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by: Danielle Solomon


Marketplace > Texas Christian University > PSYC 30483 > STUDY GUIDE TO CHAPTER 1
Danielle Solomon

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everything you need to know on exam 1 for chapter 1
Human Neuropsychology
Gary Waiter Boehm
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Solomon on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 30483 at Texas Christian University taught by Gary Waiter Boehm in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.




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Date Created: 01/29/16
STUDY GUIDE CH 1 Neuropsychology the scientific study of the relations between brain function and behavior Brain theory the brain is the source of behavior: strongly influences Neuropsychology Neuron Theory idea that the unit of brain structure and function is the neuron Neuron nerve cell Hemispheres two symmetrical halves of the brain Cerebrospinal fluid tube filled with salty fluid Gyri Folds or bumps in the cortex Sulci Creases between them Fissures deep creases Longitudinal Fissure divides the two hempisheres Lateral Fissure divides each hemispheres into halves Temporal Lobe Lobe on the side just above the ear; located between the lateral fissures Frontal Lobe Immediately above the temporal lobe, front of the brain Parietal Lobe behind the frontal lobe; back half Occipital Lobe area at the back of each hemisphere; bottom back behind the temporal lobe Forebrain Cerebral cortex; it develops from the front part of the neural tube Forebrain function mediate cognitive functions Brainstem Function mediates regulatory functions such as eating, drinking, and moving Spinal Cord Function conveys sensory information into the brain and sends commands from the brain to the muscles to move Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal chord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Nerve fibers; it will regrow tissue after it is damaged Somatic Nervous System Nerve fibers that bring information to the CNS are connected to sensory receptors on the body's surface and to muscles, enabling the brain to sense the world and react Sensory Fibers SNS is organized into pathways, collections of fibers that carry messages for specific senses, such as hearing, vision, and touch. Motor Pathways groups of nerve fibers that connect the brain and spinal cord to the body's muscles. Eye movements, body's posture Where do the parts of the cortex that produce movement send inform out to? Motor pathways to muscles on the opposite side of the body. One hemisphere uses muscles on the opposite side of the body to produce movement Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sensory and motor pathways that influence the muscles of internal organs, heart beat, stomach contractions, diaphragm, Mentalism Aristotle: the position that a person's mind is responsible for behavior: sensation, perception, attention, imagination, emotion, memory, and volition Dualism Descartes: that mind and body are separate but can interact. The body is machine like and the mind operates the machine. MaterialismDarwin: rational behavior can be fully explained by the workings of the nervous system Neuroplasticity nervous system's potential for physical or chemical change that enhances its adaptability to environmental change and its ability to compensate for injury Egyptian view of the brain Brain is not important for afterlife and discarded out of hand, despite the preservation of other organs: Cardiocentric position Cajal Individual cells that are not continuous and not connected Golgi Part of the interconnected net Synaptic Cleft the space between when the Neurotransmitteres diffuse across and then bind to proteins called receptors in the membrane Phrenology Feel the bumps on their head and decipher their brain potential Gall and Spurzheim They suggested that the cortex sends instructions to the spinal cord to command the muscles to move. Also discovered that the two brain hemispheres can interact Corpus Callosum connects the brain hemispheres Lateralized one cerebral hemisphere can perform a function not shared by the other Who discovered lateralization? Broca Broca's area the anterior speech region of the brain Broca's aphasia Syndrome that results from damage to the anterior speech region. Loss of language function: perception and comprehension is decent but they speak telegraphically, broken and slow Wernicke AphasiaVery poor speech comprehension, when they talk to you it is rapid and fluid but all messed up; word salad Carl Wernicke produced the first model of how the brain produces language Corticol Blindnessdamage to the visual cortex Ventral Stream pathway from the visual cortex to the temporal lobe for object identification Dorsal Stream pathway from the visual cortex to the parietal cortex to guide action relative to objects Conduction Aphasia Wernicke: speech sounds and movements are retained, but speech is impaired because it cannot be conducted from one region to the other. Two arcuate fibers connecting the two speech areas are cut and disconnect the areas but doesn't inflict damage on either one. Alexia the inability to read Ataxia You cannot move or have a difficult time moving. Make errors in reaching for objects while still being able to describe the object Prosopagnosia cannot recognize faces Apraxia: inability to recognize motor function; can be highly selective for specific things or very general Neuron Theory the idea that the unit of brain structure and function is the nerve cell 1. Neurons are discreet that interact but are not physically connected 2. Neurons send electrical signals that have a chemical basis 3. Neurons use chemical signals to communicate with one another Neurons produce our behavior and mediate the brain's plasticity, allowing us to learn and adapt Glial help the neurons out by holding them together like glue and providing other support and functions such as delivering nutrients and removing waste. How many Neurons and Glial cells does the nervous system contain? About 85 billion neurons and 86 billion glial cells 3 parts of a neuron Axon, cell body, dendrites Italian Anatomist: Golgi neurons are interconnected and form a net Spanish Anatomist: Cajal neurons are autonomous, providing the basis for functional localization. he was right Mesmerized: Mesmer means?Trying to use magnets to heal people, Mesmer's show became ornate; the power of suggestion, it was a giant placebo effect How many pairs of cranial nerves? 12 How many pairs of spinal nerves? 31 Dorsal towards your back Ventral Towards your front (belly) What does the dorsal root control? sensory function What does the ventral root control? Motor function Dorsal Root Ganglion Cluster of cell bodies in the central nervous system Lissencephally Disease where you have a smooth brain: a 3rd of the cortex as a healthy person: mental retardation Psychometrics science of measuring human abilities and statistical analysis Neurosurgery advancement in practical solution to some brain abnormalities in humans had an enormous influence Statistical Evaluation IQ Test Brain Imaging allows for a rapid correlation between symptoms and brain pathology which is an essential diagnosis tool


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