third hydroxyl group of  glycerol is linked to phosphate

72. _________ possessing both hydrophilic( water-loving, polar) and lipophilic( fat-loving)  properties

73. _______ constitute the majority of lipids in the body, form when glycerol, a 3-carbon alcohol,  bonds to three fatty acids, found in all cells and comprise part of cellular membranes, including  those of intracellular organelles

74. _______ larger cavity; contains the visceral organs- thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic(  peritoneal) cavity

75. ________ four interconnected rings of carbon atoms form the skeleton of each, they are not  water soluble

76. RNA being converted into protein is ________

77. _______ are molecules composed predominantly(but not exclusively) of hydrogen and carbon  atoms

78. ___________- membranes the cover anatomic tissue structures ex. The pericardial membrane 79. ____________ cranial cavity which contains the skull, vertebral cavity which contains the  vertebral column and encloses the spinal cord

80. ________ account for about 50% of the organic material in the bod, 17% of body weight, critical  roles in almost every physiological process, composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,  and small amounts of other elements  

81. ________- cavity that surrounds the heart

82. _________-superior cavity, contains the liver, stomach, kidneys and other organs 83. _______ have two classes: deoxyribonucleic acid( DNA) and Ribonucleic acid( RNA) 84. DNA making more DNA is _________

85. ________ the subunit monomers of proteins, all except proline has an amino (-NH2) and a  carboxyl (-COOH) group bound to the terminal carbon atom in the molecules

86. DNA being turned into RNA is ________

87. ________ which is cytosine and thymine; they have single rings of nitrogen and carbon 88. ________- 2 lateral parts each containing a lung

89. _______- inferior cavity, contains bladder, reproductive organs, and the rectum 90. ___________- membranes that cover cellular and subcellular structures ex. The phospholipid  cell membranes

91. _________- not amphipathic, do not associate with the nonpolar regions of the lipids in the  interior, located on the surface of the membrane

a. Integral membrane proteins

b. Peripheral membrane proteins

c. Cell junctions

d. desmosomes

92. ________- amphipathic, cannot be extracted from the membrane without disrupting the lipid  bilayer, and have transmembrane proteins (proteins that go completely across the membrane) a. Integral membrane proteins

b. Peripheral membrane proteins

c. Cell junctions

d. Desmosomes

93. Microtubules- hollow tubes about 25 nm in diameter, whose subunits are composed of the  protein tubulin (most rigid of the filaments), functions: cell division (they radiate from the  centrosome for chromosome separation), motility (cilia cores), protein trafficking a. Actin filaments

b. Microtubules

c. Intermediate filaments

d. macrotubules

94. Which is NOT a class of cytoskeleton filament?

a. Actin filaments (microfilaments)  

b. Intermediate filaments  

c. Microtubules

d. Macrotubules

95. What is composed of monomers of the protein, G-actin (globular actins), assembles into a  polymer of two twisting chains making F-actin (filamentous actin), makes up a major portion of  cytoskeleton of all cells

a. Actin filaments

b. Intermediate filaments

c. Microtubules

d. macrotubules

96. Which is NOT TRUE about what influences the magnitude of diffusion?

a. Temperature- higher temperature will increase the speed of the molecules; increase the  net flux  

b. Mass of molecules- the larger the molecule; slower the speed; slower the net flux c. Surface area- greater the space available for diffusion; slower net flux  

97. _______- adhesive spot on the lateral sides linked by proteins/ filaments; holds tissues together a. Integral membrane proteins

b. Peripheral membrane proteins

c. Desmosomes

d. Cell junctions

e. Medium- the denser the medium the slower the net flux

98. Which is NOT a way that membranes affect diffusion?

a. Diffusion rates will be slower than the rates of the same molecules through just water b. Will regulate the size of the molecules that can cross the membrane

c. The major factor limiting the diffusion across a membrane is the hydrophobic interior of  its lipid bilayer

d. they speed up as the body cools down

99. What are the three types of ligand gated channels?  

100. When solutes are either too large and/or charged and cannot get in to the cell; needs  help moving through the membrane ____________ must be used

101. What two major ions are pumped against their gradient in the cell?  102. What type of transporter moves molecules in the same direction across the membrane?

103. What type of transporter moves molecules in opposite directions; one molecule will be  going with its gradient and the other against?

104. What are channel proteins that facilitate diffusion called?

105. What is the state that has the same concentration of solute inside and outside the cell,  same concentration of nonpenetrating solutes (molecules) as normal cellular fluid?  106. What is the state that has a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes and  extracellular fluid? Water is going in to the cell to try and “water down” the molecules—cell will  swell and possibly explode.

107. What is the state that has a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes as normal  extracellular fluid? Water is leaving the cells to go to the outside fluid; cells will wither and  shrink.

108. What are the three general types of endocytosis?  

109. What is the type of transport that involves movement over multiple membranes? Movement can occur through cells (__________) or around cells (_________) 110. Transcellular transport must cross two membranes so it is a two-step process, what are  the two steps called?  

111. Large molecules that cannot cross epithelium are transported by ________.  114. The human body is electrically ______.

KEY:

1.E

2.c

3. a  

4. c  

5. a  

6. c  

7. d  

8. a  

9. b  

10. a  

11. A  

12. D  

13. B  

14. B  

15. C  

16. D  

17. A  

18. B  

19.A

20.C

21.D

22.A

23.B

24.B

25.A

26.C

27.B

28.M

29.D

30.C

31.E

32.O

33.G

34.J

35.H

36.K

37. L, m, n

38.A

39.N

40.F

41.P

42. I

43.B

44.D 45.A 46.C 47.C 48.D 49.B 50.B 51.A 52.A 53.C 54.D 55.A 56.B 57.B 58.D 59.A 60.B 61.C 62.D 63.B 64.C 65.C 66.A 67.D 68.B 69.C 70.L 71.C 72.D 73.B 74.O 75.E 76.K 77.A 78.T 79.N 80.F 81.Q 82.R 83.H 84.i 85.g 86.j 87.m

88. p

89. s

90. u

91. b

92. a

93. b

94. d

95. a

96. c

97. c

98. d

99. Binding, Voltage, Mechanical 100. Mediated-transport systems 101. Na+ (extracellular), K+  (intracellular)

102. Cotransporters (symporters) 103. Countertransporters  (antitrasnsporters)-

104. aquaporins

105. isotonic

106. hypotonic

107. hypertonic

108. Fluid endocytosis  

(pinocystosis), Phagocytosis, Receptor mediated endocytosis

109. Epithelial transport

110. transcellular transport,  paracellular transport

111. Uphill, downhill

112. transcytosis

114.neutral

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