ANTR350 - Unit 1 Learning Objectives - Study Guide for EXAM 1
ANTR350 - Unit 1 Learning Objectives - Study Guide for EXAM 1 ANTR 350
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenay DeCaussin on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTR 350 at Michigan State University taught by Lindsey Jenny in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Lecture 1 Introduction to Anatomv Describe anatomical position using anatomical terminology O O O O 0 body is erect upright eyes and head facing anterior arms at either side of body palms facing forward forearms supinated thumb lateral feet parallel to each other and at on oor III De ne the following terms used for spatial orientationdirections and be able to give an example of each term in a sentence 0 Anterior ventra Posterior dorsal anterior towards the front posterior toward the back sternum is anterior to heart occipital bone is posterior to parietal bones MedialLateral medial toward midline of body lateral away from midline of body tibia is medial to bula bula is lateral to tibia ProximalDistal proximal closer to point of attachment distal further from attachment point humerus is proximal to radius tibia is distal to femur SuperiorInferior superior vertically above inferior vertically below thoracic cavity is superior to abdominopelvic cavity mandible is inferior to maxillae Super cialDeep super cial towards body surface deep further inside of body surface The external oblique is super cial to the internal oblique Identify all of the body regions on Figure 18 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 mgrrant manila r w ranialr lefll l f l h dl Egumun ing ha brain V Nasal new 1 D39hfFE39I th mm mm manual luauc ml had r llmouthj39 T E V39Jimv 3 1 a 1 Marital chiral Eenriml mack Ballard shunLamar II a p rn39la 3x l 3 Eigimid mu e i l similar5r mnmpiu Elamal lstsrrrun l r Pastoral sshem Thoracica Mammary Bream E nmr r Biennial farm EEH39IEI mlumnj Er a ftlal army ntmub a i r r mm album 17quot A bd 39lmal lawman Dianramal E39lb39 wil 1 mafiaanimal Antatnmc39hial a Lumhai l39mfml Flatair 319ml Elmawhmkl Emllhipl 39 Inguinalfgrs ira nlelirmhiall Carpal wrist l Iuteai rimquotml lliinzjmHE39n fd Ful lf H ul ma hand Falrnarlpalml r r 3 Hanna i lhantll l Digital linger Femoralllhighlir T Fem mallthighl 1 I 1 A r r 7 r Falellarlltneenap M r 7 F g lil l 39l k EE F x A A ll rum magi 1 Lg Emmi will I l l i H F 1 i fe Tarsali rawhide 1 Pet El n1 1T1 1 Dursum 31 the faint I r 39 L i v w I quot ameneal noel 1 la interior m lug EIEEi 39iiairr 0 Practice describing these body regions in relation to one another using anatomical direction terms I De ne the 3 standard anatomical planes Figure 15 o Sagittal vertical plane running parallel to long axis of body that divides it into unequal left and right portions 0 Frontal coronal vertical plane running parallel to long axis of body that divides body into anterior and posterior portions 0 Transverse horizontal horizontal plane running perpendicular to long axis of body organ or structure that divides it into superior and inferior portions Describe why a transverse plane through the foot is cut in a different plane than a transverse plane cut through the rest of the body Hint think about long axis of the body versus the long axis of the foot It is cut in a frontal plane because the long axis of the foot is perpendicular to the long axis of the rest of the body in anatomical position I Describe the difference between a midsagittal plane and a parasagitta lane p o A midsagittal plane divides the body into equal right and left portions and a sagittal plane divides it unequally Identify the planes used to make the 4 abdominal quadrants ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 o RUQ LLQ LUQ RLQ Identify the planes used to make the 9 abdominal regions no need to memorize the names of the 9 body regions 0 2 transverse planes and 2 sagittal planes 3 rows and 3 columns I Identify the anterior ventral and posterior dorsal body cavities and their subdivisions example mediastinum on Figure 19 o Posterior Aspect cranial cavity formed by cranium houses brain vertebral canal o Ventral Cavity Thoracic cavity mediastinum pericardial cavity L and R pleural cavities Abdominopelvic cavity parietal layer visceral layer peritoneal cavity containing serous uid 0 List the ventral body cavity subdivisions lined with serous membranes Table 14 thoracic cavity and peritoneal cavity of abdominopelvic cavity Lecture 2 Skeletal System Overview III Describe the composition of bone 0 Mature bone is composed of both compact and spongy bone Compact bone is found in the diaphysis and spongy bone is found in the epiphyses o The periosteum covers the outside of the bone39s surface and the endosteum lines the inner medullary cavity 0 Bone is composed of both organic and inorganic components 0 Inorganic compounds provide compressive strength and include calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite crystals 0 Organic cells collagen bers resist stretching and twisting add to exibility and ground substance semisolid materal that suspends and supports collagen bers make up only 13 of bone mass III Describe the properties of bone III List the functions of the skeletal system 0 support and protection 0 movement 0 Hemopoiesis 0 storage of mineral and energy reserves List the I different types of bones and give an example of each Figure 63 0 at bone frontal bone 0 irregular bone vertebrae ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 O 0 long bone femur short bone tarsal bone Identify the common features of long bones diaphysis epiphyses periosteum etc Figure 64 O diaphysis shaft long and cylindrical provides for leverage and major weight support of bone epiphyses knoblike ends enlarged to strength joint and provide SA for articulation tendon and ligament attachment metaphysis region between diaphysis and epiphysis contains epiphyseal plate in growing bone articular cartilage thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering epiphysis at a joint reduces friction and absorbs shock in movable joints medullary cavity hollow space in diaphysis endosteum incomplete layer of cells that covers all internal surfaces of the bone mostly the medullary cavity contains osteoprogenitor cells osteoblasts and osteoclasts and is active during bone growth repair and remodeling periosteum covers outer surface of bone besides where articular cartilage is present made of dense irregular connective tissue has outer brous layer and inner cellular layer anchored to bone by strong collagen bers called perforating bers running perpendicular to diaphysis protects bone and anchors blood vessels and nerves to it provides stem cells osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts for bone width growth and fracture repair I Describe the process of intramembranous ossi cation and give an example of a bone that develops from intramembranous ossi cation O 0000 mesenchyme is source of bones forms at bones of skull some facial bones zygomatic bone maxilla the mandible lowerjaw and the central part of the clavicle collarbone begins when mesenchyme becomes thickened and condensed with dense supply of blood capillaries D 1 Ossi cation centers form within thickened regions of mesenchyme 2 Osteoid undergoes calci cation 3 Woven bone and its surrounding periosteum form 4 Lamellar bone replaces woven bone as compact bone and spongy bone form I List the major steps of endochondral ossi cation and give an example of a bone that develops from endochondral ossi cation O O 0 begins with a hyaline cartilage model and produces most other bones of body including upper and lower limbs pelvis vertebrae and ends of clavicle 1 The fetal hyaline cartilage model develops 2 Cartilage calci es and a periosteal bone collar forms ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 O 3 The primary ossi cation center forms in the diaphysis 4 Secondary ossi cation centers form in the epiphyses 5 Bone replaces cartilage except the articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates 6 Epiphyseal plates ossify and form epiphyseal lines o What is the difference between a primary ossi cation center aka diaphysis and a secondary ossi cation center aka epiphysis OO 0 III List the steps of fracture repair 0 1 A fracture hematoma forms 0 2 A brocartilaginous soft callus forms procallus broblasts within produce collagen bers that help connect broken ends of bones chondroblasts D brocartilaginous callus for 3 weeks 0 3 A hard bony callus forms osteoprogenitor cells around callus become osteoblasts D produce trabeculae of primary bone D replaced by bony callus l34 months of thickening o 4 The bone is remodeled osteoclasts remove excess bony material from exterior and interior surfaces compact bone replaces primary bone Describe the role of osteons aka Haversian systems in bone remodeling o 0 Which bone cells are responsible for absorbing bone depositing bone and monitoring bone osteoblasts formed from osteoprogenitor cells cuboidal structure secrete initial semisolid organic form of bone matrix called osteoid produce new bone become osteocytes when trapped in secreted matrix that calci es osteocytes maintain bone matrix and detect mechanical stress on a bone mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts that were entrapped in their secreted matrix in small spaces of matrix called lacunae osteoclasts large multinuclear phagocytic cells derived from fused bone marrow cells ruf ed bordere where they contact bone to increase SA located in depression of bone called resorption lacunae involved in bone resorption hydrochloric acid secreted by osteoclasts D minerals of bone dissolved D lysosomes secrete enzymes to dissolve organic matrix D release of calcium and phosphate into blood osteolysis III Categorize the terms listed in Figure 617in terms of describing o A type of bony projection ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 crest narrow prominent ridgelike projection epicondyle projection adjacent to a conder line low ridge process any marked bony prominence ramus angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure spine pointed slender process trochanter massive rough projection found only on the femur tubercle small round projection tuberosity large rough projection o A type of bony depression alveolus deep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandible for teeth fossa attened ridge or shallow depression sulcus narrow groove 0 A type of bony opening canal passageway through a bone ssure narrow slitlike opening through a bone foramen rounded passageway through a bone sinus cavity or hollow space in a bone 0 A type of articulating surface 2 or more bones touching each other condyle large smooth rounded articulating oval structure facet small at shallow articulating surface head prominent rounded epiphysis trochlea smooth grooved pulleylike articular process III How many bones are found in a typical adult skeleton o 206 I Distinguish between the bones of the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton o axial skeleton consists of bones along the central axis of the body including the skull vertebral column and thoracic cage 0 appendicular skeleton consists of bones of upper and lower limbs bones that hold limbs to trunk of body pectoral and pelvic girdles III Describe how osteoporosis affects the skeleton o Osteoporosis is a pathological loss of bone density that results in fractures Areas of the femoral neck vertebral bodies distal radius wrist and other areas with large amounts of spongy bone are most affected by osteoporosis o Osteopenia is the normal loss of bone density with age Lecture 3 Joints Overview Recorded lecture on D2L III Describe the relationship between joint stability and joint mobility o The more stable a joint is the less mobile example cranial sutures are very stable but do not move under normal circumstances The more ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 mobile a joint is the less stable and more likely to be injured glenohumeral joint I Explain the difference between the systems of functional classi cation of joints and structural classi cation ofjoints 0 Structural classi cation based on tvpe of connective tissue holdind ioint tooether Fibrous sutures between cranial bones Gomphoses to hold teeth in alveoli Syndesmoses with interosseous membrane between radius and ulna and tibia and bula Gomphoses synarthrosis joint peg in socket alveolar processes Sutures immovable between bones of skull distinct interlocking and irregular edges D increased strength and decrease fractures ossify in adulthood causing them to become synostoses Syndesmoses articulating bones joined by long strands of dense connective tissue only slight mobility D amphiarthrosis between radius and ulna tibia and bula which are bound by interosseous membrane pivot point for one another Cartilaginous symphysisintervertebral disc joints and pubic symphysis synchondroses between sphenoid and occipital bone between diaphysis and epiphyses of long bones in children between costal cartilage of the rib and the manubrium chostochondral junctions between costal cartilage and rib bones Synchondroses bones joined by hyaline cartilage immobile synarthrosis chostochondral joints Symphyses pads of brocartilage between articulating bones resisting compressing and tension shock absorbing amphiarthroses pubic symphysis and intervertebral joints Synovial glenohumeral joint zygopophyseal joints costovertebral joints hip knee ankle most joints are synovial 0 Functional Classi cation based on movement normallv allowed Synarthrosis immovable joint Amphiarthrosis slightly movable joint Diarthrosis freely movable joint I Identify the features of synovial joints labeled on Figure 94 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 lerlipsi eum quotii allow m marrpw Fibrous layer Artimlr cpsule Salim uvial ll39lflEElll iEilFEill Ir 1 j r llxinijcaviriy l i rl mi l liimg synovial Ellluiidf Articullar wriiilaax u ii I L J I 1 a r1 jr 1 1 5 r A 1 AI Ulgi ii llil lfl i o Typil symuil joint 0 What does articular cartilage prevent Damage to articulating ends of the bone by reducing friction during movement acting as spongy cushion to absorb compression placed on bones Regular exercise is vital to maintaining healthy articular cartilage because it enhances its nutrition and waste material This hyaline cartilage is avascular De ne what a ligament is and describe their function 0 Ligaments connect bone to bone They are important for stabilizing synovial joints to prevent excessive abnormal movement of the joint Ligaments can be intrinsic part ofjoint capsule itself or extrinsic not part of the joint capsule but still stabilizing the joint I De ne what a tendon is and explain how it is different from a ligament o A tendon connects muscles to bones and when the muscle contracts the tendon moves the bone it is attached to creating movement at the joint the muscletendon crosses over Some tendons cross multiple joints forearm muscle tendons that attach to distal phalanges and so these tendons will act on all of the hand joints that they cross ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 I Distinguish between osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease and rheumatoid arthritis See the Clinical View on Arthritis 0 What structures within the joint does each affect The synovial membrane rst becomes in amed over time this in ammation begins to cause damage to the articular cartilage and bone becomes eroded o In general what types ofjoints does each affect synovial joints Describe the 3 basic types of movement allowed normally by joints List an example of the following types of synovial joints plane gliding hinge pivot ball and socket 0 plane gliding intercarpal and intertarsal joints hinge elbow knee ngerjoints pivot atlantoaxial joint ballandsocket hip glenohumeral joint saddle carpometacarpal of thumb condylar metacarpophalangeal of ngers 2 and 5 atlantooccipital joint I De ne the following terms used to describe joint movements and give an example of each 0 AbductionAdduction abduction away from midline of body adduction toward midline of body 0 FlexionExtension exion decreasing angle between articulating bones extension increasing angle between articulating bones o PronationSupination pronation toward back of body or downward supination toward front of body or lying upward o Rotation lateral twisting OOOOO Lecture 4 Axial SkeletonThe Skull Identify the bones sutures and bony features of the skull labeled on Figures 72 74 76 78 79 722 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Pareta bane anta time E hennid bane Erutural bane F39 a u A D ipi a inane Eihm i DIEFIE Temipnml brie N al l i l39IE r 7 Lamina bune Maxill Mandible 7 10 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Framed bane Perinatal berm Shawna Supemiliaw arrch Snipra milai i h Temgmal bizHE Epheenaidi bane Eihmrnid brie La rima bane Ma alb ne Inz39f r mbiiai remen i quot A Eup ambital margin Eupuambiial E nramen i Superm Irilisal fiazaure mariner emita Ei39seun e A Perpendicuialr piale h E 7 Ma a Humer inferiim nasal nera Enigma nasal Spine Eggma a ElamIE r Ma xi ililla Manama p maeagag 39 Mariame Meniai funnelI Meme mmberan e Parietal bane Supemiiia r arch Gjlaheila 7 Suprambi al With 7 Eupramma magi L FErnp ra i Erna Egghenmd bane E a I n I Sumerian mnl fissure Lazar irim al bane 1 inferim i t it l 39iissure MESH bane r Persia1n Ti U Eijli39 male if rethtmaid Hishe Hbrrner 7 l39nii erinar naeal tenths Ani ri r nasal EirfsinE Infrra mital imamen SeptJim Eyg zmatit butane maxilla hE iar princes5amp5 Mandiibil Mental f ramen 11 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 G mnal suiure 1 Fr FIIEI hangar Paarieial eminence Euperimr lempmal iiiJE Parietal tune I I rnliatigr lemp ral line EQUEITI39HEIEJE SU39IHJIT39E39 quotquot H quot39e Jil iihm quotini gunquot aquot Pilgrim l L Lam a i smum 13 f4 H navy r 7 Emma mine a URL 5 Emma in Ephemeral rlmne great2r wing 39 A Di mi ml mnm ri awl tmne TEmgmal ih xn Lamimal b l Ethmmu Iguana Dag3mm bane r Exiernai amuatin meatws Ef i i in rm Maxine Mia Eta1d iprmesa Etyi ai pr EES 7 Head Eli man ijtul in maritiibu lar Biz333 Remus all man ih IE Eycmaiil pmtea 13 f1 I s31quot mandible m ampsm tir39ne 39 7 ir i 1 4 E 39 i 1 r Em m ah Smirk r n L E ral r l l 39rl39zemgpqra premise F Mental pmiuherance 11 EWQE I IHHQ Mane r al Emma anmi Elana 7 r superiw 13m r3i i E Parieial EITIifIE EE Farletzijll b i ira feriar Emperal Binnie Eqwarnziua mime r P39IEFiEi Equamtaus part Larnijid i Suium Ell tempera bum Tempmmi binTIE r ningBig inane QFEEIEF wing i l lungan r Lamimal BinM r Ethmid I E cciipiitl hernia Emmemailil bane Ma aid print5355 Styieid Farm 235 Fill ll mail a Heal Di f l39ldl i LE39 ira mandibular fem Flamus uni man iile Egangarriatic EmilHES if Emanuel bane Egg 3 mm i 39 i E email are m 397 Mental lawman Animal pmbuh mnce Terrapinrel prewar if aggnmaim Iiime Lateral Iiilaw 12 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Imiam inrarriEr39a EPHFEIin IE Eilill l 39 Il39r39laflla 7 Hard palate I a Tempered ml lad zygrnmaa39lir banne A r 1 Ergm biE pI39EEHJEEE p Em mm mg i341 quottemral bane i Falaiina Eranline EETEIE I IEI Human EFh wn id Erma L 33935 maid 3393 39PiEr39p39El id imameriu39a39ae w gt a Medal lewmd Flam me Eiymidi eeing Man mular magi Emiianr gnarl End mammal Emma T emip r l Ethane Mamaid pm a s mimimn yia HyW l E l mnai Hummer ma mm Faramen animaum Faramen Iamrum Sirlmabzuid faramenr Juguilaf39 f mmn armit Eternal Meatma mramunr E s n mpii l EFEEE Lan39lli i ELFle Ini39ewirm u39chal ane i I Ii r Swarm Hum12 Inna External mlm l m ummn g Incisim imamam r quot Iaa Ham Filmy mam Palair m Emma Tempmm nmmsg u aygmmaii Dime 39 Eyign39ma lg Him935 Izi l IE iil mi Erarue rLa l ralj id Jam Pg p HF IEzry39gmd P Eii nli P r l l m Eygcamatin amh nearia r Harmer Herdim Iii1Ei39 i39 liiid mime 1 E h mi Zuzana FWEEHES Slyluzgld p 2 55 Mandihmlan Eu 3 TENSIme heme FEEamen main FGHEH39IE H apingum Fmamean nammm D cipiial Mastni manage HFD E l i gaglat 739 EI ailar gnarl in mgipiial Fla E ryinma mid remen Jugul ar imam ea39l Eamti mn l 39 Fummen magnum liai39ag39li faramen 39 Exiam39aii mi itai GTEEl L l l iti Suium i iarire r u i ll lia iE Eugencur nugha l lime v Exl m minim r 39iui niterim view 13 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 anlal sinua Fremlal areal Emmi h l Cri51a ga li Tquot 39 39139 m glihr mm Erma Ethn39nm l Blame 3min Liana LEEEEK wing rf E h r ln Ammarmi m f l s Femmen Manama 1 Swimmid new Hm 11F E 39l iiij SEILEIJ imagine angama nanaala T mpmml blame FEEEI IHET39 Epumgum P l ri i ii i Fn amnn lamrum Immall Hawaiiz mrEEIEUE Jugular E f m 39 Hymlmsa cam rmus I m igmigj ginmg Ragnarquot mm til wigth Fatmus part i39a lemp ra l bane Fmamcn magnum F r al l banEH agninth Erna rmma TIET Emmalarge Einu F E II I39IEHI IEII I c i HEIJIIEFEEE Internal maplml pmiuba aransze S wlih E Ehn y u E El Festari m Frrun lal meet F mnlai byline r mm g ili 7 1 an h LEEEEH wing lei meiinr lini gang253 Elana IUE CiE F lf I iu m39 EFiI39IEI39 IEJi in rm 39 iF i l Eriwtl39a39 IEr Emam mng 12 Whamaid n r fFlil39Ia39 i39i IEH smmwm Tamparail than 1 Fumman IEIEE39TIJI39I39I FUSE39i39H 39imi39i Fm 39 r miEquot Ir39i39ircmali a miic mains dugul r raramen EHypmglnasaai canal Emma f1in miniails rm iBiiEIEiIE ur Il ipital tuna F tr ua pa urt l mammal burlE FrEln l iil fl magmm Parietal Inning Gim r rE E EIFE Sil39llJE inci iial tr ne mammal Emma gn t lna39lHITI Iai tti i39iaj li lu r r m Shac i nlzl Elitula EUFm39TiElF viaH 14 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 r E39y lii39l 39EJiEHJFEIJI loam t 7 altemporalhoha 71 ifquotT 39l r l il ll l if i Headuf jninl HEM Gil failIHIlIZI lul r M i i l mande foramen prefuteranse r P39 manc jubm a my Enrmai pramssh aquot 31 Maggif w if V Mandibular imam12quot I Ganderlameness 1 ll H 1 quotL my art hiandimlarriutth a W a y w d r 7 Myluil39 zi lint 2 r HalliElia 739 g l V J Cmdyiar minim prams I shadow T 351 iaijiantal39lnram n v ny quotll Em quot Pale lial 1 quot protuh mnm i l 39r MEMING 3 little ndih la laiaml trialw Explain which bones contribute to the face and which bones contribute to the cranium brain case 0 14 Facial Bones maxillae nasal bones lacrimal bones zygomatic bones inferior nasal conchae palantine bones and unpaired vomer and mandible o 8 Cranial bones ethmoid frontal bones occipital bones sphenoid bone parietal bones temporal bones Identify the bony openings that transmit the internal carotid artery internal jugular vein and middle meningeal artery 0 Jugular foramen transmits internal jugular vein 0 Carotid canal transmits internal carotid artery 0 Foramen spinosum transmits middle meningeal artery Explain the clinical relevance of trauma to the pterion region of the skull o The pterion is the Hshaped area where the frontal parietal temporal and sphenoid bones articulate It is the weakest part of the skull and the middle meningeal artery travels deep to it Traumatic injury to the pterion may therefore cause a rupture in the middle meningeal artery possibly leading to an epidural hematoma List the bones that contain paranasal sinuses o Paranasal sinuses are air lled chambers that open into the nasal cavity They help humidify and warm inhaled air as well as create resonance in the voice 0 Found in the frontal ethmoid maxilla and sphenoid bones De ne fontanelle and explain how craniosynostosis would affect cranial growth 15 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 o Fontanelles are temporary regions between the cranial bones that are not yet fused together They are thickened brous membrane remnants that hold the area together and are found in babies quotsoft spotsquot They allow for the skull to change shape when passing through the birth canal o Craniosynostosis is the premature fusing of one or more cranial sutures It causes the skull to expand more than usual in the plane perpendicular to the closed suture resulting in abnormal skull shape quotplagiocephalyquot Other complications can include increased intracranial pressure optic nerve compression and intellectual disability due to restricted brain growth I Identify the bony features articulations the make up the temporomandibular 39oint J o The temporomandibular joint is a condylar synovial joint where the head condylar process of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone Identify the general location of hyoid bone located inferior to the skull between the mandible and the larynx 0 Describe the function of the hyoid bone attachment sites for muscles and ligaments of the tongue and larnyx 0 Does the hyoid articulate with any other bones No Lecture 5 Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage List the 5 regions of the vertebral column Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral o Coccyx Describe the features of a quottypicalquot vertebrae from the cervical thoracic and lumbar regions 0 Cervical small and light because supporting only weight of head have transverse foramina on the transverse processes passage for vertebral arteries and veins supplying the brain 0 Thoracic lack transverse foramina and bi d spinous processes heart shaped body larger than cervical spinous process is pointed and long have costal facets or demifacets on lateral side of body and sides of transverse processes 0 Lumbar largest vertebrae thicker oval shaped large body lack transverse foramina and costal facets transverse processes are thin and project dorsolaterally spinous processes are thick and project 0000 16 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 dorsally bear most weight of body extensive SA for attachment of inferior back muscles 0 Sacrum triangular forms posterior wall of pelvic cavity apex is the narrow pointed portion projects inferiorly bone39s broad superior surface is the base 5 fused vertebrae that fuse between puberty and late 205 transverse ridges are horizontal lines of fusion superior articular process where sacrum and L5 articulate vertebral canal very narrow here and terminates at the sacral hiatus sacroiliac joint is the strong immovable site of articulation between 05 coxae of pelvic girdle and ala wings of sacrum o Coccyx four small coccygeal vertebrae fused by age 25 can fuse to sacrum as well in older people attachment site for ligaments and muscles III Describe the key features of C1 C2 and C7 0 C1 Atlas no body no spinous process 0 C2 Axis dens 0 C7 Vertebra Prominens large spinous process I Explain where the spinal cord and spinal nerves are located in relation to the vertebral column 0 spinal cord D vertebral canal o spinal nerves l intervertebral foramina o vertebral arteries l transverse foramina I What bony openings transmit the vertebral artery transverse foramina List the 3 spinal curvature abnormalities 0 Kyphosis exaggerated primary curvature thoracic often related to osteoporosis or other pathological conditions quothunchbackquot o Lordosis exaggerated secondary curvature lumbar found in pregnant women obesity or cases of weak back of abdominal muscles quotswaybackquot o Scoliosis lateral curvature of the spine often occurs during development before puberty I What part of the vertebrae fails to fuse in spina bi da occulta o Spina bi da results in lamina and spinous processes that are either not developed or not formed Spina bi da occulta is less serious with only a small defect in the lamina and spinous process while spina bi da cystica results in a larger defect and cystic structure protruding on the back 0 Spina bi da occulta incomplete vertebral arch Identify the bony features labeled on gure 729 and 730 17 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 EHPHinra nulgar man 511mm am umr pram WWW i ariiwlalr I e caf LI F i i a rial reman Tl39anmlEIEEE mirage quot us ism 5 Spinal mare Imml nan animusgnaw we 1 i quot J Inierim ammtanpmas lag himquotinf ariieulair W Laurel Email EII39NIi lJIEI II39IEIET39I39EFIEbl l dim inliariagnr f l 12 I4 r pm s 1h Pauladim 18 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 intErnst arch mlenm amt I H I H i F r39i l fllia uh l r lc easierts tu rtl l Elipeerinr articular lanai Ti39arisirerse 1 7 WMEFE S 3 Transverse r i r ranges I l 75 l 1 1 hp ill Hummer l I V n Pasterim a i rear 3 VJ IiuljersEJEe 1 W 3P 39 ti1a r 1 l i U n s l H P l im l 39 Peelero ELF3H at Mina if superior view is 1 hitam nr l 3 f xl Den l i Law I Stmz up m r ar l39ltular FEED Transverse lawman i Traitjava rate process 7 Falwell r LHMIHSV Sginaus process llziilidla Pa anhf E21 nds Cg FEE EEFEEMpEll i39 vial1i liking of miam c ia FIEIEE fll39 ti39l f EDGE 1E GENE w E39Cr 39a39erle ijraii c7 a 3 Bengt 1 A quotIfquot 1 w j in l l II Iii K 7 r 1 ea 7 7 l Alias Tia nweraa E1 Hartebrain ligament AME ESE t39 r39leljraifl mils 4393 writelira 1 Atlas and swim gFl ElEEElDEQIFiHti fl39 i39iEl39 39 Describe the location and bony articulations of the following joints atlantooccipital atlantoaxial zygapophyseal facet Intervertebral disc 19 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 o Atlantooccipital SAPs of C1 atlas and occipital condyles of occipital bone Diarthordal synovial condylar Shake head quotyesquot movement rocking o Atlantoaxial median joint interior arch atlas and dens of axis lateral joints lAPs of C1 and SAPs of C2 3 total joints contribute Diarthordal synovial pivot Shake head quotnoquot rotation o Zygapophyseal facet between inferior articulating processes of a superior vertebrae and the superior articulating process of an inferior vertebrae Diarthordal synovial plane Cervical facet joints are oriented in an oblique plane allowing for exionextension Thoracic facet joints are oriented in a frontal plane allowing for rotation Lumbar facet joints are oriented in a sagittal plane allowing for exionextension o lntervertebral disc joints between the bodies of two adjacent vertebrae Function Ampiarthrosis Structure Symphysis o What movements do these joints allow Explain how an injury to the intervertebral disc can occur and what happens to the layers of the intervertebral disc when it is injured herniated o Herniated discs occur when the gelatinous nucleus puposus protrudes into or through the anulus brosus This quotbulgingquot of the disc posterolaterally into the vertebral canal and pinches the spinal cord andor nerves of the spinal cord 0 The cervical and lumbar intervertebral discs are the most common discs to be injured because the vertebral column has a great deal of mobility in these regions and the lumbar region bears increased weight What other anatomical structures can be affected by this injury cervical herniated disc D neck pain pain down upper limb lumbar D low back pain f disc pinches nerve bers patient may feel pain down entire limb l sciatica Identify the two longitudinal ligaments that help to reinforce the vertebral column Figure 913 o Anterior ALL and Posterior PLL longitudinal ligaments 0 They attach the intervertebral discs 0 ALL prevents hyperextension o PLL prevents hyper exion 0000 20 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 nalising i r H iiiibim ua Int rt b I H Him ling dlima E m quot pulp351115 Fa at n 1 V l 3 x EMIEJEifli ilquot Ejflliii iull jr 39 r L I 39 lmGEES a lPDE Ii ir lilquot fr 7 limiiitiLHcillimali Lquot IIIiQHI i39iI di liniiE ll39iilquot La iuzszuilar prim 3355 lqu i i 39 airlijiGullajr mm a ilini itar p mnu a Illig mm EiL Elli39EjEilpgiii IIULE L 9 Illig mn d llJig mnmum a rir liaizuni rlmdiinall i lrnn liigajnnrenit n I Identify the following features of the thoracic cage on Figure 732 superior thoracic aperture inferior thoracic aperture intercostal space costal margin subcostal plane 21 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 The Tharacic Cage fig ID thaEEEZ 1 A Superir thnracric a erture i Iinfesrim thematic aperture MEmuster spam space bit ribs i1 Basia margin inmriar margin v E Sub ust piane transverse plane benea nib 1 Casin E rib 22 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Hanubrlum 39 EMPIEEIEWIEil mi h quot 77 r V El auizaulaw Warmw F V 77 mm Hanuhrinu E quot 1 1 match JED 139 S1ema39lai39igle Tim ribs iiiii False rubs iii119 Flaming grin5 11112 Describe how ribs are divided into quottruequot quotfalsequot and quot oatingquot based on their attachments 23 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Ribs 955 12 Flair tetal II 339 in 1 an m i39quot m n E a 3 FF 3 A H to tharaeic vertebrae True ribe 1 7 Attach he the sternum anteater is individual aaetai eartilagee False rihe u 1 Attach ta eae tai cartilage at a eupe erhba Flaatin ribs 1139 Have rue anteriar attachment Identify the anatomical features of a typical rib on Figures 732 and 733 24 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 7 H33 NIBIii BEL i I miner21E Ni 1 w mm Marianna mJJar l azets Ewan AWE ll ruminantrel tzzlvana WWW quotquot i l 1 l39EGErli l quota i 7 sir213 r titr nwmi Pro1653 i 9 V lLItuar le 7 l PEy Lhmx FitE quot IIZIEIITITEIEB t V a Hajj 1 a 39 r I rumba j EEJ Qumran r i ii Wis r gw 7 g 1 z LL L iJJnIElilmwltli martial carnage 5239 Fun Ia EUEFIH39IEW TU Ei n2 E Err l39lti Ei iliilJlEitI m I39m h 39i39quot the ti r a I TFEEIFIE39J39E39I39EE Fl f IEIEE E39Ei E 2 LEErel mm III List the 3 parts of the sternum o Manubrium 0 Body 0 Xiphoid process I Explain the clinical signi cance of the sternal angle 0 Important palpable clinical landmark ridge 0 Lies anterior to T4T5 IV disc 0 Location of rib 2 is important landmark for listening to heart valves 0 Sternal angle is location of aortic arch amp trachea bifurcation Describe the location and bony articulations of the following joints costovertebral costotransverse sternocostal manubriosternal costochondral o Costovertebral joints located between head of a rib and a vertebral body Ribs 29 articulate with 2 vertebral bodies glidingtype joints 25 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Stern Linn Costotransverse Joints between tubercle of rib and transverse process costal facet of a thoracic vertebra The oating ribs do not have these Sternocostal Joints between sternaend of costal cartilage and the sternum Rib 1 sternocostal joint is synchondroses The rest Rib 27 are synovial gliding joints Manubriosternal Joint between manubrium and body of the sternum at the sterna angle Symphysis joint in adults Hingelike movements in respiration Costochondral Junction located where each rib 110 attached to its costal cartilage Sternocostal joint Mnuh mtemiai Joint Costocihondral junction 26 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Lecture 6 Skeletal Muscle Overview Recorded lecture on D2L III List the 3 types of muscle tissue 0 O O Skeletal tissue moves the body by pulling on bones of the skeleton Cardiac tissue found only in the heart generates the blood pressure that drives blood through the arteries and veins of the circulatory system Smooth tissue is found in the walls of most blood vessels and in the walls of visceral organs of the digestive tract and urogenital system I List the functions of skeletal muscle 0 Motion Via skeletal muscle shortening contraction move skeleton and produces movement at joints Suppo Maintain posture and balance support visceral organs Thermoregulation Produce heat via shivering when body is cold Heat is a byproduct of muscle contraction Glucose Homeostasis Uptake and storage of glucose BUT cannot release glucose into bloodstream between meals like liver can do Storage and Movement of Materials Sphincters and ori ces contract around gastrointestinal and urinary tracts Identify the following features of skeletal muscles labeled on Figure 101 27 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Hunh hnr In Mamie n mush earm III Describe how skeletal muscles are attached to other structures 0 Tendon connects muscles to bones o Aponeurosis thin sheetlike tendon Attaches a skeletal muscle to another skeletal muscle 0 Bony attachments origin is more xed insertion is more movable 0 Some muscles don39t have bony attachments at both ends Sphincters circular guard and entrance Facial muscles attaching to skin Some attach to other muscles or tendons oblique abdominal muscles III De ne agonist synergist and antagonist o Agonist prime mover primary muscle whose contraction produces a speci c allowable motion at a joint 28 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 o Synergist quothelper musclesquot to agonists xators stabilize a joint while agonist is active 0 Antagonists produce opposing motion of agonist is passively stretching while agonist is actively contracting III Explain how skeletal muscles are named 0 Location body regions FuncUon Shape Number of Heads Fiber Direction Attachment Points Size 000000 Lecture 7 Axial Muscles Describe the attachment and actions of the following muscles Sternocleidomastoid SCM Splenius muscles Erector Spinae muscle group Transversospinalis muscle group 0 Sternocleidomastoid Attachments sternum and clavicle D mastoid process posterior to the ear Bilateral contraction neck and head exion Unilateral contraction contralateral rotation and ipsilateral exion Super cial to large vesselsnerves of neck 0 Splenius muscles Attachments Bilateral contraction extends head amp neck Unilateral contraction produces same side rotation amp same side exion of head 0 Erector Spinae Attachments share common tendinous insertion from posterior part of iliac crest posterior sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae Bilateral contraction extend vertebral column important postural mm Unilateral contraction same side exion o Transversospinalis Attachments inferior transverse processes D superior transverse processes Consists of 3 layers of muscle Semispinalis Multifundus Rotatores 29 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Bilateral contraction stabilization of VC extend the VC and head Unilateral contraction opposite side rotation Occupy the quotgutterquot between transverse processes and spinous processes I Explain what ipsilateral and contralateral mean in relation to muscle actions 0 lpsilateral contraction movement on same side 0 Contralateral contraction movement on opposite side I Explain how unilateral muscle contraction is different from bilateral muscle contraction in terms of muscle actions 0 Unilateral only one side contracts 0 Bilateral both sides RampL contract together I Identify the following muscles labeled on gure 1111 Spi hall is Lungissimu lliomstalia All a r 39 l 39 39 1 l 11111 Li ll 1 39 I I 1E in m I Describe the ber directions of the following muscles external abdominal oblique internal abdominal oblique rectus abdominis and transversus abdominis o Rectus abdominis vertical muscle bers 0 EAO quothands in pocketsquot ber direction 30 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Unilaterally rotates trunk to opposite side lateral exion of same side 0 IAO quotup amp inquot ber direction Unilaterally rotates trunk to opposite side same side lateral exion 0 Transverse abdominis horizontal muscle bers compress abdomen and increase intraabdominal pressure I Describe the actions of the anterolateral wall muscles as a group anterolateral wall muscles include the external abdominal oblique internal abdominal oblique rectus abdominis and transversus abdominis o All function together to ex the trunk of the body I Explain what the rectus sheath is and what muscle it encloses o brous sleeve encloses rectus abdominis Identify the muscles and features labeled on gure 1114 Reetsue Abdeminue RA eeterier midline peele i efe ef tenineue ineeripfiene fund within ebdemi ell epemeureeie Veriieel mueele fiere Aetiene enlireeiien helpe t eempreeeee ebdemen rte inereeeee ilhtreedrminel pressure a Re ele eenfribuiee ie bilaterally flexing trunk Ceeered by the Reetue Sheath see page 119 1114 31 E I Identify the surface landmarks labeled on gure 133 31 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 Etemeeleieenaeteid HE 5quot quot 39 l hiiimid E l l Gleam 3w i Tragealua heirernien an A jg Eupraeternal netel39i ngm 5 Manubrium l Etemal angle 39 and Eternurn l Peeteralla rnaler 39 a Kimeie ereeee Nine 9 x 1 1 Eeatal margin f eff q Infraaten39ial angle Eerratue anterier link H l i l 39l l Ll Tenelineue intereeetien a i g Heme atuzlemlnle Il EL FL 39 1 External eblieue if 5 LIIlea Ema anterier aurier in L 5 a Un39ileilieua iliaeaeine a g t i 1 1 1 1 gt Jan L 5 5quot 39 lng Ulnal llmurnent 7 7 g 7 it IMli Eg aniamieIr mime r Tra eaiue Etemeeleidernaateid t a F39 I Aerernlen El w 7 If Supraaternal netel39i Dam39d 1r Edarnubrium r Etemal angle Eternurn F eeteralia n39iajer a 3333 areela e Ei neid ereeeee ngele 1 1 Em t Eeatal margin a 4 l Infraeten39lal angle PEER Fleetue alederninie a r 5E Linea allea lquotL f Firkin 1 Umleilieue External elelieue L EL hpi enterier eggmien E iliaeeeine H1 aniearier view I Words to know 0 hypertmphy enlarge 32 ANTR 350 Unit 1 Learning Objectives Fall 2015 o resorb eat away as in bone cartilage 33
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