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Bio 102 Test 1 Study Guide

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by: annazeberlein

Bio 102 Test 1 Study Guide BIOL102

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This is the study guide for chapters 1, 16, 17, 40, 41, 42.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Study Guide
Biology, biology 102
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by annazeberlein on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 01/29/16
Bio 102 Study Guide for Test 1 (2/2) Chapters 1, 16, 17, 40, 41, 42 Chapter 1 - Life is organized in a certain way, from atoms to biospheres. - There are three things that make up all living things: o Requires energy and nutrients to live. o Maintains homeostasis. o And uses DNA to pass on traits to offspring. - There are two kinds of organisms: producers and consumers. They differ in how they obtain energy, which flows one way and can’t be recycled. - DNA determines what an individual and their offspring become. (inheritance) o Some functions are:  Development  Growth  Reproduction - Life is divided up based on certain characteristics. The variety of life on earth is known as biodiversity. o One of the dividing factors is whether or not an organism has a nucleus.  Ex: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.  Bacteria and archaea have nuclei, but their DNA is not stored there, putting them in another category. o Protists are the most simple eukaryotes, then fungi, then plants, then animals. - The way life is divided is through taxonomy, a system used for naming species. o Another name for this is binomial nomenclature, which was created by Carolus Linnaeus. A species has two names, a genus followed by a specific epithet. o Species are unique in that they share specific traits.  There are morphological traits, biochemical traits and behavioral traits. o Each level of classification is known as a taxon. o Each level has certain characteristics that emerge that are known as emergent properties. - An important part of science is critical thinking, which led to the creation of the scientific method. o Hypothesis o Inductive reasoning o Prediction o Deductive reasoning o Model o Experiment  Variables  Independent  Dependent  Experimental group  Control group o Data Chapter 16 - How did the idea of evolution come about? o The study of biogeography, which led to comparative morphology.  Fossils are a key part of the evidence backing evolution. - Charles Darwin o On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) o Naturalist on the HMS Beagle o Darwin’s influences:  Carolus Linnaeus  George Cuvier  Charles Lyell  Jean Baptiste Lamarck  Thomas Malthus o Followed traits of animals on the Galapagos Islands and noted the variations in populations, which he called fitness. There are certain traits that enhance fitness, known as adaptive traits or adaptation. o He came to the conclusion that these traits were acquired through natural selection. - What evidence to we have to support evolution? o Direct evidence  Artificial selection  Natural selection o Biogeography o The fossil record  Transition species o Homologies  Comparative morphology  Homologous structures  Morphological divergence  Vestigial structures  Analogous traits  Morphological convergence  Developmental homologies  Molecular homologies Chapter 17 - Microevolution o Can be seen through mutations within a population  Lethal mutation  Neutral mutation o Populations generally have the same gene pool, resulting in an allele frequency o If there was no evolution, micro or macro, we would see genetic equilibrium, which just so happens to be a requirement for the Hardy Weinberg equation. o Allele frequency shifts due to random, non-adaptive events (mutation, gene flow, and genetic drift) and natural selection.  We can see this in the founder effect and a bottleneck - Natural Selection o Three kinds of patterns:  Directional  Stabilizing  Disruptive o For the mating process, there are two kinds of selections:  Sexual  Sexual dimorphism  Intrasexual - What leads to new species and what stops species from crossing over? o Speciation  Isolation  Reproductive Isolation o Temporal Isolation o Ecological Isolation o Behavioral Isolation o Mechanical Isolation o Gamete Incompatibility o Hybrid Inviability o Hybrid Sterility  Divergence o Modes of speciation  Allopatric  Sympatric  Parapatric - Macroevolution o Some species go into stasis, not changing for a long time. o Some species come from exaptation, like birds. o Many species have gone extinct, allowing for other species to populate the earth o These species that populate the earth are a result of adaptive radiation, which could occur after a key innovation Chapter 40 - Population ecology o Population demographics  Size  Density  Distribution  Age structure  Reproductive base o Population size and growth are dependent on immigration and emigration and birth and death rates  Zero population growth is only possible if there is no immigration or emigration and the birth and death rates balance each other out.  To find the per capita growth rate, subtract the per capita death rate from the per capita birth rate.  If the growth rate remains constant and greater than zero, there will be exponential growth.  Under ideal conditions, population growth is at its biotic potential o How is population growth limited?  Density dependent  Predation  Parasitism and disease  Competition for resources (intraspecific competition)  Density independent  Natural disasters  Logistic growth  Carrying capacity and how that relates to the human population o Fertility and future growth  Total fertility rate  Replacement fertility rate  Age structure  Reproductive base o Demographic transition and consumption  Ecological footprint  No population can expand indefinitely! Chapter 41 - Community structure o Certain species live in certain habitats o A specific habitat is a community o Species interact in a few different ways:  Coevolution  Commensalism  Symbiosis  Mutualism  Interspecific competition  Ecological niche  Predation, herbivory, parasitism  Competitive exclusion  Resource partitioning - Predator and prey interaction o Predation is where one species kills and eats another species o Prey have adapted defenses against their predators  Camouflage  Mimicry  Chemical defenses  Startle coloration o Predators have also adapted to better hunt their prey  Keen senses  Structures like aggressive mimicry o These adaptations have driven predator and prey evolution since the beginning of time - Community change o Primary succession  Pioneer species come into a habitat where there has been a major disturbance and colonize it o Secondary succession  There has been a moderate disturbance, which leads to an increase in biodiversity, then often a boom of a new species that overtakes and decreases biodiversity again o Community disturbance  Can have an impacting effect on habitats (intermediate disturbance hypothesis)  Indicator species are important, because if there is a slight (usually negative) change, these species decline. o Keystone species  Without this species, there would be no community structure o Invasive or exotic species  Usually bad for a community o Many of these changes are a result of human activity (species introduction, overharvesting and poaching, habitat loss) Chapter 42 - Ecosystems o Energy flows through a nutrient cycle o Tropic levels or the food chain is important to keeping a community balanced  Food chains are connected as a food web  Grazing – herbivores eat producers  Detrital – producers die and are eaten - Biogeochemical cycles o The water cycle  Ground water  Soil water  Aquifers  Runoff  Human’s role in pollution of water sources, overdrafting, and salinization. o The carbon cycle  This is an atmospheric cycle o The Greenhouse Effect  This results in global climate change  Air pollution is a serious issue o The nitrogen cycle  Nitrogen fixation (ammonia)  Nitrification  Denitrification  Human’s role in disruption of this cycle – we’re adding too much nitrogen to our ecosystem from greenhouse gases to fertilizer, causing dead zones. o The phosphorous cycle  There isn’t a whole lot of phosphorous that isn’t in rocks, so this cycle is a sedimentary cycle


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