Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 3014
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alesa Taylor on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3014 at Mississippi State University taught by James Stewart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 225 views.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide 1. Which is not a major theme of physiology? a. structure and function are closely related b. living organisms need energy- energy source, transfer, storage, and use c. Information flow coordinates body function d. homeostasis maintains internal stability despite external variables e. bones create the structure of the body 2. During early development all cells are the same which is called? a. Beginning stage b. Original status c. Stem cell origin d. Early cells 3. What level of bodily organization consists of small molecules, macromolecules, cells, and their functional subunits? a. Chemical level b. Basic level c. Bottom level d. First level 4. Which is not one of the four types of tissues? a. Epithelium- covers the body’s surface b. Connective- provides support c. Cranial- provides the mass of the brain d. Muscle- controls movement e. Nervous- controls communication 5. What is Physiology? a. The study of how living organisms function b. The study of organic compounds c. The study of molecular functions d. The study of the parts of the body 6. Which describes organism level? a. more than one tissue functioning together b. multiple organs working together for a common purpose c. highest level, all simpler organs working together in unison d. smallest element of life that can be seen 7. What do you call the body fluid in blood and surrounding cells? a. Cavity fluid b. Outside fluid c. Intracellular fluid d. Extracellular fluid 8. What percentage of the body is interstitial fluid? a. 75-80% b. 20-25% c. 30-35% d. 15-20% 9. Which is considered homogeneous interstitial fluid or extracellular fluid? a. Interstitial fluid b. Extracellular fluid 10. There is _____________ fluid inside the cells than outside a. More b. Less 11. ___ of body fluids is outside of cells, ___ is inside cells a. 30%, 70% b. 70%, 30% c. 10%, 90% d. 90%, 10% 12. ________ solution produces a lower osmotic pressure than within the cell a. Isertonic b. Isotonic c. Hypertonic d. Hypotonic 13. What is the extracellular matrix? a. a system of nerves connecting cells b. a dead cell filled with keratin c. an equation used to determine body fluid levels d. a maze-like structure found in the cell 14. As physiologist we study how body parts work together (___________) how various levels of organization are integrated (_______) and overall function of the human body a. Mechanistic approach, integrated function b. Integrated Function, Mechanistic Approach c. Functional capabilities, organizational capabilities d. Organizational capabilities, functional capabilities 15. How does the extracellular matrix affect diabetic patients? a. It enables them to function better with insulin b. The matrix delivers the insulin more quickly than intravenously c. It causes their wounds to be harder to heal d. It protects them from getting infections 16. Which tissue type connect tissues and bind organs together, holds in body fluids, basis of the skeletal structure, stores and carries nutrients, surrounds all vessels and nerves, protect the body against infection, is supportive, keeps cells in line, and gives organs their shape? a. Muscle tissue b. Joint tissue c. Skin tissue d. Connective tissue 17. What is found wherever two environments meet, made up of a sheet of cells, covers the bodies surface, and lines the body cavities, forms glands, functions as protection for the body, secretes mucous (like in the lungs and the sinuses), absorbs minerals and nutrients, transports ions cross membranes, filters what goes into the body/organs, forms slippery surfaces? a. Epithelial tissue b. Joint tissue c. Connective tissue d. Muscle tissue 18. What is an example of connective tissue? a. Brain b. Fat c. Muscle d. skin 19. The formula for diffusion rate is known as? a. Fick’s Law b. Charles’s law c. Darwin’s Law d. Pascal’s Law 20. What enables muscles to contract? a. Their placement b. Neurons c. Their ability to contract d. The body 21. What do the myofilaments contain? a. Protein and water b. DNA and enzymes c. Substrates and intracellular fluid d. Actin and myosin 22. Which is NOT one of the three types of muscle tissue? a. Skin b. Cardiac c. Smooth d. skeletal 23. Specialized nerve cells conduct impulses composed of Cell body, dendrite, axon a. Supporting cells (glial cells) b. Neurons 24. With time each cell becomes specialized based on their function which is called? a. Specialization b. Cell differentiation c. Determination d. Cell signaling 25. Non-conducting nerve cells that nourish, insulate and protect neurons a. Supporting cells (glial cells) b. Neurons 26. Which is NOT true about nervous cells? a. They do not replicate (no mitosis) b. They are terminally differentiated c. They have a short lifespan unlike many other cells d. They have a high metabolic rate and are now dependent on insulin 27. What is the term that means “if the variables- the most common variations amount is to remain constant and gain are within a range of “normal”? must be corrected with equal loss”? 39. ________- combination of potential 28. ________- energy released in wave and kinetic energy, used to move things form from place to place 29. ___________- the state where steady 40. ___________- the “normal” range that energy is going in to maintain the body works to maintain homeostasis 41. _______- when molecules disperse 30. What is the term that means the body randomly in the available space, from changes to maintain homeostasis? the high concentration to areas of low 31. ____________- the state where no concentration energy is going in and homeostasis is 42. _________- energy can neither be being maintained created nor destroyed but it can change 32. ________- combination of potential forms, and flow from one place to and kinetic energy—is a movement of another—but the total energy must charged particles along a diffusion remain the same gradient; from high energy to low energy 33. _________- enhances the production of a. Homeostasis the product- doesn’t recognize the set b. Law of mass balance point of homeostasis and keeps adding c. Dynamic consistency energy causing some sort of bodily d. Equilibrium event like childbirth e. Steady state 34. ___________- spontaneous natural f. Set point or operating point processes increase overall g. Positive feedback system (feed disorganization forward) 35. ___________- has a set stopping point h. Negative feedback system at homeostasis, once the process i. The law of conservation of energy reaches the homeostatic level the j. The law of entropy process is shut off k. Energetics 36. _________- energy transfer between l. Chemical systems m. Radiant energy 37. Animals rely on what three types of n. Mechanical energy energy? 1.___ 2.____ 3._____ o. Electrical energy 38. What is the biggest factor in physiology; p. Diffusion a state of reasonably stable balance within the body no matter the 43. A group of cells working together to perform a common function is what level of bodily organization? a. Cellular level b. Tissue level c. Organ level d. Organism level 44. What is the energy available to do work? a. Loose energy b. Creative energy c. Usable energy d. Free energy 45. What is the energy required to reach the transition state? a. Activation energy b. Free energy c. Transition state d. Exothermic energy 46. If thermal energy is increased what does NOT happen? a. Molecules move faster b. Chemical reaction rates become faster c. Molecules increase in size 47. What type of reaction takes heat in? a. Exergonic b. Exothermic c. Endothermic d. endergonic 48. Enzymes must come into contact with _____ in order to speed the reaction rate. a. Proteins b. Microtubules c. Catalysts d. Substrates 49. What type of reaction releases heat? a. Endothermic b. Exothermic c. Exergonic d. Endergonic 50. _______ model suggests that the enzyme is a general shape and moves to fit around the substrate when it joins a. Lock-and-key b. Induced fit 51. Cofactors are usually ________ and organic coenzymes are usually ________. a. Heavy metals; vitamins b. Vitamins; heavy metals c. Proteins; carbohydrates d. Carbohydrates; proteins 52. The _______model suggests that the enzyme is in the exact shape to take on the substrates— like a puzzle a. Lock-and-key b. Induced fit 53. What process gains electrons (reductase) adding negatively charged electrons will reduce the electric charge a. Oxidation b. Hydrolysis c. Reduction d. dehydration 54. What process involves splitting large molecules by adding water? a. Oxidation b. Reduction c. Dehydration d. hydrolysis 55. What process removes water to make larger molecules from several smaller molecules? a. Dehydration b. Oxidation c. Reduction d. Hydrolysis 56. What process transfers electrons from donor to oxygen (oxygenase)—remove electrons and hydrogen from the donor using dehydrogenase—like rust on iron a. reduction b. oxidation c. hydrolysis d. dehydration 57. What reaction adds a functional group? a. Subtraction b. Addition c. Catabolic d. anabolic 58. What is the sum of all chemical reactions that take place in an organism? a. catabolism b. anabolism c. energy d. metabolism 59. What process releases energy through the breakdown of large biomolecules? a. Catabolism b. Anabolism c. Hydrolysis d. subtraction 60. What process uses energy to synthesis large biomolecules? a. Catabolism b. Anabolism c. Hydrolysis d. subtraction 61. Which is not one of the four types of bonds? a. Van der Waals Forces b. Hydrogen bonds c. Narrow bonds d. Ionic bonds e. Hydrophobic bonds 62. What bonds are conducted when an atom with transient dipole affects the distribution of electrons in another atom? a. Hydrogen bonds b. Ionic bonds c. Hydrophobic bonds d. Van der waals interactions 63. What bonds are made from ions, an ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons? a. Hydrogen bonds b. Ionic bonds c. Hydrophobic bonds d. Van der waals interactions 64. What reaction removes a functional group? a. Addition b. metabolism c. Subtraction d. anabolic 65. What bonds are formed due to mutual aversion (“phobia”) to water? a. Hydrogen bonds b. Ionic bonds c. Hydrophobic bonds d. Van der waals 66. What bonds are the asymmetric sharing of electrons between two atoms? a. Hydrogen bonds b. Ionic bonds c. Hydrophobic bonds d. Van der waals interactions 67. Which is NOT a rate of diffusion factor? a. Size of concentration gradient (dC/dX) b. Size of molecule used to calculate the diffusion coefficient (Ds) c. Diffusion area (A) d. Size of container (V) 68. _____- meaning “same tension” will produce no change in the size due to the net water inside the cell (same concentration of water inside the cell as there is outside the cell so it isn’t gaining or losing water) a. Hypertonic b. Isotonic c. Hypotonic d. Isertonic 69. _________ solution is one that exerts a greater osmotic pressure than the cell contents a. Hypotonic b. Isotonic c. Hypertonic d. isertonic a. Lipids b. triglycerides c. phospholipids d. amphipathic e. steroids f. proteins g. Amino acids h. nucleic acids i. replication j. translation k. transcription l. Purines m. pyrimidines n. dorsal body cavity o. ventral body cavity p. pleural cavity q. pericardial cavity r. Abdominal cavity s. pelvic cavity t. macrostructures u. microstructures 70. _______ which is adenine and guanine; they are made of double rings of nitrogen and carbon 71. _________ are similar in overall structure to triglycerides but the third hydroxyl group of glycerol is linked to phosphate 72. _________ possessing both hydrophilic( water-loving, polar) and lipophilic( fat-loving) properties 73. _______ constitute the majority of lipids in the body, form when glycerol, a 3-carbon alcohol, bonds to three fatty acids, found in all cells and comprise part of cellular membranes, including those of intracellular organelles 74. _______ larger cavity; contains the visceral organs- thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic( peritoneal) cavity 75. ________ four interconnected rings of carbon atoms form the skeleton of each, they are not water soluble 76. RNA being converted into protein is ________ 77. _______ are molecules composed predominantly(but not exclusively) of hydrogen and carbon atoms 78. ___________- membranes the cover anatomic tissue structures ex. The pericardial membrane 79. ____________ cranial cavity which contains the skull, vertebral cavity which contains the vertebral column and encloses the spinal cord 80. ________ account for about 50% of the organic material in the bod, 17% of body weight, critical roles in almost every physiological process, composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and small amounts of other elements 81. ________- cavity that surrounds the heart 82. _________-superior cavity, contains the liver, stomach, kidneys and other organs 83. _______ have two classes: deoxyribonucleic acid( DNA) and Ribonucleic acid( RNA) 84. DNA making more DNA is _________ 85. ________ the subunit monomers of proteins, all except proline has an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group bound to the terminal carbon atom in the molecules 86. DNA being turned into RNA is ________ 87. ________ which is cytosine and thymine; they have single rings of nitrogen and carbon 88. ________- 2 lateral parts each containing a lung 89. _______- inferior cavity, contains bladder, reproductive organs, and the rectum 90. ___________- membranes that cover cellular and subcellular structures ex. The phospholipid cell membranes 91. _________- not amphipathic, do not associate with the nonpolar regions of the lipids in the interior, located on the surface of the membrane a. Integral membrane proteins b. Peripheral membrane proteins c. Cell junctions d. desmosomes 92. ________- amphipathic, cannot be extracted from the membrane without disrupting the lipid bilayer, and have transmembrane proteins (proteins that go completely across the membrane) a. Integral membrane proteins b. Peripheral membrane proteins c. Cell junctions d. Desmosomes 93. Microtubules- hollow tubes about 25 nm in diameter, whose subunits are composed of the protein tubulin (most rigid of the filaments), functions: cell division (they radiate from the centrosome for chromosome separation), motility (cilia cores), protein trafficking a. Actin filaments b. Microtubules c. Intermediate filaments d. macrotubules 94. Which is NOT a class of cytoskeleton filament? a. Actin filaments (microfilaments) b. Intermediate filaments c. Microtubules d. Macrotubules 95. What is composed of monomers of the protein, G-actin (globular actins), assembles into a polymer of two twisting chains making F-actin (filamentous actin), makes up a major portion of cytoskeleton of all cells a. Actin filaments b. Intermediate filaments c. Microtubules d. macrotubules 96. Which is NOT TRUE about what influences the magnitude of diffusion? a. Temperature- higher temperature will increase the speed of the molecules; increase the net flux b. Mass of molecules- the larger the molecule; slower the speed; slower the net flux c. Surface area- greater the space available for diffusion; slower net flux 97. _______- adhesive spot on the lateral sides linked by proteins/ filaments; holds tissues together a. Integral membrane proteins b. Peripheral membrane proteins c. Desmosomes d. Cell junctions e. Medium- the denser the medium the slower the net flux 98. Which is NOT a way that membranes affect diffusion? a. Diffusion rates will be slower than the rates of the same molecules through just water b. Will regulate the size of the molecules that can cross the membrane c. The major factor limiting the diffusion across a membrane is the hydrophobic interior of its lipid bilayer d. they speed up as the body cools down 99. What are the three types of ligand gated channels? 100. When solutes are either too large and/or charged and cannot get in to the cell; needs help moving through the membrane ____________ must be used 101. What two major ions are pumped against their gradient in the cell? 102. What type of transporter moves molecules in the same direction across the membrane? 103. What type of transporter moves molecules in opposite directions; one molecule will be going with its gradient and the other against? 104. What are channel proteins that facilitate diffusion called? 105. What is the state that has the same concentration of solute inside and outside the cell, same concentration of nonpenetrating solutes (molecules) as normal cellular fluid? 106. What is the state that has a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes and extracellular fluid? Water is going in to the cell to try and “water down” the molecules—cell will swell and possibly explode. 107. What is the state that has a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes as normal extracellular fluid? Water is leaving the cells to go to the outside fluid; cells will wither and shrink. 108. What are the three general types of endocytosis? 109. What is the type of transport that involves movement over multiple membranes? Movement can occur through cells (__________) or around cells (_________) 110. Transcellular transport must cross two membranes so it is a two-step process, what are the two steps called? 111. Large molecules that cannot cross epithelium are transported by ________. 114. The human body is electrically ______. KEY: 44. D 45. A 1. E 46. C 2. c 47. C 3. a 4. c 48. D 49. B 5. a 50. B 6. c 7. d 51. A 52. A 8. a 53. C 9. b 10. a 54. D 55. A 11. A 56. B 12. D 13. B 57. B 58. D 14. B 59. A 15. C 16. D 60. B 61. C 17. A 62. D 18. B 19. A 63. B 64. C 20. C 65. C 21. D 66. A 22. A 67. D 23. B 68. B 24. B 69. C 25. A 26. C 70. L 71. C 27. B 72. D 28. M 29. D 73. B 74. O 30. C 75. E 31. E 32. O 76. K 77. A 33. G 78. T 34. J 35. H 79. N 80. F 36. K 81. Q 37. L, m, n 38. A 82. R 83. H 39. N 84. i 40. F 41. P 85. g 86. j 42. I 87. m 43. B 88. p 89. s 90. u 91. b 92. a 93. b 94. d 95. a 96. c 97. c 98. d 99. Binding, Voltage, Mechanical 100. Mediated-transport systems 101. Na+ (extracellular), K+ (intracellular) 102. Cotransporters (symporters) 103. Countertransporters (antitrasnsporters)- 104. aquaporins 105. isotonic 106. hypotonic 107. hypertonic 108. Fluid endocytosis (pinocystosis), Phagocytosis, Receptor- mediated endocytosis 109. Epithelial transport 110. transcellular transport, paracellular transport 111. Uphill, downhill 112. transcytosis 114.neutral
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