POSC 471 Notes for Final
POSC 471 Notes for Final POSC 471
Popular in POSC 471: Politics of the Underdeveloped World
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nick Richmond on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC 471 at Towson University taught by Matthew Hoddie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see POSC 471: Politics of the Underdeveloped World in Political Science at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Richmond NOTES AFTER SECOND TEST - Geography and Underdevelopment o The Resource Curse Defined: Countries with large amounts of mineral and fossil fuels have a guaranteed source of revenue Yet research suggests that countries that focus on natural resource extraction tend to have poor economic growth These states also confront challenges associated with effective governance Natural Resources and Economic Underdevelopment Explanations for the association between an abundance of natural resources and poor economic growth focus on: o Incentives for investment center on natural resources rather than industry o Price volatility for natural resources Michael Ross: Takes about the resource curse and the prospects it has for shaping violence o He says that rebel groups or government haven’t even started issues over natural resources. o These groups use their natural resources to keep funding the continuing war Natural Resources and Political Challenges Explanations for the association between an abundance of natural resources and political challenges focus on: o Incentives for corruption o Incentives for conflict over resource wealth o Available nontax revenue disconnects elites from citizens Indonesia: resource curse o Barriers to Exchange Significance of Barriers to Exchange Economic exchange through markets is central to wealth creation Countries that are isolated from markets are at a disadvantage in terms of opportunities for development Scholars note there are a number of ways that developing countries confront barriers to exchange Adam Smith: “Wealth of Nations” vvv Natural Barriers to Exchange Transportation of goods and people by water is much cheaper than land transport A number of poor regions of the world do not have ready access to water transport: o Africa’s coastline is 50% shorter than what is found in Europe. Most rivers have impassable waterfalls Nile River highly impassable because of high waterfalls Congo River highly impassable because of high waterfalls o South America’s coast lacks bays and much of the Amazon River is protected by dense rainforest HumanCreated Barriers to Exchange Other Barriers to exchange are a function of human activity. These include: o The Distance Tax: Wealthy states that are the hubs of economic activity tend to be far from the developing world. This imposes an added cost on exports and imports New York, London, Tokyo o Landlocked States: Africa has 15 countries without access to a port; Asia has 12. This increases the costs of transportation. o The Tropical Disadvantage Disease Diseases that are transported by mosquitos or flies thrive in tropical environments Examples of diseases in tropical zones include malaria and Chagas disease o Chagas is most found in South America, disease born by the “kissing bug” an insect. Exposure to tropical diseases lowers the productivity of those infected and their caregivers Low Agricultural Productivity Agricultural productivity is 30 to 40 percent lower in tropical zones in comparison to temperate climates This is a function of the fact that organic matter (fertilizer) decomposes quickly in high temperatures Richmond The heavy rains of tropical climates can also remove nutrients from soil Low Population Density Sparse population density is a function of: o Seeking refuge from disease at higher elevations o Low agricultural productivity and an ability to feed large populations This has resulted in relatively few of the urban areas that tend to be the centers of economic growth o Geographic Determinism? How important is geography? Some critics argue that an emphasis on the relationship between geography and its role in development is a mistake One concern is that it may lead some to think that the poverty of the Third World is natural Critics point out that some states have proven capable of overcoming challenges associated with geography Overcoming Geography Examples of successes in overcoming the influence of geography include the following: o States that have enjoyed high rates of economic growth despite the “resource curse” o Tropical states that have increased their agricultural productivity “Green Revolution”: modern farming techniques were introduced to the developing world. You can increase agricultural productivity if you have new, modern techniques. o Tropical states that have experienced declines in the incidence of tropical disease infections Malaysia and Singapore o Key Points to Remember Geographic conditions that are thought to limit opportunities for development are: The Resource Curse Barriers to Exchange The Tropical Disadvantage Scholars disagree about the degree to which these geographic conditions associated with underdevelopment may be overcome. - Environmental Change and Underdevelopment o The Causes of Climate Change Evidence of Global Warming It has been steadily increasing since the 1800’s. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming Greater levels of CO2 in the atmosphere is the chief cause of global warming CO2 holds the sun’s heat near the surface of the Earth Why are CO2 levels in increasing? Scientists describe the trend in global warming as anthropogenic climate change Human activities that increase carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are: o Burning trees and fossil fuels such as coal and oil o The destruction of forests that absorb CO2 Which countries are Responsible? A resident of a high income country typically emits four times the CO2 of a poor state Wealthy countries are responsible for twothirds of all CO2 emitted since 1980 Current trends suggest that poor states are now quick4ly increasing their CO2 emissions as well o The Consequences of Climate Change Climate Change and the Developing World For the most part, developing countries are not responsible for climate change Yet there is a consensus among researchers that they will disproportionately feel the effects of this change The costs associated with climate change will thus serve as another challenge to the development of poor states Adaption Costs Responses in the effects of climate change are termed adaptation costs Adaption costs include 1. Reduced agricultural output as a function of shorter growing periods and variable rainfall 2. Rising ocean levels and higher flooding risks Richmond 3. Human migration and conflict Mitigation Costs Expenditures to minimize the future release of CO2 are known as mitigation costs These might include switching to carbon free energy sources or minimizing deforestation Countries have been reluctant to accept mitigation costs, concerned that it will limit future economic development o Addressing Climate Change International Agreements Recognizing that the threat of climate change requires a global response, there have been efforts to establish international agreements to limit future CO2 emissions The UN Kyoto Protocol calls for CO2 emissions to go below 1990 levels. This agreement came into force in 2005, but was never ratified by the United States The Copenhagen Accord of 2009 includes only vague statements about the need for emission reductions. 2015 Paris Climate Talks 200 countries are meeting in Paris from November 30 to December 11th In anticipation of the meeting, countries have made different promises about reducing future carbon emissions o By 2025, the US promises to reduce emissions by 26% from 2006 levels o China promises that its emissions will peak by 2030 Collectively, the promised cuts in emissions are the greatest ever achieved. Without action by the government, the New York Times reports that the global temperature is expected to increase by more than EIGHT DEGREES by 2100. The government pledges made in anticipation of the Paris talks would limit the rise in temperatures to just over SIX DEGRESS by 2100. o Key Points to Remember Climate Change is a result of the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere The States that are chiefly responsible for these emissions are wealthy states The consequences of climate change are disproportionately felt by poor states Current international agreements to address climate change have proven inadequate. - The Discovery of new resources within a state (resource booms) has a positive short term effects and a negative long term effect. - Dutch Disease o Sharp appreciation in the value of a country’s currency. o Negative impact on an economy of anything that gives rise to a sharp inflow of foreign currency, such as the discovery of large oil reserves. o The currency inflows lead to currency appreciation, making the country’s other products less competitive on the export market. - Countries may avoid some of the effects of the resource curse if they have goodquality institutions. - In order to measure cognitive behavior, you must focus on the results of a IQ tests - The factor in shaping cognitive behavior is exposure to parasites - South America is the one region of the world for which their model does not prove effective at predicting levels of intelligence - Global warming has resulted in lower economic growth for the developing world - Global warming has resulted in slower economic growth in the agriculture and industry sectors. - Data sets test for a relationship between global warming and political instability - Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies o Jared Diamond o Explains why Eurasian civilizations have survived and conquered others, while arguing against the idea that Eurasian hegemony is due to any form of Eurasian intellectual, moral, or inherent genetic superiority. o Diamond argues that the gaps in power and technology between human societies originate in environmental differences For example, written language or the development among Eurasians of resistance to endemic disease o He asserts that these advantages occurred because of the influence of geography on societies and cultures For example, by facilitating commerce and trade between different cultures and they were not inherent in the Eurasian genomes o Environmental Determinism or Geographical Determinism Is the belief that the physical environment predisposes human social development towards particular trajectories A nineteenth and early twentiethcentury approach to the study of geography argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Richmond Geography, therefore, became focused on the study on how the physical environment affected, or even caused, human culture and activities This approach has been accused of supporting colonialism, euro centrism, and currently largely discredited. This crude view of human behavior has come under fierce criticism and has been, in part, displaced by environmentalism Jared Diamonds theory relates to this It states that botany; zoology, microbiology and social sciences all contribute to whether a country develops quickly. The topic of development and environmental determinism go hand in hand. - Parasite Stress Hypothesis o Leads them conclude that parasites cause reduction in average of intelligence (hesitates economic growth) in terms of geography health as a factor for economic development - Eppig, Fincher and Thornhill o Note on association between parasite prevalence and cognitive ability - How does prevalence of parasites within a state harm cognitive ability of citizens? o Brain is most costly and complex organ of the human body o 4 ways parasite infections effect body and brains energy: 1. Feed of host tissues: loss must be replace with energy from host 2. Inhibit intestine tract: limiting host’s take of nutrients 3. Virus replaces their cells: cost of energy 4. Attacks and wears their immune system over time
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