Endosymbiotic theory: Mitochondria and plastids (such as chloroplasts) originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by a host cell. The engulfed cell and the host cell then involved into a single organism.
Endosymbiosis: A relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of the other.
I. Domain Eukarya
a. 4 kingdoms
b. True nucleus
c. Contains other membrane-bound organelles
e. Sexually reproducing (also asexual)
i. Sexual reproduction is different from asexual because it involved meiosis.
ii. Haploid (n): half the number of parental DNA (chromosomes) n=23 in humans
iii. Diploid (2n): 46 in humans
iv. Homologous chromosomes (maternal + paternal similar chromosomes)
v. Mitosis: produces more cells of the same kind.
1. Replication + 1 division.
vi. Meiosis: 1 replication + 2 divisions
1. 2n???? n with variation caused by:
a. Crossing over
b. Independent assortment Don't forget about the age old question of What geologic processes are currently acting or have acted on the landscape?
vii. Gamete: reproduction cell; n; undergoes fusion (syngamy) with another gamete to produce a zygote
1. Plasmogamy: fusion of cell parts other than nuclei
2. Karyogamy: fusion of nuclei
ix. Zygote: 2n;
x. Spore: 2n/n, single/multicellular, sexual/asexual, dormancy and dispersal
xi. 3 Basic patterns of sexual reproduction:
1. Zygotic meiosis: (earliest form of reproduction)
a. Fungi and most Protista
We also discuss several other topics like How do you arrange data in an array?
b. The zygote undergoes meiosis We also discuss several other topics like How does variety of lean protein affect eating pattern?
c. Haploid + haploid = zygote +meiosis = haploid + haploid
d. Life cycles include only 1 diploid cell
2. Gametic meiosis:
a. Animalia and some Protista
b. Gametes produced by meiosis
c. Gametes are the only haploid cells in the life cycle
3. Sporic meiosis:
a. Plantae and some Protista
b. Alternation of generations (haploid alternates with diploid)
c. Spores are produced by meiosis in diploids organisms (sporophytes)
d. Gametes are produced by mitosis in haploid organisms (gametophytes)
f. Evolutionary trends:
i. Single-celled ???? multicellular Don't forget about the age old question of What were the challenges of the adams administration?
ii. Asexual ???? sexual
iii. Zygotic ???? gametic ???? sporic meiosis
iv. isomorphic ???? heterotrophic
1. gametophyte: makes gametes (n)
2. sporophyte: makes spores (2n)
3. Isomorphic: you can’t tell the difference between a gametophyte and a sporophyte Don't forget about the age old question of Is sodium sulfide ionic?
Don't forget about the age old question of How do you solve a lagrangian equation?
4. Heterotrophic: you can clearly tell the difference.
v. Dominant gametophyte ???? dominant sporophyte
vi. Isogamy ???? anisogamy (also called oogamy)
1. Isogamy: identical gametes
2. Anisogamy: not the same gametes
II. Kingdom Protista
i. Mostly unicellular
ii. Zygotic, gametric, or sporic meiosis
iii. Heterotrophic, autotrophic, or mixotrophic
iv. 4 or 5 monophyletic clades
v. An abandoned taxon (or soon to be) because taxons should be monophyletic
b. Phylum Diplomonadida
i. Kind of looks like a cartoon kid with glasses
ii. Have multiple flagella
iii. Two large nuclei
iv. No mitochondria
v. Typically live in the gut of vertebraes.
c. Phylum parabasala
i. Synapamorphy (defining characteristic): a parabasal organ
1. A large and modified gogi apparatus
2. Connected to the basal body of flagellum
ii. Some parasites; some free living
1. Trichomonas vainalis causes an STD
2. Triconympha spp looks
iii. Looks like plankton on spongebob
iv. Microtubule structure extending through the cell: axostyle
d. Phylum Kinetoplastida
i. Movement and plastid (organelle)
ii. Kinetoplast: a large mitochondria that drive movement
2. Trypanoscma brucei: parasite of humans and flies. Carries African Sleeping Sickness.
iv. Look like snake fish
e. Phylum euglenozoa (Also called euglenophyta when plant-like)
i. Very often photosynthetic
ii. Very motile
iii. Free living
iv. Contain a little red spot called a stigma: a little red spot of pigment that changes depending on the light and influences the way flagellum moves. Moves towards the light. v. Phototaxis (+): moves toward the light.
f. Phylum Dinoflagellata
ii. 2 kinds of flagella:
1. Longitudinal: orients movement
2. Circumferal: goes around a groove in the waist
iii. Looks like an evil space ship
v. Bloom: a large concentration of gymnudinium
vi. Red tide: kills fish; very frequent in Mobile.
1. Noctiluca: sea sparkle; noticeable at night; bioluminescent
g. Phylum apicomplexan
i. Synapamorphy; apical complex
ii. Apex used for penetrating hosts cells
iii. All parasitic
iv. Complex life cycle
1. Multiple hosts
2. Go dormant and form spores
1. Plasmodium spp. –causes malaria
a. Anopheles mosquito
b. Primary hosts (in which the species carries out sexual reproduction) vs.
secondary hosts (in which the species carries out asexual reproduction)
vi. Plasmodium life cycle:
1. Mosquito “injects” sporozoite (n)
2. Sp. Travels through blood ???? liver ???? blood
3. Enters red blood cells, trophozoite (n)
4. Carries out schizogamy: mitosis in which one cell produces thousands at one time; merozoites (n); enters the red blood cells. This causes fever/chills
5. M. becomes a gameotocyte ( a cell which can become a gamete and picked up by mosquitos)
6. Becomes a gamete
7. Undergoes syngamy to become a oocyst (2n, zygote) embeds in the stomach wall of the mosquito.
8. Meiosis ???? n sporozoite. Moves to the mouth of the mosquito to infect humans. 9. Primary host: mosquito
10. Seconday host: humans
vii. Example of zygotic meiosis
h. Phylum ciliophoran
i. Huge and diverse group
ii. Most complex cells in the world
iii. Looks like the instep of a shoe.
iv. Food travels:
1. Oral groove (like a mouth)
2. Cytopharynx (like a throat)
3. Food vacuaoles (digestion system) 4. Cytoproct (like an anus)
5. Phogocytosis: cell eating
6. Exocytosis: exiting of food.
v. Ex: Phagomecium multimacronucleatum