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AU / Biology / BIOL 1030 / What is classified domain eukarya?

What is classified domain eukarya?

What is classified domain eukarya?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Biology
Course: Organismal Biology
Professor: Debbie folkerts
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: eukarya, protista, phylums, Biology, and Organismal Biology
Cost: 25
Name: Week 3 notes; Kingdom Protista
Description: This covers the notes from 1/25-1/29; Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista
Uploaded: 01/29/2016
4 Pages 46 Views 2 Unlocks
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Endosymbiotic theory: Mitochondria and plastids (such as chloroplasts) originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by  a host cell. The engulfed cell and the host cell then involved into a single organism.


What is classified domain eukarya?



Endosymbiosis: A relationship between two species in which one organism lives inside the cell or cells of the other.

I. Domain Eukarya

a. 4 kingdoms

b. True nucleus

c. Contains other membrane-bound organelles

d. Cytoskeleton

e. Sexually reproducing (also asexual)

i. Sexual reproduction is different from asexual because it involved meiosis.

ii. Haploid (n): half the number of parental DNA (chromosomes) n=23 in humans We also discuss several other topics like Why does the landscape look the way it does?

iii. Diploid (2n): 46 in humans

iv. Homologous chromosomes (maternal + paternal similar chromosomes)

v. Mitosis: produces more cells of the same kind.

1. Replication + 1 division.

2. 2n????2n


What are the major evolutionary trends?



3. N????n

vi. Meiosis: 1 replication + 2 divisions

1. 2n???? n with variation caused by:

a. Crossing over

b. Independent assortment

vii. Gamete: reproduction cell; n; undergoes fusion (syngamy) with another gamete to  produce a zygote Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate a weighted mean?

viii. Syngamy:

1. Plasmogamy: fusion of cell parts other than nuclei

2. Karyogamy: fusion of nuclei

ix. Zygote: 2n;  

x. Spore: 2n/n, single/multicellular, sexual/asexual, dormancy and dispersal

xi. 3 Basic patterns of sexual reproduction:

1. Zygotic meiosis: (earliest form of reproduction)

a. Fungi and most Protista


What are apicomplexa protozoans?



b. The zygote undergoes meiosis

c. Haploid + haploid = zygote +meiosis = haploid + haploid

d. Life cycles include only 1 diploid cell

2. Gametic meiosis:

a. Animalia and some Protista Don't forget about the age old question of Why should you avoic inactivity if you want to be healthy?

b. Gametes produced by meiosis

c. Gametes are the only haploid cells in the life cycle

3. Sporic meiosis:

a. Plantae and some Protista

b. Alternation of generations (haploid alternates with diploid)

c. Spores are produced by meiosis in diploids organisms (sporophytes)

d. Gametes are produced by mitosis in haploid organisms (gametophytes)

f. Evolutionary trends:

i. Single-celled ???? multicellular

ii. Asexual ???? sexual

iii. Zygotic ???? gametic ???? sporic meiosis

iv. isomorphic ???? heterotrophic

1. gametophyte: makes gametes (n)

2. sporophyte: makes spores (2n)

3. Isomorphic: you can’t tell the difference between a gametophyte and a  sporophyte

4. Heterotrophic: you can clearly tell the difference.

v. Dominant gametophyte ???? dominant sporophyte Don't forget about the age old question of What were the challenges of the adams administration?

vi. Isogamy ???? anisogamy (also called oogamy)

1. Isogamy: identical gametes

2. Anisogamy: not the same gametes

II. Kingdom Protista

i. Mostly unicellular

ii. Zygotic, gametric, or sporic meiosis

iii. Heterotrophic, autotrophic, or mixotrophic

iv. 4 or 5 monophyletic clades

v. An abandoned taxon (or soon to be) because taxons should be monophyletic

b. Phylum Diplomonadida

i. Kind of looks like a cartoon kid with glasses

ii. Have multiple flagella

iii. Two large nuclei

iv. No mitochondria

v. Typically live in the gut of vertebraes.

vi. Anaerobic

vii. (endo)symbiotic

viii. Mutualist/parasitic

c. Phylum parabasala

i. Synapamorphy (defining characteristic): a parabasal organ

1. A large and modified gogi apparatus

2. Connected to the basal body of flagellum

ii. Some parasites; some free living

1. Trichomonas vainalis causes an STD If you want to learn more check out Is sodium sulfide ionic?

2. Triconympha spp looks  

iii. Looks like plankton on spongebob

iv. Microtubule structure extending through the cell: axostyle

d. Phylum Kinetoplastida

i. Movement and plastid (organelle)

ii. Kinetoplast: a large mitochondria that drive movement

iii. Examples

1. Bodo

2. Trypanoscma brucei: parasite of humans and flies. Carries African Sleeping  Sickness.  

iv. Look like snake fish

e. Phylum euglenozoa (Also called euglenophyta when plant-like)

i. Very often photosynthetic

ii. Very motile

iii. Free living

iv. Contain a little red spot called a stigma: a little red spot of pigment that changes  depending on the light and influences the way flagellum moves. Moves towards the light. v. Phototaxis (+): moves toward the light.

f. Phylum Dinoflagellata

i. Spins

ii. 2 kinds of flagella:

1. Longitudinal: orients movement

2. Circumferal: goes around a groove in the waist

iii. Looks like an evil space ship

iv. Green

v. Bloom: a large concentration of gymnudinium

vi. Red tide: kills fish; very frequent in Mobile. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between constrained and unconstrained optimization?

vii. Photosynthetic

viii. Example:

1. Noctiluca: sea sparkle; noticeable at night; bioluminescent

g. Phylum apicomplexan

i. Synapamorphy; apical complex

ii. Apex used for penetrating hosts cells

iii. All parasitic

iv. Complex life cycle

1. Multiple hosts

2. Go dormant and form spores

v. Example:

1. Plasmodium spp. –causes malaria

a. Anopheles mosquito

b. Primary hosts (in which the species carries out sexual reproduction) vs.  

secondary hosts (in which the species carries out asexual reproduction)

vi. Plasmodium life cycle:

1. Mosquito “injects” sporozoite (n)

2. Sp. Travels through blood ???? liver ???? blood

3. Enters red blood cells, trophozoite (n)

4. Carries out schizogamy: mitosis in which one cell produces thousands at one  time; merozoites (n); enters the red blood cells. This causes fever/chills

5. M. becomes a gameotocyte ( a cell which can become a gamete and picked up  by mosquitos)

6. Becomes a gamete

7. Undergoes syngamy to become a oocyst (2n, zygote) embeds in the stomach wall  of the mosquito.

8. Meiosis ???? n sporozoite. Moves to the mouth of the mosquito to infect humans. 9. Primary host: mosquito

10. Seconday host: humans

vii. Example of zygotic meiosis

h. Phylum ciliophoran

i. Huge and diverse group

ii. Most complex cells in the world

iii. Looks like the instep of a shoe.

iv. Food travels:

1. Oral groove (like a mouth)

2. Cytopharynx (like a throat)

3. Food vacuaoles (digestion system) 4. Cytoproct (like an anus)

5. Phogocytosis: cell eating

6. Exocytosis: exiting of food.

v. Ex: Phagomecium multimacronucleatum

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