Study Guide Exam 3
Study Guide Exam 3 COMM 20223
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Exam 3 Review Chapter 18 Functional Perspective: Hirokawa & Gouran 1. What are the four functions of effective decision-making? a. 1. Analysis of the Problem i. Determining the nature, extent, and causes of the problem facing the group 1. The clearest example of faulty analysis is the failure to recognize a potential threat when one really exists. b. 2. Goal Setting i. Establishing criteria by which to judge proposed solutions 1. Because group members need to be clear on what they are trying to accomplish. 2. These criteria must set forth the minimal qualities that an acceptable solution must possess. c. Identification of Alternatives i. Generating options to sufficiently solve the problem 1. Marshaling a number of alternatives solutions from which group members can choose. 2. A final decision may turn out to be a combination of multiple ideas d. Evaluation of Positive and Negative Characteristics i. Testing the relative merits of each option against the criteria selected; weighing the benefits and costs 1. Groups get sloppy and often need one member to remind the others to consider both negative and positive features of each alternative *** This is by far the most crucial to ensure a quality decision 2. What is the role of communication in fulfilling these functions? a. Group decision is a tool or instrument that group members use to create the social reality in which decisions are made b. Three Types of Communication in Decision-making groups i. 1. Promotive: interaction that moves the group along the goal path by calling attention to one of the four requisite decision-making functions. ii. 2. Disruptive: interaction that diverts, retards, or frustrates group members’ ability to achieve the four task functions iii. 3. Counteractive: interaction that members use to get the group back on track. 3. Thoughtful Advice for those who KNOW THEY ARE RIGHT a. Reflective Thinking: thinking that favors rational consideration over intuitive hunches or pressure from those with clout. i. By raising questions, calling for more alternatives, and urging a thorough evaluation of evidence, a low- status member can have a high-power impact on the quality of the final decision. 4. Critic: a. FOICS method of coding conversation all but ignores comments about relationships inside or outside the group i. FOICS: Function Oriented Interaction Coding System: a tool to record a classify the function of utterances during a group’s discussion b. Most real-life groups have prior decision making history and are embedded in a larger organization c. Beneficial for members to fulfill the four requisite functions only when they are addressing questions of policy d. The scope of Functional Perspective is more limited than first thought. Online Reading Communicative Constitution of Organizations: Mcphee 1. What is constitution? a. Communication that calls organization into being i. Persons-in-conversation co-construct their social words, and those worlds are organizations. 1. Organization: active beings who must continually process information to survive 2. Sense-making: communication behavior designed to reduce ambiguity. 2. What are the four flows? a. 1. Membership Negotiation i. Any communication that has to do with who is a member and who is not a member ii. Communication that regulates the extent to which a person is an organization member 1. Recruiting, socialization, bargaining, training, hiring, firing, quitting b. 2. Self-Structuring i. Communication that shapes the relationships among an organization’s members 1. Procedure manuals, memos, chart, work teams ii. What are the different roles that people have within the organization? iii. Closure: a sense of shared understanding that emerges in back-and-forth interaction. 1. Sense making doesn’t happen until such closure occurs. 2. Example: In many Greek organizations, chapters communicate with local alumni about how to maintain the chapter’s traditions and consult documents about the organization’s history: closure across time 3. Example: Organization’s headquarters sets goals and establishes policies for all chapters: closer across space c. 3. Activity Coordination: i. Members communicate to accomplish the organization’s day-to-day work toward their goals 1. Who is doing what ii. All organizations have goals 1. Schools teach students, soup kitchens serve the hungry, political parties elect candidates etc.. a. Such a defined purpose separates an organization from a crowd of people. d. 4. Institutional Positioning: Dealing with other people and organizations i. Communication between an organization and external entities – other organizations and people 1. No organization can survive on its own a. Interact with banks, insurance providers, labor unions, government regulators, etc. 3. What principles guide the four flows? a. 1. All four flows are necessary i. If you want to have an organization you NEED to have all of the 4 flows. You can’t have an organization if even one of the flows is missing b. 2. Different flows happen in different places i. Space and time often separate the four flows 1. Example: Contract negotiations for baseball players don’t occur too often in the dugout during the game 2. Example: The general manager’s office and team locker room contain different flows than the baseball diamond c. 3. The same message can address multiple flows i. Example: Department is currently hiring a new communication professor. Clearly that’s membership negotiation. But conversations about the hires have also led to discuss the courses we offer in our department (activity coordination) and how those courses compare to other nearby communication programs (institutional positioning). ii. The intersection of flows in a single message isn’t just a possibility, but the very essence of organizing itself. 1. Example: if new hiring didn’t involve other flows, we might question whether we’re really an organization. d. 4. Different flows address different audiences i. Self-structuring is of little interest to those outside an organization ii. Membership negotiation targets new members or those that may be leaving iii. Activity coordination addresses specific groups within an organization iv. Institutional positioning focuses on external organizations 4. Critic a. Taylor thinks McPhee’s view is too simplistic. i. It takes a top down approach ii. Taylor prefers from the ground up b. Vague definition of flow i. Never clear precisely what the metaphor represents Chapter 20 Cultural Approach to Organizations: Geertz & Pacanowsky 1. What is culture? a. Webs of significance; Shared meaning, shared understanding, share sense-making b. Organizations look radically different depending on how people in the host culture structure meaning c. Culture is not something an organization has; it is something an organization is. 2. How do theorists associated within this theory examine culture? a. Culture is not whole or undivided b. Cultural Performance: actions by which members constitute and reveal their culture to themselves and others; and ensemble of texts c. It is a soft science: not an experimental science in search of law, but an interpretive one in search of meaning. 3. Ethnography: How the culture was discovered. Thick decription a. Mapping out social discourse; discovering who people within a culture think they are, what they think they are doing, and to what end they think they are doing it. b. Their task is to i. Accurately describe talk ii. Capture the thoughts, emotions, and web of social interaction iii. Assign motivation, intention, or purpose to what people say and do iv. Artfully write this up so readers fell they have experienced the events v. Interpret what happened; explain what it means within this culture c. The only way to reduce the puzzlement is to observe as if one were a stranger in a foreign land d. Imaginative language members use the stories they told, and the nonverbal rites and rituals they practiced. 4. What are different types of stories told in organizations? a. Stories that are told over and over provide a convenient window through which to view corporate webs of significance. b. Corporate Story: tales that carry management ideology and reinforce company policy i. Official story that the corporation has released. c. Personal Story: tales told by employees that put them in a favorable light d. Collegial Stories: positive or negative anecdotes told about others in the organization i. Since these tales are usually sanctioned by management, collegial accounts pass on how the organization “really works” 5. What are metaphors and rituals, how do they relate to organizational culture? a. Metaphor: Clarifies what is unknown or confusing by equating it with an image that is more familiar or vivid i. Used for both discovery and communication of corporate culture b. Ritual: texts that articulate multiple aspects of cultural life, often marketing rites of passage or life transitions. i. These rituals are nearly sacred, and any attempt to change them meets with strong resistance. ii. From the management perspective, the rite ensures that there will be no surprises. 6. Can the Manager be an Agent of Cultural Change? a. Symbols are the tools of management b. Creating favorable metaphors, planting organizational stories, and establishing rites would seem an ideal way to create a corporate myth that would serve managerial interests. c. Shared meanings are hard to dispel. Symbol watchers within a company quickly discount the words of management if they don’t square with performance. 7. Critic a. Interpretative scholars refuse to evaluate the customs that they portray b. Contrary to the consultants paid by organizations they study, the purpose of ethnography is not to change the organization or help managers exert more control. Nor is it to pass judgment or reform society. c. The goal of symbolic analysis is to create a better understanding of what it takes to function effectively within a culture. d. For objective scholars, not enough focus on cultural manipulation Chapter 29 Cultivation Theory: Gerbner: Annenberg School of Communication at the University of Pennsylvania 1. What is the Cultural Indicators research project, and what has it found? a. Tracks television content (especially that of a violent nature) and how that content affects viewers’ perceptions of the world. b. Dramatic Violence: the over expression or serious threat of physical force as part of the plot. c. The ratio of programs that scripted violence, the rate of violence in those programs, and the percentage of characters involved in physical harm and killing. 2. Equal Violence. Unequal Ratio a. Indisputable fact i. The cumulative portrayal of violence varies little from year to year. More then half of prime-time programs contain actually bodily harm or threatened violence. ii. By the time the typical viewer has graduated high school they have observed 13,000 violent deaths. 3. Which type of characters is most likely to experience violence in TV programs? a. Old people and children are harmed at a much greater rate than are young or middle-aged adults b. African Americans and Hispanics are killed or beaten more than their Caucasian counterparts. c. Females are killed more then males d. Blue-collar workers get it more often than do white-collar executives e. The symbolic vulnerability of minority-group members is striking, given their gross underrepresentation in TV drama 4. What is the difference between a light and a heavy viewer? a. Heavy viewer: TV viewers who report that they watch at least four hours per day; television types i. More likely then light viewers to see the social world as resembling the world depicted on TV b. Light viewer: 0-2 hours of TV a day c. More heavy viewers then light viewers but both make up about 1/4 of the population 5. What is the cultivation differential? a. The difference in the percentage giving the “television answer” within comparable groups of light and heavy viewers. i. 1. Positive correlation between TV viewing and fear of criminal victimization. 1. People with heavy viewing habits tend to overestimate criminal activity. ii. 2. Perceived activity of police 1. People with heavy viewing habits believe that 5% of society is law enforcement 2. People with light viewing habits estimate 1% iii. 3. General mistrust of people 1. Those with heavy viewing habits are suspicious of others motives: MEAN WORLD SYNDROME 6. What is mean world syndrome? a. The cynical mindset of general mistrust of others subscribed to by heavy TV viewers. 7. What is mainstreaming? a. Blurring, blending, and bending process that those with heavy viewing habits undergo. i. Through constant exposure to the same images and labels, heavy viewers develop a commonality outlook. 8. What is resonance? a. The condition that exists when viewers’ real life environment is like the world of TV. i. These viewers are especially susceptible to TV’s cultivating power. ii. Double dose: they think the world Is a lot like their own world 9. How has this theory been critiqued?. a. Challenged Gerbner’s definition of violence, the programs he selected for content analysis, his decision to lump together all types of dramatic programs, his assumption that there is always a consistent television answer, his nonrandom methods of selecting respondents, his simple hours-per-day standard of categorizing viewers, his multiple choice technique of measuring data, and his interpretation of correlational data b. Correlation between TV viewing and fear of criminal victimization can be interpreted plausibly in more then one way c. Low marks on the criterion of testability d. If researchers ignore where people live, and most cultivation researchers do, they might miss the role played by this variable or others that weren’t included in the questionnaire. e. Cultivation effects tend to be statistically small f. Gerbner’s original assumption that TV viewers are constantly exposed to the same images and labels is no longer true. Chapter 31 Communication Accommodation Theory: Giles 1. What are convergence, divergence, maintenance, and overaccomodation? a. Overaccomodating: trying to hard to be something you aren’t i. Can also be called divergence ii. Not-authentic b. Convergence: when you want to be the same i. Move toward the other person, but not so much that you mock it. c. Divergence: when you want to be different i. Maintenance: not trying to be overly different but just being yourself 2. Why do we converge or diverge? a. Need for approval: convergence b. Need for distinctiveness: divergence 3. What is the outcome of our choice to converge/diverge? a. Convergence: positive response i. We tend to like people that react the same. b. Divergence: negative response 4. What forces influence our initial orientation? 5. Critic a. Limitations: speaks very generally. i. Loses a lot of specificity; there are a lot of situations where we like divergence and may not appreciate convergence. Chapter 32 Face Negotiation Theory: Ting-Toomey 1. What is the difference between individualistic culture and a collectivistic culture? a. Individualism: People see themselves as individuals independent of group identity i. Low context culture: spell things out in detail with our words ii. U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, England, Ireland, France b. Collectivism: People identify with a larger group; we- identify i. High context culture ii. Greece, India, Japan, Argentina, China, Brazil, Vietnam, Egypt c. But, within a culture, people may differ on their Self- Construal, or the degree to which people see themselves as collectivistic or individualistic. 2. Be familiar with the many terms he uses to refer to face and face-relevant messages a. Face-Restoration: fixes one’s self-face i. Pumping up your own face ii. Individualistic culture b. Face-Giving: supports another persons face i. Don’t want to do anything that would offend another persons face, c. Face work: in all cultures all people engage in messages that maintain and restore face. d. Face-concern: which face we are focusing on i. Self-face: individualistic culture concern is on self ii. Other-face or Mutual-face: collectivistic culture, the concern is on this. 3. How are the foregoing concerns related to conflict styles? Culture Self-Construal Face Concern Conflict style i. Avoiding style: avoiding conflict as a way of avoiding the other person’s face ii. Obliging: giving into the other person iii. Integrating: trying to find a solution that meets both person’s needs iv. 4. What guidelines does he advance for competent intercultural communication? a. Knowledge: hard to be culturally sensitive unless you have some idea of the ways you might differ from your classmate b. Mindfulness: shows a recognition that things are not always what they seem i. Seek multiple perspectives on the same event c. Interaction Skill: is your ability to communicate appropriately, effectively, and adaptively in a given situation i. Without hands on learning and feedback from others on how you are doing, it is hard to improve. Chapter 34 (QUIZ #5) Genderlect Styles: Tannen Genderlect: a term suggesting that masculine and feminine styles of discourse are best viewed as two distinct cultural dialects 1. How does Tannen explain communication differences between men and women? a. Women i. Want intimacy with communication 1. They seek a connection ii. Value Rapport talk: the typical conversational style of women which seeks to establish a connection with others iii. Women talk more than men in private conversations iv. Women tend to express their desire for community by telling stories about others 1. Always wanting to strengthen her network of support v. Women listening tends to hold eye contact, offer head nods, react, indicate that she is listening 1. Cooperative overlap: A supportive interruption often meant to show agreement and solidarity with the speaker vi. Women ask questions to establish a connection with others often using tag questions 1. Tag Questions: a short question at the end of a declarative statement, often used by women to soften the sting of potential disagreement or invite open, friendly dialogue vii. Women see conflict as a threat to connection and avoid it b. Men i. Want independence with communication 1. Maintain status ii. Value Report Talk: the typical monologue style of men, which seeks to command attention, convey information, and win arguments iii. Men tell more stories than women do 1. Telling jokes is a masculine way to negotiate status 2. Can-you-top-this? iv. Men listening avoids putting himself in the submissive 1. Overt style of listening where you wonder if he even is v. Men are comfortable with conflict and therefore less likely to hold themselves in check. 1. Men have an early warning system that’s geared to detect signs that they are being told what to do. 2. How is this different than rapport talk? a. Rapport talk is the way men typically talk b. Always one-upping each other c. Competitive contexts 3. How does Tannen evaluate whether her theory is true? a. Aha factor to test validity of her two-culture hypothesis i. When it resonates with one’s personal experience then it will all click 4. Critic a. Most gender researchers spot more diversity within each gender than between them b. While women do it better, both sexes place an equally high value on comforting communication c. “Men understand quite well what women want, and give in only when it suits them.” Chapter 36 Muted Group Theory: Kramarae 1. What is a muted group? a. People belonging to low power groups who must change their language when communicating publicly, thus, their ideas are often overlooked. i. Similarities between women and men are more important than their differences 2. Why does Kramarae consider women to be a muted group? a. Because of women’s and men’s different experience and activities rooted in the division of labor b. Men frame the discussion i. A women who takes issue with the metaphor of competition has to contest it with stereotypically masculine linguistic terms c. Men’s control of the dominant mode of expression has produced a vast stock of derogatory gender-specific terms to refer to women’s talking i. Catty, bitchy, shrill, cackling, gossipy, chitchat, etc. d. Women are often silenced by not having a publicly recognized vocabulary through which to express their experience. 3. What can muted groups do to make their voices heard? a. Online communication i. 1. Online Education: after completing work and taking care of the home, do online classes to further education ii. 2. Blogs: online journals that are immediately publishable and available to all Internet users iii. 3. Wikis: devoted to topics ranging from cooking to job hunting to Harry potter 1. Nurturing and reflective dialogue rather than a threatening and oppositional conflict which might silence one or the other collaborator. 4. Critic a. Lack of clarity b. Question of men’s motives is also problematic
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