General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1
General Psychology Study Guide- Exam 1 PSY 2003
Arkansas Tech University
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Wisenbaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2003 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Shrira, Ilan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Study guide for Exam 1 General Psychology Chapter 2: biology and psychology o Central nervous system Control center, the brain and spinal cord o Peripheral nervous system High way system to the rest of the body It breaks down into its own systems Somatic: signals from the brain responsible for intentional actions Autonomic: signals from the spinal cord, responsible for automatic functions o Sympathetic system Active during emotional responses and things that regulate survival ( fight or flight) It raises blood pressure, pumps more adrenal, heart races, uses a lot of energy, it takes energy away from other systems, ( immune systems) The problem is that if it is finally activated then the body's system began to shut down o Parasympathetic system Active when restoring the body's energy It's the calming effect Slows the heart rate and lowers the blood pressure Takes about 20 minutes for the heart to go back to a normal rhythm o The brain Average weight is 2.7 pounds Uses 20% of the calories we intake Surface area of the cortex is 2.5 feet The cortex is responsible for complex thinking Planning, scheduling The brain has 0 pain receptors The skull does have pain receptors The brain is the most important part of the body Cerebellum Muscle coordination and balance Reticular formation Regulates alertness verse drowsiness Amygdala Regulates fear and emotion Mostly has to do with fear People who have their amygdala hurt have no fear Hippocampus Formation of memories Frontal cortex Making plans and judgments Parietal lobe Spatial abilities How far things are from each other Left and right hemisphere have different functions The Wada test o The left hemisphere produces language( speak or write), but both sides can understand it Sensory information goes to opposite hemisphere ( right goes to left hemisphere, left goes to right hemisphere) Corpus callosum: the only thing connected the two hemisphere o Split brain patients: where they have a rare type of seizers After they cut the corpus callosum and then they operate fine after it with no seizers Two separate brains working If they see something only in the right hemisphere they can't tell you what it is but they know what it it suppose to be ( they can see it just not tell you what is it) o Left hemisphere gets information from the right side of the body; Right hemisphere gets information from the left side of the body Michael gazzaniga o One of the first people to do a spilt brain o Called the left hemisphere “the interpreter” We're motivated to make sense of out behavior and environment This is easy to do Fusiform gurus- facial recognition, you can recognize their voice Capgras delusion o Everyone is your life you don't believe it's them, everyone is an imposter o The wires from the vision to emotions is cut so they do not believe it is friends and family Chapter 2 evolution and nature vs nurture o Many physical and psychological traits are inherited ( through genes) Body size, height Body features, facial features Blood type Eye color Temperament Aggressiveness Personality traits, like narcotic, depression o The idea of evolution Animals progress from simple, lower organisms over many generations to more complex ones like humans The changes occurs gradually over many generations Who first came up with the first theory of evolution? Anaximander (610-546 B.C.) in Ancient Greece Darwin gave the explanation on how evolution function 1809-1882 British Was on the land surveying team, going around the world to create detailed maps of the world He traveled to the Galápagos Islands spent several months surveying the islands Noticed that the bird finches all looked very different from one another. Was told that he could tell what island he was on by looking at the birds because they all looked very different from one another. Darwin came to the conclusion that it was because they all eat different foods so that they needed different charcteristics to live of the island that they needed to eat Natural selection o Traits that increase survival and reproduce more likely to be passed down to the next generation o The theory for the reason for the reason for the different traits o Animals with helpful traits more likely survive and these survivors will populate the next generation o Many traits selected for obvious functions The long necks on gaffes to get to tall tress Turtles hard shells to protect them from predators The peppered moth- seem mostly in England. Tw variations of the moth ( black and white ) they like to land and settle on the fungus of tress where they blend in with the trees. Predators are birds. 95% of the moths are white in the 1800s. The white moths are safe on trees until the industrial revolution. The because of the shoot of the trees the black moths were able to hid and the white moths almost all died. Later the trees turned back to white and the white moths dominated Cod fishing- over the past 100 years the cod fish have become smaller. The large one are caught by humans and the little cods survive and reproduce Prescribing antibiotics- start talking the antibiotics but if you stop talking them the infection that was not killed have built up immunity to antibiotics. Which can lead to a worse infection that can't be killed by antibiotics. A special case: sexual selection o Have a traits that doesn't help you survive but it does help it reproduce. o Provide greater access to the opposite sex o Two types Intersexual competition: a trait that helps compete for the opposite sex Horns of a male mammal: the beginning of mating season, the winner of the fight gets to mate with all the females around and pass its genes along ( eventually the horns stop growing to that the male can still fight and move) Intersexual choice: traits attracts the opposite sex Male peacocks- when they see a female, they will expand their wings to show off how big and colorful they are. It attracts the attention of the female. Mating calls- loud sounds that attract the opposite sex. The animals that has the louder and more attention getting mate Colorful gills on fish- like the peacock. The problem is having colorful gills will attract female but also predictors. Domesticating animals Animals bred in captivity, raised under human control for generations, become different from wild ancestors Dogs came from wolves Humans took the wolves that were most tame and friendly and took them and mated with with one another. Over generations the wolves became dogs ( unnatural selection) Evolution of humans Unique human traits o Spoken langue, the ability to think, working hands to make and create tools, complex thinking Evolution supported by o Similarities across cultures Something that is not socialized, something we are born with. ( facial expressions, emotions) ( similar male and female attractions) o Similarities across animal species Emotions and how they are shown Nonverbal behavior Sex differences o Differential parental inverts net theory Amount of time and energy men and women must invest in creating offspring Very big difference between men and women have to invest Men only have to have a short time long enough to to deposit sperm Women have to spend years, carrying the baby, nursing and feeding, (9+ months) o Risk in mating Since women carry a much larger time commitment there is a higher risk for mating with a bad partner. Women will look for the potential to invest in both mother and child. Women are the gatekeepers ( more picky, more discriminating, more vigilant) For men , they look for the potential in fertility. Quantity more than quality. Tend to mate as much as they can o Evolved mate preference should reflect For females Finding a man to invest Male with good genes, want to pass down good genes, this is where the physical attraction comes from For males Finding a female who's fertile and can bear children o The problem is that fertility isn't directly observable o Because of this men look at age so that there is a more likely to be fertility at a younger age o Women also look at age for men for fertility Looks at age and health Attractive and healthy “Good financial prospects” Men somewhat care while women care about it more Age presences Men prefer women who are younger by 3 or 4 years Women prefer men who are older by 3 or 4 years Another sex difference The ability to ensure paternity o This means that when a women has a child that the child is there. But when men have a child they can not be certain that the child is there o Solutions to paternity uncertainty Men's awareness of ovulation cycles Mate guarding during entire cycle Desire for pre- martial chastity Desire for post-marital fidelity DNA tests Attraction and physical similarity o The tendency to mate with those who are physically similar o Opposites don't really attract. People want to marry someone who shares the same values, tall men tent to marry tall women o They marry someone who is similar but not too similar so that they look like they are relatives o Why do people do this? Familiarity: the more familiar we are with something the more we are comfortable and like it Proximity: we tent to spend more time with people who are like us. Social norms: the idea that people should be with someone who looks somewhat like them “Optimal Outbreeding” there is a certain that your genes will be passed down. There is a little overlap between you and the mate Imprinting: learning during a critical period Certain things have a strong toll on us, it leaves a lasting impression on you Impacting future behavior and preferences Usually happens in childhood in the first 10 years of life Sexual imprinting: parental traits predict later mate preferences. This is why a parents physical charateristics tend to be more liked by a child Preference of adults born to older vs younger parents. People who were born to older parents preferred older looking people while as people born to younger people preferred younger looking mates Spouses hair color and eye color resemble those of opposite sex parents Husbands of wives resemble the women's fathers ( in facial features) Correlation between faces women find attractive and their fathers face Sexual imprinting is not an innate matching process, even if the parents are adoptive parents. Does not have to be s biological parent. Not just due to being familiar features, there is something biological going on because it is not the same in same sex parents. These things go away if that child has had a bad childhood with these patents. Only works if the experience was positive A different question o What percentage of our ancestors were women? o It should be 50% but it is really can be different because of death and re-marriage Sensation vs perception o Bottom up processing (sensation) Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information Just focusing on what it looks like with any meaning o Top down processing (perception) Information processing draws on our experience and expectation Being able to read something even if the words are messed up Sensation – threshold o Absolute threshold Minimum intensity needed to detect a particular stimulus greater than 50 % of the time Hearing test, what is the minimum sound you can hear Also can be used with sight, how dim can a room be where you can still see o Difference threshold How much does it take to tell the difference between two thing Sometimes classed the just noticeable difference (JND) o Individual differences in thresholds Everyone is born with a different threshold on what they can see, hear, smell, and taste What we are sensitive to helps us later in life with jobs by being able to detect the small differences Sensory adaptation o Reduced sensitivity due to constant stimulation o Our body's get use to the constant stimulation ( sitting, light changes, temperature) o Helps us focus by reducing background chatter Helps us notice changes o Probably applies to all senses, including vision But then staring at something should eventually lead to no signals about it to the brain If this was true then when we stared at something it should go away, the reason this doesn't work is because our vision never stares at one thing for very long. Our eyes are not staying completely still on the same thing Eye anatomy o Pupil- the opening in the center of the ye o Iris- the colored portion of the eye around the pupil o Retina- back of the eye with receptors o Optic nerve- send the information to the brain o Blind spot-everyone has one. There is always one spot where we can't see but it is filled by the other eye Bigger blind spot o Top down processing restricts our attention o When we are looking at something , like the teachers and PowerPoint, we don't take in our surrounding or the small details o Inattention blindness- failing to detect thing in environment that we should notice o We are only aware of a small part of our surrounding o Change blindness- failing to detect large changes in our environment Depth perception o How we judge the space around us o Judging distances o When do we develop depth perception The visual cliff They put a child in a playpen. It's made of clear glass with tiles underneath. The one half looks like it has a drop. They point of this is to see if the child is afraid of the cliff. If the child has depth perception the cliff should scare them . They found that when children first start crawling they aren't afraid of the cliff, but a month later they can become afraid of the cliff. Children start learning depth perception after they start crawling o Binocular cues to depth Convergence Two eyes move inward for nearer objects How much our eyes converge tells us how far away things are It is a muscular cues Retinal disparity Images from the two eyes differ Closer the object, the larger the disparity It's who we perceive a 3-D movies o Monocular cues to depth Interposition Closer objects block the distant object Relative size Smaller image is more distant Relative clarity Hazy objects perceived as more distant Linear perspective Parallel lines converge with distance Perceptual constancy o It is perceiving objects as unchanging despite changes in image on your eye Shape Our brain tell us the object has not changed it is just moving Size When something is far away it looks smaller but it is big up close. Color/light Our brain makes corrections for shadows. Our brain corrects this to make it lighter Not Covered in Lecture: Case study: A carefully drawn biography that may be obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and psychological test Survey: A method of scientific investigation in which a large sample of people answer questions about their attitudes and behaviors. Naturalistic Observation: a scientific method in which organisms are observed in their natural environments Introspection: Deliberate looking into one’s own cognitive processes to examine one’s thoughts and feeling Behaviorism: the school of psychology that defines psychology as the study of observable behavior and studies relationships between stimuli and responses Reinforced: a stimulus that follows a response and increases the frequency of the response Psychoanalysis: the school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior Sample: part of a population Random Sample: a sample drawn so that each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate Population: a complete group of interest to researchers from which a sample is drawn Placebo: a bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine Neuron: a specialized cell of the nervous system that receives and transmits messages Action Potential: The electrical impulse that provides that basis for the conduction of a neutral impulse along an axon of a neutron. Neurotransmitter: chemical substances involved in the transmission of neural impulses from one neuron to another. Aphasia: a disruption in the ability to understand or produce language Monozygotic (MZ) twins: twins that develop from a single fertilized ovum that divides in two early in prenatal development. Twins that share the same genetic code. Dizygotic Twins: Twins that develop from two fertilized ovaand who are thus as closely related as brother and sister in general. Also called fraternal twins Rods: rod-shaped photoreceptors that are sensitive only to the intensity of light Cones: Cone-shaped photo-receptors that transmit sensations of color. Fovea: An area near the center of the retina that is dense with cones and where vision is consequently most acute Afterimage: the lingering visual impression made by a stimulus that has been removed Decibel (dB): a unit expressing the loudness of a sound Kinesthesis: the sense that informs us about the positions and motion of parts of our bodies Vestibular sense: the sense of equilibrium that informs us about our bodies positions relative to gravity.
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