Organic Chemistry Harrington
Study Guide Exam 1 – Test Date February 3rd
1) Explain the following concepts about atomic orbitals
a) Aufbau Principle
b) Pauli Exclusion Principle
c) Hund’s Rule
d) What orbitals correspond to each energy level/shell?
e) Be sure to know how to write electron configurations
2) What is electronegativity? What is its range?
3) What is the difference between ionic, polar covalent, and covalent bonds? What is the Δ in electronegativity for each bond? ΔEN is represented by δ+ or – in structures Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 economic goals?
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4) Know how to draw Lewis Dot Structures – Review Guidelines in Notes Don’t forget formal charge = # of valence electrons – (nonbonding electrons + ½ bonding electrons)
Practice by drawing dot structures for the following structures (answers on next page)
PBr5 BCl3 HCN NH4+
Answers for #4
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5) Know how to draw a resonance structure. Practice by drawing the resonance structure for CO2 (Review Guidelines)
6) What direction to arrows point in curved arrow notation? 7) Know how to draw hybrid orbital diagrams. Draw one for NH3
8) What is the general trend for atomic size in the periodic table? How does this affect bond length?
9) Explain the differences between Molecular Orbital theory and Valence Bond theory.
10) What is the general formula for alkanes?
11) What is the root name of alkanes with:
1 Carbon: 2 Carbons:
3 Carbons: 4 Carbons:
5 Carbons: 6 Carbons:
7 Carbons: 8 Carbons:
9 Carbons: 10 Carbons:
12) What are constitutional isomers? What are the constitutional isomers for propane and butane?
13) What are the IUPAC System’s steps for naming alkanes? 1. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the chemical preservatives used for food preservation?
7. (don’t forget sub-steps)
14) What is unique about cycloalkanes? What is their general formula (1 ring, 2 rings, 3 rings)?
15) Describe the process for naming cycloalkanes. How do you number the carbons? How do you know if the molecule is named as an alkane or a cycloalkane?
16) What saturates alkanes? Are cycloalkanes saturated or unsaturated? 17) Degree of unsaturation = ?
18) How do you classify carbons in an alkane or cycloalkane? What is the degree of the hydrogen?
19) Describe the difference between intermolecular forces and intramolecular forces.
20) What happens when a solid melts or a liquid boils? What happens to the entropy?
21) Describe the three types of intramolecular attractive forces. Rank them strongest to weakest. Review how they help to predict boiling, melting point, and solubility.
22) How do you use Newman Projections to illustrate the rotation of C-C bonds?
23) What angles are gauche and anti forms found at? What angles are staggered? What angles are eclipsed? Which of those positions is higher in energy? Don't forget about the age old question of Who was the biggest proponent of black power?
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24) Explain torsional and steric strain.
25) What are Lewis Acids and Lewis Bases?
26) What are Bronsted Acids and Bronsted Bases?
27) Keq = [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
And Keq = [ ] [ ] at equilibrium
28) What are conjugate bases and conjugate acids?
29) How do you find pKa? What constitutes a weak or strong acid?
30) In curved arrow notation, how many are present in proton transfer reactions? Substitution reactions? Why?