hist 101 exam 2 study guide schor USC
hist 101 exam 2 study guide schor USC HIST 101 001
Popular in European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Albert on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Schor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.
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https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hXpN7ykMRX44evgV6st40gzHC_o3_cn9GKyNyY oE/edit <the google doc the class made pink = most important what was on the test Unit 5 (RomanEra Religion, Judaism and the Origins of Christianity): ● Magic and holy men in the Early Roman Empire ○ A big trend in the early Roman world wnterest in magic and magical wisdom that supposedly came from th ast Healing magic and white magic was legal, butblack magic,curses and witchcraft, waillegal Linked to the trend of magical interest was the interest in Holy people, especially . ly men Holy men were thought to have special connections to the gods because of ancestry or alleged special powers. Apollonius, a first century CE philosopher, is t most popular early roman Holy man. ■ first century ● Universalizing mystery cults (example: Cult of Isis) ○ Universalizing mystery cults were new religious cults that were organized to attract followers across the Mediterranean.. These cults were semi religious organizations that had a secret wisdom only available to the initiated. The cult of Isis was popular and widespread, they believed Isis and Serapis were male and female aspects of one divine force running the universe~~ ■ first CE ● Jewish community during Roman conquest: divisions in Judaea ○ The Jews argued about how to deal with Roman rule, the two largest opposing Jewish groups were the Pharisees and the Sadducees. The Sadducees followed the rules of temple priests who were the local leaders for Judea chosen by the Romans for their loyalty, and favored cooperation with Rome. Pharisees were a less powerful group of religious teachers and their followers that favored social separation with romans in order to keep the Jewish morals. ■ 65 BC ● Jewish messianic movements and revolts against Roman rule ○ There was a big problem of radical Jewish movements in Egypt and Judea These movements saw God as the only rightful ruler, sought to repeat the revolt of the maccabees, and wanted the restoration of a Jewish kingdom. Most of these groups were Messianic Jews. ● Romanera “Rabbis” and basic teachings of Rabbinic Judaism ○ By the 150s CE, Romans were permitting Jewish practice in public again, but the jewish priesthood was not totally dissolved, the the temple was gone, and Jews were charged an extra tax.There was a smaller Jewish community, about one to two million people, who remained after the revolts. Many jewish leaders leaders competed to offer answers, and in the long run the rabbis won influence. The rabbis claimed to treasure the old torah and encouraged Jewish unity. By the 3rd century they began publishing their sayings in collections like the Mishnah about what they saw as Jewish Law ■ 150s CE ● Jesus’ Crucifixion and after: Jesus’ Jewish following ○ Followers of Jesus tried to find an explanation for the death of their Messiah, most famously the idea that Jesus was not actually dead, but would return in the future. By 50 AD, there were a few thousand followers of Jesus. The followers were mostly Jews and they were lead by Jesus’ brother James. ■ 50 AD ● The “Cult of Christ”: Spreading stories of Jesus as Holy Man / “Son of God” ○ They were a mix of Jews and non jewish god fearers, people who knew little of Jesus’ teaching, but who heard about jesus, and retold his story. They spoke of Jesus as a Holy man rather than viewing him as the Messiah. This group formed a “cult of christ” and spoke Greek ● Paul of Tarsus, his missions and his teachings ○ By 50 CE there was a deep division among Jewish and non Jewish followers of Jesus regarding the teachings of Jesus. When Paul first came to Jerusalem, he opposed the Jesus movement, but then changed his mind, became a member, and started preaching at synagogues winning Jews over to Jesus’ following. Paul sought to unite the different groups by saying all different groups could unite by faith in Jesus ■ 50 CE ● Early Christian writers’ hostility to Jews ○ The earliest Christian did not originally dislike the Jews and Paul of Tarsus saw himself as both Jewish and Christian. Early gospel writers showed hostility toward some jewish leaders for not accepting Jesus as the Messiah, but were interested in convincing the Jews that he was the messiah. But in the late first century CE, most jews were not joining the Jesus movement, so frustrated Christian writers started showing hostility to most Jews ● Early Christian writers’ hostility to “heretics” ○ Precise belief mattered to Christians more than Jews or others because they believed salvation was achieved only if you believed correctly. Christians referred to beliefs they viewed as orthodox. According to traditional tales, apostles had the right faith and the heretics were those who taught Jesus’ teaching incorrectly ● Status of Jews and of Christians in Roman Empire, 200 CE ○ In 200 Ce, most Romans were Polytheists. The jewish community was an ethnic minority that was tolerated by the Roman emperors, but christianity was still an illegal movement. The roman state did not actively persecute Christians yet, but some local towns persecuted, mocked, and abused Christians. ■ 200 CE Unit 6 (The Christian Roman Empire): ● The 3rd c. Roman imperial crisis: New Foes in Europe and Persia ○ Roman emperors found themselves fighting in more wars on the Northern frontier, and they did not always win, but the bigger concern was the Eastern frontier. In the 220s a new dynasty formed, the Sassanids Persians, who raised a bigger army and challenged Roman emperors for control of the middle east ■ 220s CE ● Internal 3rd c. Roman crises: defeats, plagues, and “usurpers” ○ Growing trade and travel enabled the spread of new epidemic diseases such as smallpox from the 106s to the 250s CE. These took a toll on the Roman population and the state’s ability to fund wars. There was also a long running problem of succession with no clear plan on how to choose the next emperor. The result was a series of “usurpers” who challenged existing emperors and there were several civil wars. ■ 106 to the 250s CE ● Roman imperial response to crisis: Diocletian and his reforms ○ The period of crisis was ended by reforms brought on by diocletian who increased the size of imperial government and expanded the army. He raised taxes fairly, split up Roman provinces, and sought stable succession of a tetrarchy. He made big changes but claimed to reviving Roman tradition. His ideology was one empire, like one universe run by gods . ● Constantine’s proChristian policies (and his personal religion) ○ Before 311, Constantine was relatively tolerant toward the Christians and seemed to have worshiped many gods, especially the sun. Constantine began supporting the Christians in 312 CE. He credited his victory in a civil war to help from the Christian god. ■ 311 CE ● Julian’s attempt to “restore paganism” and the Christian response ○ Julian was Constantine’s nephew and he supported Polytheism. Julian died in a battle against Persia. New Christian military emperors and Christian leaders blamed Julian’s fall on his “paganism” ■ 361363 CE ● Theodosius I and his successors: “Orthodox Christian Empire” ○ Theodosius and his successors favored only the Christian religion. Jews were allowed to practice their religion, but unable to convert to Christianity, and pagan belief was allowed but the ycould not do their rituals in public. Christianity was the official Roman religion by 390s CE ■ 390s CE ● New influence of bishops in a Christian Empire ○ After Constantine, there was a rising influence of Church leaders, they were now religious leaders with official backing. Some bishops served as imperial advisors, but all bishops gained power locally. The bishops could hand out favors and serve as advocates for their town, and used their claim to holiness to push others to change their ways, and a few even told Emperors what they should do. Ambrose, the bishop of Milan in 370s, defined one emperors demands to surrender property and urged another to perform penance for his sins ■ 370s ● Bishops and emperors: disputes over heresy and orthodoxy ○ As bishops gained more influence, their concerns became more important; most importantly their concern for orthodox teaching of Jesus, and the suppression of “heresy.” Bishops constantly argued over what was orthodoxy and the church was divided into factions calling each other heretics. Emperors tried to settle these feuds by pushing the bishops to compromise. The result was power feuds among Christians for control of bishops seats, competing definitions of orthodoxy, and riots. ■ 370s ● “Pagans” and Jews in a Christian Roman Empire ○ The majority of Romans were Christian in the fifth century. Pagans still continued in the Roman empire as did judaism, which was legal but unfavored. Jewish identity was solidified by resistance to Christian pressure to convert. ● Cultural impact of Christianity: Christian family life and sexuality ○ The majority of Roman families had converted to Christianity by the fifth century. There were slow changes in Roman law such as the law against child abuse. The biggest change was new laws and attitudes about sexuality such as celibacy and hostility toward male prostitution and homosexuality ● Hermits and Monasteries in a Christian Roman Empire ○ The new Christian culture of holiness centered on Monks and Monasteries. A monk was a christian who sought to perfect his life and relationship with God. Christians began leaving to become hermits living in extreme deprivation. Early fourth century monks lived in seclusion and practiced fasting and self harm. ■ fourth century ● Cultural impact of Christianity: Pilgrimage, saints and relics ○ Hundreds of thousands of people became monks by 500 CE, but most Romans did not. Other people sought holiness by reading about monks or by personal contact with holy people. Pilgrimage to holy sites and visiting living holy people became common ■ 500 CE Unit 7 (The Decline of Roman Power and the Origins of Islam): ● Germanic groups, Huns and the “Barbarian Invasions” ○ By 350, many Germans had enrolled as Roman military allies, and hoped to earn land money citizenship or leadership positions. The germanic groups became more organized and into groups: the goths, the vandals and the franks. From the 360s to the 430s the Huns expanded west and disrupted Germanic groups. The Goths asked to be resettled into Roman lands, and the romans accepted under unfair terms and abusing them. The goths revolted and defeated a Roman army in 378 ■ 360s ● The formation of “barbarian” kingdoms: Visigoths, Vandals and Franks ○ By 450s, barbarian autonomous zones and conquests were becoming regional kingdoms. The first big barbarian kingdom were the Visigoths. The longest lasting group was the Franks, who were a bit less romanized, expanded their control southward, and became long term Roman allies till 930 CE. The vandals did not come to terms with Rome and was the richest barbarian kingdom ■ 450s CE ● Italy: from W. Roman emperors to Ostrogothic kings ○ By 460s, Roman rule pulled back from most of west Europe and North Africa. The rest of the empire was ruled by two co emperors. In 476, a Roman general, Odoacer, forced the last western emperor to retire. An Ostrogothic king took Italy and ruled a very Roman kingdom. ■ 460s ● Eastern Christian Roman Empire: political stability ○ The eastern empire in the fifth and early sixth century was stable. There was a more stable succession of emperors with help from generals, imperial women and bishops. The economy was thriving and the population grew to 30 million Romans ■ fifth and sixth century ● Justinian’s regime: legal reforms and religious policies ○ Justinian ruled from 526 to 565 and sought Christian Roman power and unity. The result was 40 years of reform, persecution and war. He built elaborate churches, rebuilt destroyed towns, and reformed law to restore Roman might. He pushed for religious unity, cracked down on non christian groups and forced Christian doctrinal compromises. ■ 500s CE ● Justinian’s wars with “Barbarian” Kings and Persia ○ The most famous policy pursued by Justinian was a series of war. Wars came at a high cost and Justinian had to raise taxes and reduce forces on the North and Eastern frontiers. At one point Justinian was fighting a four front war. ■ 536 CE ● Bubonic plague of Justinian and its impact ○ The wars coincided with the Bubonic plague. The plague killed a third of the Roman population and this recurred several times until 750 CE. There was a drop in economy and trade. ■ until 750s CE ● The Great RomanPersian War and the role of “allies” ○ Both Rome and persia relied on allies to join fight, and used money to bribe Arab tribes to join their side. The brutal fighting continued for 26 years until 628 when a new Persian king made peace. The original borders were restored but altered arab society. ■ 628 CE ● Beginnings of Islam: Scholarly debates about the historical Muhammad ○ It is hard to study the historical aspect of Muhammad because most stories were written down 100 to 150 years after his death and the stories don't line up. His prophesies won a small following in Mecca but they were harassed by Quraysh leaders. By 622, the followers of Muhammad were forced to flee from Quraysh lands ■ 600s CE ● Muhammad’s prophecy: The Qur’an and its origins ○ The Quran is a record of Muhammad’s prophecies. The main theme of Quran is strict, simple, monotheism and called for the unity of Arabs. ● Muhammad in Medina: An Islamic state and its first “jihad” ○ In 622 CE, Muhammad and 100 plus followers fled to oasis of Medina to escape persecution. Medinas tribes were divided and feuding between the Jews and the Pagans. By 624, Muhammad allied jewish tribes, converted polytheists, and created an Islamic state. Amid an 8 year with Quraysh, Muhammad called for Jihad, the struggle for pure thoughts, and justice against foes ■ 600 CE ● Earliest Islamic relations with Jews and Christians ○ Muhammad started off seeking alliance with the Jews and the Christians by saying that they shared the same Ancestor. He than distanced Islam from the Jews and Christians because they challenged Muhammad's authenticity. Jews and Christians were then tolerated, but seen as second class citizens. Islam was its own community and viewed themselves as the original religion of Abraham ● After Muhammad: The early caliphs and their conquests ○ Muhammad died in 632 without leaving clear plans of succession. The council choose a caliph, who claimed to be a successor but not a prophet. He claimed to be both a religious and political leader. The first three caliphs were all early converts, and continued to expand and called to arabs to join their struggle. By 634, all of Arabia had become part of the Islamic community in some form. ■ 632 CE ● The New Empire of Islam: conquest agreements and garrison cities ○ By 650s, Caliph ruled over 30 million Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians. Early caliphs saw Arabs as a separate warrior class settled in garrison cities. Muslims agreed to protect the freedom of local Christian, Zoroastrian, and Jewish communities that surrendered if they would pay respect and taxes to the caliph and abided by certain restrictions. Agreement came to be the basis for Muslim/ non Muslim relations ■ 650s CE Unit 8 (Early Medieval Christian and Islamic Societies): ● Rivals for the office of caliph: the Umayyads vs. Ali (and his “Shiites”) ○ Big arguments started over who should be caliph and what it meant to be caliph, and in 656 a nasty contest for power begun. The Umayyads were an old leading family with the best political connections were challenged by Ali, Muhammad's cousin. Ali argued he had a better knowledge in Islamic prophecy and he had claims to family holiness. This lead to a civil war and the assassination of Ali in 661. The followers of Ali, the Shiites, formed a new sec . ■ 656 CE ● The Umayyad dynasty in Damascus and its policies ○ The Umayyad dynasty moved the capital from Medina to Damascus and ruled from 661 to 750. They set up two systems of government, one for Arab muslims and one for the rest. They edited and standardized the Qur’an and built big mosques and shrines ○ 661 CE ● The Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad and its policies ○ Revolt against Umayyad dynasty led to the beginning of a new regime. The revolt was led by the Abbasid family who were Arabs of the Quraysh tribe. The Umayyads were overthrown and they built a new capital in Baghdad. Islam was now open to all and did away with the two forms of government ■ 810 ● Decline of Abbasid Caliph’s authority: Amirs, Turkish generals, and scholars ○ The Amirs gained more power until most had formed their own dynasty and were running their own business. Mid 9th c., use of Turks as freedslave soldiers led to powerful Turkish generals (even in Baghdad) ■ mid ninth century Life in Early Medieval Islam: economic life and social class ○ New crops led to a more stable food supply. Because muhammad was a merchant. merchants and trading was now honored instead of looked down upon. By 10th c, Islam was viewed as a capitalist society. The middle class was broader, with various ranks of craftsmen and merchants, and social mobility was possible ■ 10 c ● Gender, family, and slavery in the early medieval Islamic world ○ The early medieval Islamics were more rigidly patriarchal than the Roman world. It was a polygamous society and females had a limited public role. Muslims owned slaves nearly as often as Romans, however the slaves were non muslims. ● Culture and learning in early medieval Islamic society ○ Arabic traditions, Persian, Turkish, and Indian culture and learning was brought with the converts. Elite male members were expected to know Islamic law, and Persian history and political ideas. Amirs hosted scholars ● Christian reactions to the rise of Islam: the Iconoclast controversy ○ Leo III endorsed the movement of the Iconoclasts, and gave the movement a big boost. In 840s, The Byzantines eventually choose to keep their icons. The iconoclast controversy showed how much Roman emperors were in charge of both Church and state ■ 840s ● Medieval Byzantine Expansionism: Byzantium as prime power center ○ The Byzantines had the largest army in the region. Basil II had the most dramatic expansions and took over Balkans. The Byzantines was the largest state power in the Mediterranean ■ Basil II(9761025) ● Gender, class and slavery in early medieval Byzantium ○ Elites included military leaders, big landowners, and Bureaucrats. Most Byzantines were free peasants with some slaves. Women had a more public role than Islamic society and the right to property, monogamy, and were sometimes honored Byzantine rulers ● Culture and learning in early medieval Byzantium ○ the most literate in 11th c. Christian religious learning continued, as did Greek and Roman Philosophy. elites expected to be widely learned. ■ 11th c ● The Carolingian Frankish dynasty and the Rise of Charlemagne ○ Carolingians arose when Umayyad armies were defeated. Charlemagne launched a massive wave of conquest. Charlemagne supported the church and sponsored buildings and writings, favored clerics, and supported missionaries. Charlemagne allied with the pope ■ 800s CE ● Collapse of Charlemagne’s empire: Invaders and warlords ○ Charlemagne's three grandsons divided power and by the 850s they were three feuding kingdoms. The Vikings, Hungarians and new Muslim raiders invaded Charlemagne’s empire. Local christian warlords, Charlemagne's knights, built forts and castles, and offered protection for a price. Serious political power arose in Germany and Italy ■ 850s CE ● Gender, class and “serfdom/slavery” in early medieval Latin Christendom ○ Women played a key role in public life as social bridges, elite christian families relied on marriage links to make alliances. Serfs were peasants seeking protection from warlords for their labor. The rising number of serfs was tied to the absence of a powerful state. ● Culture and learning in early medieval Latin Christendom ○ Medieval Latin Christians did less to support higher learning in 911th c. Elite culture focused on war training and basic religious teaching. In the west, however, a slowly growing net of Bishops and monasteries established more monasteries with learning components ■ 911 CE Unit 9 (Christian and Islamic Societies in the Era of the Crusades) ● Roots of transformation: climate change, farming and population growth ○ Climate became warmer and drier in the 9th century, making the farming season longer. The new mode of farming was a three field rotation which regionalized crops and used the forest as animal pasture. New tools included animal plows, windmills, waterwheels, and crop rotation. More peasants became serfs to fill the need for labor, but more food produced more wealth ■ 9th CE ● Rebuilding Western (Frankish) Christian kingdoms (making “vassals”) ○ Kings gained influence and rebuilt kingdoms by two processes. One process involved the slow building of small conquests and marriage links to other lordly families. The other was quick conquests and distribution of land to favorites ● Monasteries, monastic orders, and their growing influence ○ Monasteries became big landowners through donations, and gained thousands of monks. Monastic orders were a series of monastic housing living by the same rule and headed by a single head abbothe peace of god movement involved the warlords who were buying monks prayers were asked to follow certain rules. This was the beginning of Chivalry ● The Holy Roman Emperor and his new authority ○ The Holy Roman empire created electoral monarchy. The new king was given the title “holy Roman emperor.” There was less emphasis on collection of taxes and more emphasis on controlling church offices. The point of the Holy Empire was to make a claim that challenged the Byzantine Roman Empire as christian leaders ● The reform popes and their struggles for new authority ○ German reform popes hired secretaries and advisors. The election of new popes was decided by hand picked cardinal bishops, no longer by kings. The new bishops were forbidden to pay favors to kings in order to be chosen as bishop. ● Christian Expansionism in the Atlantic, E. Europe and Spain. ○ Christian rulers conquered series of “outsider lands and colonized by bringing friends, allies, and peasants. The Conquests were usually led by lesser warlords or their younger sons. Expansion was not centrally planned, but driven by powerful forces ● The First Crusade and the crusader kingdoms ○ Pope Urban II organized an expedition to take back the holy land. The armed and mostly unarmed forces moved through the middle east and resulted in a very bloody conquest killing hundreds of thousands of Muslims. The western european lords created four new feudal kingdoms, forcing locals to convert or leave ● Saladin and the Islamic countercrusade ○ Saladin, an Islamic political leader, sparked a revolt and demanded a unified front against the crusaders. After counter invasions, Saladin took jerusalem back for the Muslims in 1187. From 1191 until 1242, control of Jerusalem went back and forth, but agreements were made to share Holy Land. ■ 1100s ● Crusades and the Byzantine Empire: The “Fourth Crusade” ○ Erupted from distrust among eastern and western christians. It called upon troops to defend the Holy land. The troops ran out of money and a cousin of the Byzantine emperor promised funding if they helped him gain the throne, they helped him but the emperor did not pay. ● Expansionism, trade growth and the rise of W. Christian cities ○ By 1200, trade wealth and population growth increased total wealth of society. Crusades and other expansionism enabled wider contact with Byzantine and Islamic societies. There were new permanent market towns and new forms of money transfer and credit increased growth steadily in a non farm related economy ■ 1200s ● Medieval Christian city charters and autonomous city governments ○ Bishops, warlords, and kings benefited from new trade wealth. In order to settle feuds for wealth and power, local town leaders struck agreements with lords bishops and kings called charters. Cities promised lords and kings regular tax and tithe money, and in exchange kings and bishops agreed to respect city autonomy ● New Medieval W. Christian centers of learning: scholasticism and universities ○ Expanded schooling followed an increase in trade wealth. At first it was largely led by bishops, and than small circles of teachers began forming to teach higher learning. Teachers fees, behavior and teachings varied widely. Latin universities were then established to standardize fees and curriculum ● New pious movements in 1213th c. Christendom: Mystics, wanderers, and “heretics” ○ Practices such as fasting, sleep deprivation, and drug use were used to make believers gain special wisdom and feel direct contact with god was called mysticism. Wanderers were new christian holy men who were poor and led a celibate life traveling the world and preaching. They were most common among major trade routes and cities. Part II: Short answer (45 questions will be featured, all of which must be answered with 1 long or (more often) 2 sentences): •The Origins of Christianity (what forces, people and events may have led to the origins of Christianity as a separate religious movement? What was really different about this movement compared to trends in the Jewish community and religion for the majority of Romans ● Jesus of Nazareth, as a historical person, is difficult to study but is widely agreed upon as the beginning of Christian origin. Jesus was born and raised a Jew, and later became a Jewish teacher. After his death, his followers sought to convince other Jews that Jesus was the Messiah and would return. Paul of Tarsus than turned this movement into a whole christian community by trying to unite Jews and non Jews as one religious community under the name of Jesus ● The spread and popularization of Christianity was different than most religious or social movements in the Roman empire because of the overall acceptance of different religions and openness to nonJews. Christian apostles sought after Gentiles, who were typically rejected by the Jews. The other main difference between Christianity and religious cults were that there were no secrets kept from nonbelievers who did not join their religious movement; their beliefs were widespread and public ªThe Christian Roman Empire (what people, forces, and events led to the rising influence of Christianity in the Roman world; what were some major consequences of the Roman Empire becoming Christianized, to some extent) ● The rise of Christianity was linked to changes in Roman Politics and society in the 3rd century. The roman state helped make the empire christian. By early 4th century, Christians won the full backing of Emperor Constantine. After constantine, all but one Roman emperor was christian. Emperors Gratian and Theodosius passed laws to make empire officially christian. This christianizing of the Roman empire had strong effects of the government and economy, helping emperors collect taxes, keep power and control its people under one religion ● The consequence of Christianity become the official believe of Roman Empire were the value and of family and sex changed. Roman started to forbid the abuse of children and the divorces was limited. Roman show more hostility to prostitution and homosexuality. •The Decline of Roman Power and Origins of Islam (what people, forces and events led to the Decline of Roman power in the Western Mediterranean, and later in the Eastern Mediterranean; what connections can we find between the decline of Roman power and the origins of Islam) ● Barbarian invasions and raids played a factor in the decline of Roman Power, as did the Bubonic plague after 542. The “end of the Roman dominance” only came in the early 7th c, with big wars against Persia, and after 636 the rise of Islam. Islam was born on the fringe of the RomanPersian world torn by a religious war. Although it did not cause the fall of Rome, it did change the geopolitics of this time, and the Arabs conquered much of the Roman Empire. The only real connection is that The Roman Empire was weakened by war with the Persians, so the Muslims were able to take over the Roman Empire easier, and because they came into authoritative power, the religion was able to spread. •Early Medieval Christian and Islamic Societies (What were some of the big differences between early medieval societies and cultures in different parts of the Mediterranean –Islamic, Byzantine Christian, and Western/Latin Christian; What were some similarities or common patterns across the early medieval societies) ● Early Medieval Islamic society consisted of a growing economy with a more stable food supply and positive attitude to trade and commerce. It was also generally patriarchal although women were guaranteed some rights like inherited property. Slavery was still common but they were used as domestic servants and soldiers. Similarly, the Byzantine society also experienced a population and trade “boom”, but women played a more public role here than in Islamic society; for example, women were granted property and monogamy rights as well as some being honored as Byzantine rulers. ● Islamic society celebrated some old Arabic traditions, such as poetry. They had a lot of old greek and roman traditions. People converting to Islam brought their culture and by the 10th c. the Islamic world was a cultural melting pot. Byzantines were linked to the Islamic world, but there were some differences. The state was a huge bureaucracy. They had a class of slaves, but fewer than the Islamic realm. The role of women was different from Islamic society in that Byzantine women remained monogamous and couldn’t divorce, whereas Islamic women had the right to divorce; both had property rights, but Latin Christian society women lacked property rights. ● Islamic and Byzantine both had a wide, vast merchant world, a range of middling ranks. They both had a value placed on learning as well. ● the similarities of those three places had two parts. The first one was that almost all medieval society were still about farming even there had merchant. The second one is the gender inequality though women gained more power at this time. •Islamic and Christian Societies in the Era of the Crusades (What led to the most important changes to medieval Christian society during the era of the crusades? How significant do these changes seem when put in a wider context, including Byzantine Christian and Islamic society). ● In addition to population expansionism and colonization from Christian warlords, the Crusades were inspired by renewed Islamic power in the Middle East. One of the most influential events of the Crusades was the first crusade. As Seljuk Turkish warriors expanded into Byzantine Christian lands, Byzantine emperors lost their fight against these new expansionists. The Byzantine rallied one hundred thousand followers to revolt against the Seljuk Turks and take back the Holy Land. The result was 4 new W. Christian “Crusader” kingdoms, forcing locals to convert to Christianity or leave. Muslims saw the crusaders as crude barbarians, but noticed that crusaders who stayed in the region adapted and found local allies. This W. Christian expansionism had large impact; one of which being a big power shift toward larger Latin Christian territory and away from Byzantine empire. Part III: Source interpretation: (45 quotations will appear, identified by author and page or chapter number; you will need to choose 2 quotations and interpret each quotation writing 4 solid sentences): Here are the primary historical sources that might be quoted: ● Rabbi’s sayings from the Mishnah, Avot ○ "Oral Law" for Jews on how to live a holy Jewish life under Roman Rule. Originally all oral teachings, but eventually written down in early 3rd c. by a group of teachers that came to be known as the "Rabbis." ● New Testament, Acts of the Apostles, selections ○ Not a fully accurate account of events. Each author wrote down how they viewed Jesus and the meaning of his life and death. Written by different people at different times. Not sure who all the authors are but many opposed each other. Gospel of Mark written by Jewish follower, early 70s, shortly after Romans crusher the great Jewish revolt. Author of Acts and Luke was a Christian and presented Jesus differently and added a new section. ● Eutropius, Brief History ○ ended when a new Persian king took power ○ The Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad and its of Rome, (on emperors from Diocletian to Constantine) Polytheist born in 320. Wrote a Brief History of Rome while serving as Master of Memory to Emperor Valens (a Christian). He worked for both Christian and nonChristian emperors and did not judge based on religion. Liked and disliked both polytheist and Christian emperors. ● Eusebius, Life of Constantine (selections) ○ Born in mid 3rd c. Christian. Imperial advisor to Constantine. Died in 340. Wrote the Life of Constantine 2 yrs after his death. Meant to praise, not be accurate. Sent to the 3 new emperors, Constantine's sons. ● Select laws from 4th century emperors on religion ○ Issued by Roman emperors from reign of Constantine to Theodosius I. 311395. Most preserved in Theodosian Code, published in 438. Not all about religion, but helps us understand how Roman Empire helped the Catholic Orthodox church and disfavored other religions. Composed by various emperors and imperial secretaries. ● Jordanes, Gothic History, selections ○ Writer form 5th and 6th centuries. Secretary to ostrogothic kings in Italy. Then bishop of Crotona. Ambassador to Constantinople during Justinian's reign. First to write the history of his barbarian people and the rise of Germanic kings. Split is Gothic History into 5 key episodes. ● Procopius, Secret History, selections (on Justinian) ○ Justinian was a ruler who killed thousands. It was easier to count the grain of lsand on the beach then it was to count the number of citizens he killed. He also fought four wars at the same time during his reign as leader. ○ Born in 500 in Palestine. Secretary to Justinian's most senior general. Survived bubonic plague. Served as city prefect in 562 and died shortly after. This is his private criticisms of his imperial employer written sometime before 560. ● Constitution of Medina ○ Likely from Islamic community when led by Muhammad before its major conquest began. Saved by 8th c. collector of Islamic sayings about Muhammad. Shows what the earliest Islamic community in Arabia was like. ● AlShafii, “Pact to be Accorded to NonMuslim Subjects” ○ Most influential legal scholar in early Islamic society. Lived 770820. Brief career in politics but switched to religious teaching when nearly executed. Wanted to define the best way for Muslims to live and follow the path of God. Here, he sums up what he believed was the right way for Muslim leaders to deal w/ "protected peoples." ● Ibn Sina, Autobiography ○ Born in 980 AD; studied Islamic law & government ○ drawn to greekstyle philosophy; best known for his book on medicine ○ jurisprudence ● Michael Psellos, Chronographie (on his relationship to Emperor Constantine IX) ○ Born in Constantinople in 1018. Pursued Greek literature among philosophy, Christianity, and other things. 1045 he became professor of philosophy at University of Constantinople. Exiled himself to monastery when he fell from favor. This selection is a series of biographies of rulers Psellos knew. Biased based on how the rulers treated him. ● Dhuoda, Advice to Her Son William ○ Lived in 9th c. in elite Carolingian society. Married Bernard, military leader. Lived isolated life. Son William take to ensure her husband's loyalty. Wrote her advice on proper behavior for William. Bernard (her other son) was also taken. Her husband was executed for disloyalty and William died soon after trying to avenge his dad's death. ● Fulcher, Chronicle of the First Crusade, selections ○ Born 1059 in W Christian kingdom (NW France). Became a priest and played a key role in the 1st crusade. Wrote this to summarize the crusade. Most direct account. This account appeared in 1120s. ● Baha adDin, Biography of Saladin, selections ○ Born in 1145 to Islamic elite. Worked for Saladin and his successors. His biography of Saladin is the most detailed source on him and useful for understanding the Islamic countercrusade. Aimed to make Saladin "into a model of piety." ● Peter Abelard, Story of His Misfortunes, selections ○ Born in 1079 in W. France. Studied at monasteries and cathedral schools. Feuded w/ teachers & founded own school in Paris. Accused of heresy and left to live as a hermit. Returned and accused of heresy again and left to join a monastery. Writer of philosophy & tried to solve inconsistencies in the church. Involved w/ 15 yr old student. Wrote his autobiography of his misfortunes.
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