Chapter 3: Gender in Relationships
Chapter 3: Gender in Relationships FYS 140
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Layne Franklin on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FYS 140 at University of Indianapolis taught by Dr. Michael Poulakis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Media and Psychology in Child and Family Studies at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Chapter 3: Gender in Relationships • Sex: Biological distinction between females and males • Factors that determine the biological sex of an individual - Chromosomes - Gonads - Hormones - Internal sex organs - External genitals • Aspects typically associated with females or males might be found together in one person - Intersexed individuals: People with mixed or ambiguous genitals - Intersex development: Congenital variations in the reproductive system, may result in ambiguous genitals • Gender: Social and psychological characteristics associated with being female or male • Differences are a consequence of biological and social factors - Socialization: Process through which one learns attitudes, values, beliefs, and Gender identity: Psychological state of viewing oneself as a girl or boy - Later, as a man or woman - Gender dysphoria: Condition in which one’s gender identity does not match one’s biological sex - Transgender: Person of one biological sex who displays characteristics of the opposite sex behaviors - Cross-dressers: Individuals who may dress or present themselves in the gender of the opposite sex - Transsexual: Person with the anatomical and genetic characteristics of one sex, but the self-concept of another Gender role: Behaviors assigned to women and men in a society • Transsexual: an individual who has the anatomical and genetic characteristics of one sex but the self-concept of another • Sex role: Behaviors defined by biological constraints • Gender role ideology: Proper role relationships between women and men in a society • Traditional ideology reflects patriarchal male dominance and bias Biosocial theory (sociobiology) emphasizes social behaviors as biologically based and having evolutionary survival function. • Parent investment: any investment by a parent that increases the offspring’s chance of surviving Gender roles increase the chance of survival. Social learning theory emphasizes the role of reward and punishment. • Children learn gender roles when: – They are rewarded or punished. – Adults model behavior. – They receive direct instruction. Identification theory suggests that children acquire the characteristics and behaviors through a process of identification. • Girls want to be like their mothers. • Boys want to be like their fathers. Cognitive-developmental theories reflect a blend of the biological and social learning views. • The biological readiness of a child influences how a child responds to cues in the environment. • By age 6 or 7 children view gender as permanent and wish to become competent. Bioecological Model • Emphasizes the importance of understanding bidirectional influences between an individual’s development and his or her surrounding environmental contexts • Focus is on the combined interactive influences Agents of socialization are individuals and groups that influence development. • Family: parents and siblings • Race/ethnicity: different gender roles • Peers: important throughout the school years • Religion: emphasis of some on traditional roles • Education: schools and teachers • Economy: occupation sex segregation—the concentration of men and women in different occupations • Mass media: movies, television, books, and magazines • Less income: Women earn about 2/3 of what men earn. • Feminization of poverty: disproportionate percentage of those living in poverty constituted by women living alone and with their children Positive consequences for women: • Longer life expectancy: 81.4 (women) compared to 76.4 (men) • Stronger relationship focus • Keeping relationship on track • Bonding with children Negative consequences for men: • Identity synonymous with occupation • Limited expression of emotions • Fear of intimacy • Custody disadvantages • Shorter life expectancy Positive consequences for men: • Freedom of movement • Greater pool of potential partners • Norm of initiating a relationship Androgyny refers to being neither male nor female but a blend of both traits • Physiological: intersexed individuals • Behavioral: blending of traditional behaviors • Positive androgyny: devoid of negative traits associated with a gender • Gender role transcendence: abandoning gender frameworks and looking at phenomena independent of traditional gender categories • Females are becoming more masculine. • Males are not becoming more feminine. • Gender postmodernism: People would no longer be categorized as male or female but would be recognized as capable of many identities. • Variety of terms are relevant for understanding gender issues including sex, gender, gender identity, and gender roles • Theories of gender development • Biosocial, bioecological, social learning, identification, and cognitive-developmental • Agents of socialization include family, peers, religion, economy, and mass media • There are positive and negative consequences of traditional gender roles • Gender roles are changing in the direction of androgyny, gender role transcendence, and gender postmodernism • Characteristics, lifestyles, and values are becoming independent of gender role stereotypes
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