Psych 101 final exam USC study guide
Psych 101 final exam USC study guide psych 101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Albert on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by Vendemia in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter One ● Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes ● Fields of Study what does each do? ○ Developmental Psychology all aspects of human growth and change from prenatal period through old age ○ Physiological Psychology study of biological basis of human behavior, thoughts, and emotions ○ Experimental Psychology Study of basic psychological processes ○ Personality Psychology Study of differences among individuals in variety of traits ○ Clinical Psychology Focus on diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders ○ Counseling Psychology “Normal” adjustment issues ○ Social Psychology how society influences the individual ○ Industrial and Organizational Psychology Applies principles of psychology to practical issues of the workplace ● Subfields of Psychology ○ PersonSituation: what extent is behavior caused by internal processes ○ Nature Nurture: is the person we become a result of innate tendencies or a reflection of experiences ○ Stability Change: are characteristics we develop in childhood permanent ○ Mind Body: relationship between experiences and biological processes ● Gender Psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male or female ● Gender stereotypes beliefs about “typical” male or female behaviors and roles ● Sexual Orientation Direction of one’s sexual interest toward members of the same sex, other sex, or both sexes ● Race subpopulation of species, defined according to an identifiable characteristic ● Ethnicity Common cultural heritage shared by a group of individuals ● Experimental research some variables deliberately manipulated and subsequent effects on behavior measured ○ advantage allows researchers conclusions about cause and effect relationships to be drawn ○ disadvantage unexpected and uncontrolled variables may confound results; many variables cannot be controlled and manipulated ● Experimental Group: in a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable ● Control Group: not subjected to a change in the independent variable used for comparison ● Experimenter Bias: expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or its interpretation ● Random sample sample in which each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected Chapter Two ● Neurons Individual cells that are the smallest unit of nervous system ○ Nerve or tract Group of axons bundled together ○ Myelin sheath white fatty covering found on some axons ○ axons single long fiber extending from the cell body that carries outgoing messages ○ dendrites short fibers that branch out from the cell body and pick up incoming messages ● Sensory or Afferent Neurons neurons that carry messages from sense organs to the spinal cord or brain ● Motor or Efferent Neurons carry messages from the spinal cord or brain to the muscles and glands ● interneurons or association neurons carry messages from one neuron to another ● mirror neurons specialized neurons that respond when we observe others perform a behavior or express an emotion ● Neurogenesis the growth of new neurons ● Central Nervous System division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord ● Peripheral Nervous System division of the nervous system that connects the centeral nervous system to the rest of the body ● Autonomic Division regulates internal environment. ● Somatic Division transmits information about the body’s movement and external environment ● Sympathetic Arouses ● Parasympathetic calms ● Primary Sensory Regions ○ Prefrontal cortex goal directed behavior, impulse control, judgement, and awareness ○ Frontal lobe responsible for voluntary movement; also important for attention, goaldirected behavior and appropriate emotional experiences. (like crying because of exams) ○ primary motor cortex the sections of the frontal lobe responsible for voluntary movement ○ primary somatosensory cortex registers sensory messages from the entire body ○ parietal lobe receives sensory information from sense receptors all over the body, also involved in spatial ability ○ temporal lobe balance, hearing, language ○ occipital visual ● Association areas areas of the cerebral cortex where incoming messages from separate senses are combined into meaningful impressions and outgoing messages from the motor areas are integrated ● thalamus almost all sensory information passes through except smell ● hypothalamus forebrain region that governs motivation and emotional responses ● reticular formation netlike system of neurons that weaves through all the structures, alerts and arouses other parts of the brain ● limbic system ring of structures that plays a role in the formation of new memories (motivation and emotion) ○ hippocampus regulates formation of new memories ○ amygdala governs emotions related to self preservation ○ thalamus, hypothalamus ○ olfactory bulb ● Corpus callosum think band of nerve fibers connecting to the left and right cerebral hemispheres ● Wernicke’s Area back of temporal lobe, processing and understanding language ● Broca’s area frontal lobe, ability to talk ● split brain patients Chapter Three ● Transduction the process of converting physical energy into coded neural signals ● adaption an adjustment of the senses to the level of stimulation they are recieving ● Vision light enters eye through the cornea, passes through pupil, and is focused by lens onto retina ● Anatomy of the eye ○ fovea the area of the eye that is the center of the visual field ○ rods sensitive to light, night vision, outside of fovea, many rods connect to a single bipolar cell ○ cones useful in daylight, color vision, center of fovea ● we receive light waves from the full spectrum, but only a small portion of it is visible light to us ● sound waves changes in pressure caused when molecules of air or fluid collide with one another and move apart again ● frequency number of cycles per second in a wave, determinant of pitch ● amplitude magnitude of a wave, determinant of loudness ● olfactory bulb the smell center of the brain ● pheromones chemicals that communicate information to other organisms through smell Chapter Four ● circadian rhythm cycle a regular biological rhythm of approximately 24 hours ● REM Sleep sleep stage characterized by rapid eye movement and increased dreaming ● Paradoxical sleep(rem) body activity is functioning as if awake, but the person appears to be deeply asleep and cannot be woken ● Sleep Disorders ○ nightmares occur during rem sleep and we can remember them in the morning ○ night terrors a form of nocturnal fright that makes the dreamer suddenly sit up in bed ○ insomnia difficulty falling and remaining asleep ○ apnea difficulty breathing during sleep ○ narcolepsy falling asleep randomly ● Drug tolerance ○ Alcohol physical and psychological dependence, withdrawal symptoms ○ Barbiturates & tranquilizers high psychological and physical dependence on barbiturates, low to moderate physical dependence, although high psychological dependence, withdrawal symptoms ○ opiates high tolerance, physical and psychological dependence, severe withdrawal symptoms Chapter Five ● Classical Conditioning the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral stimulus ● Learning the process by which experience or practice results in relatively permanent behavior or potential behavior ● US UR CS CR ○ unconditioned stimulus a stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond in a specific way ○ unconditioned response a response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs ○ conditioned stimulus an originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produced the desired response in an organism when presented alone ○ conditioned response after conditioning, the response an organism produces when a conditioned stimulus is presented ● Desensitization therapy if people could be taught to relax in fearful or anxious situations, their anxiety should disappear. A conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation ● Preparedness a biological readiness to learn certain associations because of their survival advantages ( heights, snakes, the dark) ● Conditioned taste aversion conditioned avoidance of some foods even of their is only pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli ● the law of effect principle of reinforcement Thorndike’s theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be “stamped in” as learned behavior, and behavior that brings about discomfort will be “stamped out” ● Reinforcer stimuli that follow a behavior and increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated ● Punisher stimuli that follow a behavior and decrease the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated ● Positive reinforcement such as praise events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur ● negative reinforcers subtracting an aversive noise events whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood ● what can't punishment do? ○ punishment cannot unteach unwanted behavior, it only suppresses the the undesired behavior ○ punishment does not teach a more desirable behavior ● learned helplessness failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimulus ● extinction a decrease in the strength or frequency, or stopping, of a learned response because of failure to continue pairing the US and CS or withholding of reinforcement ● spontaneous recovery the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without training Chapter six ● Memory the ability to remember things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned ● encoding converting information into useable form ● storage holding this information in memory ● retrieval taking memories out of storage ● Stage theory of memory a model of memory based on the idea that we store information in three separate but linked memories ○ short term 1530 sec ○ long term 1 sec lifetime ○ sensory 13 secs ● comparison of three stages of memory ○ sensory ■ large capacity ■ contains sensory information ■ very brief retention ○ short term ■ limited capacity ■ acoustically encoded ■ brief storage ( up to thirty seconds without rehearsal) ■ conscious processing of information ○ long term ■ unlimited capacity ■ semantically encoded ■ storage presumed permanent ■ information highly organized ● Sensory memory storing an exact copy of incoming information for less than a second the first stage of memory ● short stage memory stores information for a short amount of time, the is the information you are aware of at any given point in time ● long term memory the portion of memory that is more or less permanent, corresponding to everything we “know” ● serial positioning effect the finding that when asked to recall a list of unrelated items, performance is better for the items at the beginning and end of the list ● rote rehearsal retaining information in memory simply by repeating it over and over ● elaborative rehearsal the linking of new information in short term memory to familiar material stored in long term Chapter ten ● personality an individual's unique pattern of thoughts feelings and behaviors that persist over time and across situations ● Projective tests personality tests, such as the inkblot test, consisting of ambiguous or unstructured material ○ a series of stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individuals personality ● Trait a stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way ● The big five traits of the five factor model including conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion ○ conscientiousness organized, careful, selfdisciplined ○ agreeableness softhearted, trusting, helpful ○ neuroticism worried, insecure, selfpitying ○ openness to experience imaginative, variety, independent ○ extraversion social, fun loving, affectionate ● Eysenck's depiction of trait dimensions model for personality traits on the two dimensions of introverted/extraverted and emotional/stable ○ introversion/extraversion ■ introversion involves directing attention on inner experience, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the environment. ● neuroticism/ emotional stability ○ related to moodiness versus even temperedness. Neuroticism refers to an individual’s tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant ● psychoticism individuals who are high on this trait tend to have difficulty dealing with reality and may be anti social, hostile, non empathetic and manipulative ● Personality as a choice ● Humanistic theory any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning ● Self Actualization according to rodgers, the drive of human beings to fulfill their self concepts or the images they have of themselves ● humanistic psychologists emphasize a positive optimistic view of human nature that highlights peoples inherent goodness and their potential for personal growth ● Existentialist psychologists emphasize the individual as a responsible agent who is free to create and live his or her life while negotiating the issue of meaning and the reality of death ● existential approach regards personality as governed by an individual’s ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death ● Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Physiological, safety, love, esteem, self actualization ● what are self actualized people like ○ self acceptance accept themselves and others as they are ○ realistic view things rationally ○ problem centered motivated by a strong sense of personal ethics and responsibility, concerned with helping other people improve their lives ○ peak experiences feeling of limitless horizons ○ autonomy does not need to conform ○ solitude and privacy ○ sense of humor ○ spontaneity ● Cognitive social learning views behavior as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment ● Person situation controversy the question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors ● Outcome expectancies a person's assumption about the likely consequence of a future behavior ● locus of control a person's tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the environment ● self concept a person's explicit knowledge of his or her own behavior traits and other personal characteristics ● self verification the tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self concept ● self esteem the extent to which an individual likes values and accepts the self ● self serving bias people's tendencies to take credit for their success but downplay responsibility for their failure Chapter Twelve ● Prevalence of psychological disorders 26.2 percent of americans suffer from a mental disorder ● Medical model psych disorders have biological causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures ● Diathesisstress model a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress ● cognitive behavioral model suggests that psychological disorders result from learning ● Stigmas are likely attached to labeling people with psychological disorders ● Classification of the disorders: DSM IV indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other similar problems ● comorbidity the cooccurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual ● anxiety disorder anxiety is the predominant feature. Anxiety is maladaptive when it is disproportionate to real threats and challenges ● generalized anxiety chronic excessive worry with one or more of the following symptoms ○ restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance ● phobic disorders disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations ● Preparedness theory the idea that people are instinctively predisposition toward specific fears ● agoraphobia an extreme fear of venturing into public places, correlates with panic disorder ● OCD a disorder in which repetitive, intrusive, thoughts and ritualistic behaviors designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning ● mood disorders mental disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant feature ○ major depressive disorder severely depressed mood that lasts two weeks or more and is accomplished by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbance ○ dysthymia a disorder that involves the same symptoms as in depression only less severe, but the symptoms last longer, persisting for at least two years ○ double depression a moderately depressed mood that persists for at least two years and is punctuated by periods of major depression ○ seasonal affective disorder depression that involves recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern ○ bipolar disorder an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high moods, and low moods ● dissociative disorders normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed and fragmented, creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness, or personality that can vary in length from a matter of minutes to many years ○ dissociative identity disorder the presence within an individual of two or more distinct identities that at different times take control of the individuals behavior ○ dissociative amnesia: the sudden loss of memory for significant personal information ○ dissociative fugue the sudden loss of memory for ones personal history, accompanied by an abrupt departure from home and the assumption of a new identity ● schizophrenia a disorder caused by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes, a distorted perception of reality, altered or blunted emotion, and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior ○ delusion, hallucination, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized behavior ○ delusion a patently false belief system, bizarre and grandiose, maintained in spite of its irrationality ○ hallucinations a false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation ○ negative symptoms emotional and social withdrawal ● personality disorders disorder characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning ○ common feature is failure to take others’ perspectives ○ odd/eccentric ■ schizotypal peculiar or eccentric manners of speaking or dressing. strange belief in esp or telepathy. difficulty forming relationships, may react oddly in conversation ■ paranoid person is inappropriately suspicious and mistrustful of others ■ schizoid person is withdrawn and lacks feelings for others ○ dramatic/erratic ■ antisocial pattern of violent, criminal, or unethical and exploitative behavior and an ability to feel affection for others ■ borderline marked instability in self image, mood, and interpersonal relationships ■ narcissistic exaggerated sense of self importance and needs constant admiration ○ anxious/inhibited ■ avoidant person’s fear of rejection by others leads to social isolation ■ dependent person is unable to make choices and decisions independently and cannot tolerate being alone ■ obsessive compulsive perfectionist, needs to do everything right ● Positive Psychology is an approach that seeks to understand what makes our lives pleasant, good, and meaningful ● Stephen Frye Film Stress and Health ● stressors specific events or chronic pressures that take place demands on you or threaten your well being ● stress physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors ● health psychology subfield of psychology concerned with the ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatments of physical illness and maintenance of health ● chronic stressor sources of stress that occurs continuously or repeatedly ○ effects can accumulate and be long lasting ○ chronic stressors are linked to environments through environmental psychology ● coping how we deal with the stressor ● perceived control related to more effective coping ● repressive control avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint ● rational coping facing the stressor and working to overcome it ○ three steps: acceptance, exposure, and understanding ● mind management a significant part of stress management is control of the mind ● reframing finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat ● Stress Inoculation training therapy helps people cope with stressful situations, situation is broken down to its components and focus is placed on the controllable parts of the stress ● fight and flight response emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action ● Selye's general adaptation syndrome: three stage physiological response that appears regardless of the type of stressor ○ alarm phase (mobilize resources) ○ resistance phase ( cope with stressor) ○ exhaustion phase (reserves depleted) ● Immune system response ○ Lymphocytes: white blood cells that produce antibodies that fight infection. chronic stress reduces the number of lymphocytes ○ impairs lymphocytes ability to produce antibodies ○ psychoneuroimmunology study of how immune system responds to stressors, stressors cause hormones to flood the brain and wear down the immune system ● stress and cardiovascular health the heart and circulatory system are sensitive to stress ○ intensity drive anger and hostility linked to increased rates of heart disease ● why does sickness feel so bad? misery is part of sickness response, sickness keeps you at home Personality, lying, murder ● Pathological lies yang suggests that pathological liars have larger volumes of white matter combined with a reductions in prefrontal grey matter. Spence argues that the population yang sampled suggests that the greywhite matter relationship is more indicative of unsuccessful liars ● psychopaths appear to have difficulty properly integrating the language and emotional components of their thoughts, and thus fail to notice the contradictions in their speech ● semantic aphasia the failure to integrate emotional meaning with language ● avoidance escape or minimize penalties associated with a specific incidence of inappropriate behavior ○ low sincerity, responsibility, and integrity ● social enhancements improve social standing by impressing others or gaining sympathy from others ● interpersonal ploys managing the quality of an ongoing conversation by avoiding the unpleasant information ● concealment hypocritical acts in which people misrepresent a quality within themselves ● gainful misleading lies that are employed to extract a specific benefit from another person ● verbal malice lies that tend to cause harm to another person while simultaneously benefiting the person causing the harm
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