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BA 352 Midterm Study guide

by: Samantha Tucker

BA 352 Midterm Study guide BA 352

Marketplace > Oregon State University > Business > BA 352 > BA 352 Midterm Study guide
Samantha Tucker
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Here is the study guide will all the necessary information. Happy weekend everyone!
Managing Individual and Team Performance
Dr. Chad
Study Guide
Management, team, individual, performance, business
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Tucker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BA 352 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Chad in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 196 views. For similar materials see Managing Individual and Team Performance in Business at Oregon State University.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
BA 352 Study Guide Chapter 1 What is organizational behavior? OB definition, how it’s distinct from other MGMT fields, why it matters  “A field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations. [by the book]  OB is different from other management fields in that Human resource management tries to see how OB findings can be applied in specific workplace solutions, and strategic management merely tries to find out why some companies perform better than others.  It matters to organizations because people form the framework of a business and are thus valuable resources. Good OB practices are also advantageous! The “100 best companies to work for” are more profitable, and turnover decreases, sales increase, market value increases, and profitability increases.  It matters to individuals (us) because self-knowledge and interpersonal/critical/ethical reasoning skills are crucial to success and achievement. OB knowledge also helps individuals understand how managers screen, train, socialize, evaluate, reward, deal with conflict, motivate, and more… we can understand why people think and act the way that they do. How do we “know” what we know about OB?  Scientific method is used: o Theory: Assertions that specify how and why variables are related and the conditions present o Hypotheses: written predictions—often derived from existing theories—that specify variable relationships  Variables: any aspect of something that changes and can be measured  Independent variable: presumed to cause a change in the dependent variable (i.e., temperature changes the state of water)  Dependent variable: the response variable that is affected by an independent variable; the outcome/consequence (freezing temperatures cause the water to solidify) o Data Collection o Verification  Correlation: descriptive number ranging from 0 to 1 (strength), either positive or negative (direction), describing a linear relationship between 2 variables. (negative = inverse relationship; positive = relationship) Correlation does not equal causation  Confounding variables need to be taken into account—a additional variable that is not being accounted for.  To be causal: o The variables must be correlated o The presumed cause (Indep. Variable) must precede in time the effect on the presumed Dependent variable. o Not alternative explanation for correlation exists  Moderating variable: variable that changes the strength/direction of the relationship between two other variables (“it depends”) o Ex: Job satisfaction and turnover are negatively correlated, but the strength of the correlation depends on the current unemployment rate (moderating variable). Scientific method is less subjective than….  Method of experience: “belief is true because it is consistent with your own experiences and observations” (ignorance & bias)  Method of intuition: “just stands to reason”; gut feeling  Method of authority: true because a respected person of authority said it was true Chapter 2 Various definitions of happiness Subjective well being: a person’s evaluation of the quality of his or her own life  Evaluated in global terms/terms of the overall balance of positive & negative feelings in one’s life Eudaimonia: sense that one is living a life of purpose and value First, what does it take to be an expert  Expertise = 10,000 hours, 5 years full time (Gladwell) o  we need to patient because kills & tasks need time to learn o The cost of “being the best” = less time for socializing, spontaneity, trying new things Being “the best” pays less than you think!  Extreme high performance has [comparatively] small effects on career advancement and pay  Being “the best” is only applicable to one area, doesn’t cross over to other areas;  Often comes at the expense of other people What to do instead for happiness? 1. Be good or be an “expert”; not “the best” 2. Always bear the costs in mind when aiming to be “the best” 3. Varying skills and interests may make you more successful in different ways (i.e., innovative) 4. Focus on the achievements you do have Job performance Job performance: the value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment.  Can’t just be end-results; sometimes results are beyond employee’s control o Behaviors are within the employee’s control—negative evaluation is thus fair o Supervisor feedback regarding behaviors is easier to implement, leads to better results  A job is a role that you are paid to perform High productivity does not necessarily equal high performance Productivity and performance are distinctly different  Productivity = generating high outputs relative to inputs  To be considered a “high performer” at work, one’s product behavior must contribute to organizational goal accomplishment. (behavior must be aligned with the org’s goals) Aligning behavior with organizational goals  Caton, Murphy & Clark, 2014 o Vision statements  A vibrant, idealized “verbal portrait” of what the organization aspires on day to achieve; usually uninspiring  Vivid = everyone interprets the goal in the same way; coordination; improvements in team performance o Research says managers should create vivid vision statements with few values Categories of job performance  Task performance (in-role behaviors): behaviors that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into goods or services that the organization produces. Tasks, duties, responsibilities of a job o Routine task performance: in-role behaviors; every day o Adaptive task performance: in-role behaviors that are novel; unpredictable o Creative Task Performance: in-role behaviors that lead to outcomes that are both novel and useful  Citizenship behaviors (extra-role behaviors): voluntary employee activities that may or may not be formally rewarded; contribute to org by improving quality of workplace o Interpersonal citizenship behavior: helping, courtesy, sportsmanship o Organization citizenship behavior: voice, civic virtue, boosterism o Why care about citizenship?  Orgs: can improve organizational functioning and reputation  Employee: applicant screenings and performance evaluations take these behaviors into account  Counterproductive behavior: Intentionally harming the organization by affecting its functioning, properties, or hurting employees (reducing their effectiveness) o Property deviance: intentionally harming org’s assets and possessions (sabotage, theft) o Production deviance: intentionally reducing efficiency of work output (using too much time to complete a task, substance abuse) o Political deviance: intentionally disadvantage other individuals (gossiping, incivility)  Upsides of gossip? o Personal aggression: hostile verbal and physical actions towards other employees (harassment and abuse) Are people who do counterproductive behaviors poor task performers?  Only a weak (0.1) correlation between Counterproductive behaviors and task performance Relevant economic trends  Service work = one of the largest, fastest growing sectors of the US economy  Bad job performance is IMMEDIATELY perceived by customer o Word of these bad performances/interactions spreads quickly (especially with the internet) o Negative co-worker interactions are also likely to affect customers How to manage employee performance  Management by objectives (MBO) o Joint goal-setting between employee and manager o Best results are objective and quantifiable  360-degree feedback o Information on performance gathered from every person the employee interacts with (including self-reports)  Forced ranking o Employees ranked on a predetermined curve Best practices for performance feedback  Feedback quick  Recognize good with praise; focus on solving problems not punishment  Focus on behaviors not the person his/herself  Minimize criticism  Remember that employees will share what was said to them Chapter 3 Does being “otherish” make us happy? Why? When people are asked whether spending money on themselves or others makes them happier, they generally say “me”!  But… people who spend a greater proportion of their income for prosocial reasons are happier than those who spend it on themselves or save it (Dunn, 2008)  Maybe because spending on others strengthens social relationships with them, improve their happiness, and make themselves happier through a friend’s happiness (Fowler & Christakis, 2008) Maybe being “otherish” makes you successful? Why?  Adam Grant (2013); 3 types of interaction styles prevalent in the workspace o Takers: gain as much from interactions as possible o Matchers: trade value equally o Givers: contribute with no expectation of a return  Prevalent at both the top AND bottom of success ladder  Why? o Givers build long-term relationships and we don’t always anticipate who we might need a favor from later o Givers inspire trust and gain positive reputations o Givers also share credit for their work less likely to be singled out for mistakes o However… the might give too much; succeed only if they have their own goals for success while also contributing to others Organizational commitment Organizational commitment: “the desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of the organization”  Affective: emotion-based reasons  Continuance: cost-based reasons  Normative: obligation-based reasons Focus of commitment Focus of commitment = the target within the organization that you’re committed too Org. commitment and Org. Identification are distinct constructs  Variables that are complex, unobservable, and difficult to measure Drivers of overall organizational commitment Felt in reference to one’s company, top management, department, manager, work team, coworkers  overall organizational commitment Self-concept and our various identities  Self-concept: overall sense of self  Personal identity: “I am a quick learner” “I am a great listener”  Relational identity: “I am Jack’s brother” “I am Mary’s colleague”  Social identity: “I am catholic” “I am a democrat”  Role Identity o Work based: “I am an accountant” o Non-work role identity: “I am a mother” Organizational identification; Downside of identification? Social identification: developing a sense of “oneness of belongingness to some” social group (Ashfourth & Mael, 1989) Organizational identification: level of “oneness” with an org; org as an extension of you Why care? Strong positive relationship (0.27) between organizational identification and motivation Downsides? Organizational over-identification: social identity dominates unique personal identity Is organizational commitment the same as org identification?  Identification is about the employee and the organization becoming one entity in the mind of the employee o identification (but not commitment) leads you to feel angry/sad when the organization is insulted (Herrbach, 2006)  In contrast, commitment is just about attachment—no fusion of self and object is assumed Withdrawal behaviors Neglect: passive, destructive response; Psychological withdrawal: daydreaming, socializing, looking busy, cyberloafing Exit: active, destructive response; Physical withdrawal: tardiness, long breaks, missing meetings, absenteeism, quitting Withdrawal behaviors are correlated with one another! Progression model of withdrawal Progression model of withdrawal: (all behaviors are positively correlated, more strongly within type) has received most research support. Ex: daydreaming leads to socialize leads to tendency to take long breaks leads to be absent or quit What influences organizational commitment? 1. Social networks (affective) 2. Time invested in job (continuance) 3. Lack of other opportunities (continuance) 4. Embeddedness (continuance) 5. Org’s charitable activities (normative) What influences organizational identification? Any aspect of the org that enhances employees’ self-esteem will also boost their OI [^ prestige or distinctiveness ^ org’s image] Broader trends that influence commitment  Increased diversity: minorities/older members may feel marginalized; foreign born workers are less embedded  Changing relationship with employees: downsizing, stagnant wages, no longer guaranteed work with one company for entire life. Chapter 4 Flow Theory  The mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of an activity: complete absorption in what one does (Csikszentmihalyi, 1956) o Human mind can process about 126 bits of information per second; Flow tasks take up all 126  Conditions necessary: 1. Activity has a clear set of goals—it must have direction 2. The task gives clear and immediate feedback; adjusting to changing demands allows you to maintain the flow state 3. Good balance between perceived challenges and ability: a. High skill + high challenge level =flow b. High challenge + low skill =anxiety c. Low challenge + high skill = boredom  The experience: sense of “oneness” with the world, sense of control, less self-conscious, time distortion, intrinsically rewarding (feelings of pure joy)  Leads to… positive affect and life satisfaction & task performance (when in flow state) Job satisfaction A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences  2010, 45% of Americans satisfied Where does it come from? A job meets your value; everyone has different values—hence, everyone has a different job satisfaction “equation” Work values  Pay (high, secure salary), promotions (frequent, based on ability), supervision (good relations, gives praise), coworkers (enjoyable, responsible), work itself (freedom, independence, intellectual stimulation, creative, sense of achievement, utilization of ability), altruism (helping others, moral), status (prestige, power, fame), environment (comfort, safety) Value-percept theory Locke, 1976  We evaluate our jobs according to 5 different value categories (Pay, promotion, Supervision, coworkers, satisfaction with the work itself)  Depends on evaluation of how well job supplies what individual values  Dissatisfaction score: Dissatisfaction = (Vwant –Vhave ) * (Vimportance); higher value, lower satisfaction My life as a fax-sorter Supervision, coworkers, and the work itself! Most strongly correlated with job satisfaction; supervision (.52), coworkers (.51), work itself (.7) Promotion (.39), pay (.22) What makes the work itself satisfying? Three necessary psychological states 1. Meaningfulness of work: Does the work “count”? Does it matter to you? Is it impactful on society? Making a difference in the world 2. Responsibility for outcomes: Does your presence matter? Were you a key participant in how a project turned out? Are you a driver of the quality of the work 3. Knowledge of results: Do you know how well you did? Job characteristics theory Hackman & Oldham, 1976; what tasks create the three psychological states?  Variety: Does the job require a number of different tasks that require many different skills? (1) o Our brains crave novelty (new things/experiences)! Dopamine released when we come in contact with “new” things  Identity: Does the job require completing a whole, identifiable piece of work from beginning to end. (1) o Point to something and say, “I did that.” Feeling like you completed something on your own, a type of closure in a sense  Significance: Does the job have a substantial impact on the lives of others and/or on society in general? (1)  Autonomy: Does the job provide you with freedom, independence, and discretion (2) o freedom over when and how you do your work  Feedback: Does the job context itself tell you how well you’re doing the job? This is feedback from the tasks themselves. When in the process of working, you can tell whether you’re doing it well or not (3) The big picture VISAF Growth need strength Do you have a strong need for growth in your job? Is personal accomplishment, development, and or learning something you need at work?  If yes, increased VISAF will really boost your satisfaction with the work itself  In not, impact on VISAF is much smaller Back to my life as fax sorter High identity, low variety, low significance, high autonomy, high feedback; supervisor, coworkers, and above job characteristics made it a great job Job design and job crafting Job design: how can we ensure jobs with have high VISAF? Job re-design: Job enrichment—VISAF—is goal  You can do this on your own; set goals, relabel job Moods, emotions, emotional labor  Moods: States of feeling that are mild in intensity, last for an extended period of time, and are not explicitly directed at or caused by anything. o Two Axes: pleasantness and activation  Emotions: States of feelings that are often intense, last for a short period of time, and are directed at and caused by something  Emotional labor: managing emotions to complete job duties; commonly required in service jobs so customers don’t see negative emotions in service. o Critical to bottom line as customers can “catch” emotions o However… Stifling negative emotions is strongly negatively correlated (-0.43) with job satisfaction o Amplifying positive emotions is weakly positively correlated (0.07) with job satisfaction Job satisfaction: whole picture VISAF is part of satisfaction with the work itself which is a factor in overall job satisfaction Job satisfaction’s correlations with Job performance (+.30) and organizational commitment (+.50) Chapter Five Stress A psychological response to demands (stressors) that possess certain stakes for the person and that tax or exceed the person’s capacity or resources  Consequence of stress  strains Most Stressful jobs 40% of workers describe their job as stressful  Most stressful: taxi drivers, police officer, reporter, corporate exec., airline pilot, firefighters, military generals, enlisted military  Least Stressful: drill operator, florist, dietician, hairstylist, etc. Working at google Google is famous for its “stress-free” workplace However… So many things are provided that it can really stress you out that you have to stay Transaction theory of stress Explains how stressors are perceived and appraised, as well as how people respond to those perceptions and appraisals  Primary appraisal: is this stressful?  Secondary appraisal: how can I cope? Stressors  Hindrance stressors: Perceived as obstacles to one’s progress toward personal accomplishments o Work Related hindrance  Role conflict: Conflicting expectations that other people have of us at work  Role ambiguity: missing information about what a role consists of and how to perform these tasks well  Role overload: requires too much for one person to manage  Daily hassles: paperwork, emails, equipment malfunctions, etc o Non-work hindrance  Work-family conflict: work-life balance  Negative life events: death, divorce, etc.  Challenge stressors: perceived as opportunities for growth and learning o Work related  Time pressure: complete a task with less time that you have  Work complexity: demands more skills than you have  Work responsibility: demands high stakes for someone other than you o Non-work related  Family time demands  Personal development (ex: learning an instrument, club, organization, etc)  Positive life events (ex: baby, marriage) Coping Strategies—secondary appraisal Coping: The behaviors and thoughts used to manage stressors and the (negative) emotions they provoke  Behavioral: set of physical activities that are used to deal with a stressful situation  Cognitive coping: thoughts that are involved in trying to deal with a stressful situation  Problem-focused coping: behavior and cognitions intended to manage the stressful situation  Emotion-focused coping: ways in which people manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands Strain: consequences of stress Physiological strain: Immune system, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal system Psychological strain: Depression, anxiety, memory loss Behavioral strain: Alcoholism, smoking, compulsive eating What kinds of individuals are likely to be “stressed out”? Type A behavior pattern  Impatient, aggressive, ambitious, competitive  More likely to be given additional responsibilities, but also to create conflict  Hypersensitive to potential obstacles Social support The relationship between stress and strain depends on the amount of social support you have  Low levels of support—stronger relationship between stress and strain  High levels = weaker relationship Social support  Instrumental support: ex: co-worker helps with workload  Emotional support: ex: co-worker helps you handle negative emotions Stress: the whole picture  Weak negative correlation between hindrance stressors and job performance (-.1)  Strong negative correlation between hindrance stressors and organizational commitment (-.5)  Weak positive correlation between challenge stressors and job performance (.1)  Moderate positive correlation between challenge stressors and organizational commitment (.3) What to do about all this stress? Job sharing, sabbaticals, supportive practices (like flextime, compressed work weeks) Chapter 7 Trust The willingness to be vulnerable with someone based on positive expectations about that person’s actions and intentions  Critical for organizations o Employees o Customers (must trust the company before they will buy) o General public (Reputation: prominence of brand and perceived quality)  For you in your career (getting a job, promotions, etc.) Trust drivers  Disposition: Your personality influences the degree to which you trust someone o Trust propensity: includes a general expectation that the words, promises, and statements of others can be relied upon  Cognitions: thoughts, rational assessments influence your trust in someone o Trustworthiness: characteristics or attributes of a trustee that inspire trust  Track record of ability, benevolence (inclination to be kind), and integrity  Affect: emotions influence trust o Trust someone because you like them o Where does this emotion come from? Oxytocin, “trust molecule”  If you want someone to trust you, trust them first! National differences in trust propensity Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark lead in trust propensity; all social democracies much less income inequality and high quality of life! Why the drop for the US? Greater income inequality not seen since the days before the Great Depression in 1929 Justice  Another way of judging trustworthiness of an authority  Justice: perceived fairness of an authority’s decision-making (how they “do” things) o Four Dimensions: 1. Distributive justice: are the outcome of his/her decision fair? 2. Procedural justice: Is his/her decision-making fair? 3. Interactional justice: does he/she treat me fairly? 4. Informational justice: does he/she communicate about decisions fairly? When does procedural justice matter most? Distributive justice is a moderator for the perception of procedural justice. Dimension of justice above What else influences perceptions of trustworthiness Ethics: shared set of principles (i.e., norms) regarding right vs. wrong behaviors  How should people behave (prescriptive)  How do people tend to behave? (descriptive) Morals: personal set of guiding principles about what is right and wrong The four component model of ethical decision-making 1. Moral Awareness: The recognition/realization that a moral issue exists in a situation a. Some people are more “attentive” than others 2. Moral judgement: process by which one decides whether a behavior is moral or immoral a. Kohlberg’s theory of CMD i. Pre-conventional: fear of punishment; pleasure v. pain ii. Conventional: determined by those around us iii. Post-conventional: determined as individuals 3. Moral intent: Degree of commitment to the moral course of action a. Good or bad apple? In other words, strong or weak moral identity (do you see yourself as a moral person?) b. Also good or bad barrel? Ex: toxic organizational culture 4. Ethical behavior TJE: the whole picture Justice (all 4 components) and ethics (all 4 components) go into trustworthiness (Ability, benevolence, inregrity) and combine with trust propensity and feelings towards a trustee to create trust  Trust weakly correlated with job performance (.3)  Trust strongly correlated with organizational commitment (.5) Trust, Justice, and ethics in action


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