Bio 1107 Exam 1 Study Guide
Bio 1107 Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 1107
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 747 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Behavioral Sciences at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Learning Objectives for Exam 1: Molecules and Interactions (Review) Identify the three major parts of an atom. (Review) Define the following terms: electronegativity, element, ion, isotope (Review) Describe each of the following types of chemical bond: o Ionic o Polar covalent o Non-polar covalent Identify the atoms present in carbon-skeleton depictions of biological molecules. Predict whether the chemical bonds formed through pairwise combinations of the six most common elements found in organisms (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous) are likely to be polar or non-polar covalent. Identify polar and non-polar chemical bonds in biological molecules and predict the effect of these bonds on the physical properties (electric charge) of the atoms involved. Describe the basis for each of the following intermolecular interactions: o Ionic bond o Hydrogen bond o Van der Waals Interactions o Hydrophobic effect Predict the types of interactions in which a molecule could potentially participate based on the chemical bonds present in that molecule. Water and Solutions • Describe the chemical bond that exists between o A hydrogen and oxygen atom in a single water molecule o A hydrogen in one water molecule and an oxygen in another Explain how interactions between water molecules differ in: o Ice o Liquid water o Water vapor Describe the process of evaporation and condensation of water. Explain what would influence if a molecule is likely to be more hydrophobic or more hydrophilic. If given two pieces of information about a solution (molarity, solute mass, and/or volume) calculate the third piece of information. Starting with a stock solution with a given concentration, describe how you would make a specific volume of a solution with a new concentration. Describe why hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules behave the way they do in water. Predict how well a molecule will dissolve in water (or not) and explain why. Illustrate how salt (NaCl) and sugar (C6H12 )6crystals dissolve in water. Carbon, Functional Groups, and Polymers Describe the physical properties (charge) each of the following chemical bonds confer to a atoms involved and predict how these bonds would affect the ability of a molecule to interact with water. o C-C o C-H o C-S o C-N o C-O Identify the major functional groups found on organic molecules in living organisms Describe the difference between a monomer and a polymer Predict how each of the major functional groups found on organic molecules would affect the properties of the molecules to which they are attached. Explain how both shape and physical properties can influence how one molecule interacts with other molecules? (e.g. enzymes and substrate). Draw a diagram that illustrates the basic mechanisms used to make and breakdown biological polymers. Explain why using polymers in organisms is advantageous. Organic Molecules I Recognize and learn how to distinguish between monomers found in carbohydrates and lipids. Explain if carbs or lipids are expected to be water- soluble (or not) and why. Explain how saturated and unsaturated lipids differ. Explain how triglycerides and cholesterol differ and how they are the same in regards to their structures and physical properties. Explain how triglycerides and phospholipids differ and how they are the same. Define the term Amphipathic. Explain why your body may be able to use one molecule but not another even though the two may have the exact same chemical formula (C H O x.y z Explain why phospholipids form bilayers and micelles. Explain how organisms are able dissolve fat (and other hydrophobic substances) in water. Organic Molecules II Recognize, learn how to distinguish between, and identify the components found in the monomers of proteins and nucleic acids. List the three major categories of amino acids (Note: you do NOT need to memorize each amino acid!) List the four levels of protein folding. List the five different nucleotides found in nucleic acids and indicate whether they are found in DNA or RNA. Protein and nucleic acid molecules have distinct “ends.” What are the ends of each of these molecules called and how would you identify them? If shown the chemical structure of an amino acid, predict which category of amino acid it would belong to: charged, polar, or nonpolar. Predict whether a given sequence of amino acids is likely to interact strongly with water or not (polar, non- polar, and charged amino acid categories). Explain how the category amino acid belongs to can influence the structure and behavior of a protein. Explain how changing a single amino acid could affect protein folding. If shown a protein or nucleotide chain, determine the polarity of the molecule (amino, carboxy, 3’, or 5’ ends). Water, pH, and Buffers Explain how pH/OH and [H+]/[OH-] concentrations are related. Explain the difference between how strong and weak acids/bases behave in water. Illustrate what is meant by a reversible reaction and how this relates to weak acids/bases. Draw a chemical reaction that illustrates how water can act as both a weak acid and a weak base. Define the term buffer. Explain what is meant when a reaction is said to be in equilibrium. Predict how dissociation of a weak acid or base will respond to changes in a solution’s [H+] levels and how this response will this will affect the ultimate [H+] levels in the solution. Draw a graph that illustrates how the pH of a solution of pure water and a buffered solution of water (containing a weak acid or base) would change in response to the addition of increasing amounts of a strong acid or base. Many molecules, especially proteins, interact through ionic interactions between weak acids and weak bases. o Illustrate how a weak acid and base could be involved in an ionic interaction between molecules. o Explain how changes in pH might affect this interaction. Molecules and Nutrition Distinguish between “good” and “bad” carbs and lipids based on the Scientific American Article The New Food Pyramid by Willett and Stampfer and identify good sources of each. Look up the number of Calories contributed by one gram of Carbs, Lipids, and Protein. Describe how fiber is different from other types of carbohydrates and how fiber is obtained through your diet. Explain what is meant when a nutrient or molecule is referred to as an "essential." How do essential fatty acids differ structurally from other fatty acids? Identify the types of macromolecules contributed by ingredients listed on a food label. Determine the caloric contributions of lipids, carbs, and protein using information from a food label. Explain how "good" and "bad" carbohydrates and lipids differ in how they affect your body. Explain the basic mechanism by which artificial sweeteners and fats work.
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