Study guide #1 for quiz 1
Study guide #1 for quiz 1 MGT304
Popular in Organizational Behavior
Popular in Business, management
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by odette antabi on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGT304 at University of Miami taught by Gergana Todorova in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business, management at University of Miami.
Reviews for Study guide #1 for quiz 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/29/16
OB1 Good managerial skills leads to: Managerial effectiveness Lower turnover of quality employees Higher quality applications for recruitment Better financial performance Manager: Someone who gets things done through other people in organizations. Organization: A consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are the most often studied managerial FUNCTIONS Mintzberg concluded that managers perform ten different, highly interrelated ROLES or sets of behaviors attributable to their jobs. Management Skills Technical SkillsThe ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job. Human SkillsAbility to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups, describes human skills. Conceptual SkillsThe mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. Luthans and associates found that all managers engage in four managerial activities. Traditional management. Communication. Human resource management. Networking. OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and (organizational) structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. The study of individuals and their behaviors at work. Interdisciplinary and multilevel research Draws from applied psychology, cultural anthropology, communication, and sociology. Applied science Organizational behavior uses systematic study to improve predictions of behavior over intuition alone. Organizational behavior offers specific insights to improve a manager’s people skills. The OB model: Overview of the key managerial goals and the practical researchbased tools to achieve the goals. OB2 Systematic Study of Behavior Behavior generally is predictable if we know how the person perceived the situation and what is important to him or her. EvidenceBased Management (EBM) Based on systematic study. Argues for managers to make decisions on scientific evidence. Intuition Systematic study and EBM add to intuition, or those “gut feelings” about “why I do what I do” and “what makes others tick.” If we make all decisions with intuition or gut instinct, we’re likely working with incomplete information. How TO use evidence to make better decisions Stop treating old ideas as if they were brand new Be suspicious of “breakthrough” studies and ideas. Develop and celebrate collective brilliance. Emphasize drawbacks as well as virtues. Use success (and failure) stories to illustrate sound practices but not in place of valid research methods Adopt a neutral stance toward ideologies. Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. Managerial Challenges and Opportunities ◦ Responding to Economic Pressure In economic tough times, effective management is an asset. In good times, understanding how to reward, satisfy, and retain employees is at a premium. In bad times, issues like stress, decision making, and coping come to the fore. Identify the Challenges and Opportunities Managing Workforce Diversity Workforce diversity acknowledges a workforce of women and men; many racial and ethnic groups; individuals with a variety of physical or psychological abilities; and people who differ in age and sexual orientation. ◦ Managing Workforce Diversity Workforce diversity acknowledges a workforce of women and men; many racial and ethnic groups; individuals with a variety of physical or psychological abilities; and people who differ in age and sexual orientation. ◦ Stimulating Innovation and Change Successful organizations must foster innovation and master the art of change. Employees can be the impetus for innovation and change or a major stumbling block. Managers must stimulate employees’ creativity and tolerance for change. ◦ Coping with “Temporariness” Organizations must be flexible and fast in order to survive. Managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness. Learning to live with flexibility, spontaneity, and unpredictability. OB provides help in understanding a work world of continual change, how to overcome resistance to change, and how to create an organizational culture that thrives on change. ◦ Working in Networked Organizations Networked organizations are becoming more pronounced. A manager’s job is fundamentally different in networked organizations. Challenges of motivating and leading “online” require different techniques. ◦ Helping Employees Balance WorkLife Conflicts The creation of the global workforce means work no longer sleeps. Communication technology has provided a vehicle for working at any time or any place. Employees are working longer hours per week. The lifestyles of families have changed—creating conflict. Balancing work and life demands now surpasses job security as an employee priority. ◦ Creating a Positive Work Environment: SAS example Organizations have realized creating a positive work environment can be a competitive advantage. ◦ Improving Ethical Behavior Ethical dilemmas are situations in which an individual is required to define right and wrong conduct. Good ethical behavior is not so easily defined. Organizations are distributing codes of ethics to guide employees through ethical dilemmas. Managers need to create an ethically healthy climate. Big data: Towards datadriven management Big data: How do companies use and interpret it? Watch video: ◦ Benefits of using Big Data BUT: Beware the easy answers of Big Data! BIG data: Correlational Methods Field Surveys questionnaires in which people report how they feel and think about various aspects of themselves, their jobs, and their organizations Behavioral observations – Example: Big Data video Analyzing survey and behavioral data: Correlation coefficient = r direction of relationship (negative or positive) strength of relationship ( 1.0 < r < +1.0) stronger the relationship, more accurate predictions Experimental Method a research technique used to determine causality • causeandeffect relationships between the variables of interest (i.e., the extent to which one variable causes another) Research methods: Key concepts Contingency variables—situational factors are variables that moderate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Situational factors that make the main relationship between two variables change —e.g., the relationship may hold for one condition but not another. Variable: ◦ Dependent variable ◦ Independent variable ◦ Moderating variable Hypothesis Correlation vs. causality: ◦ Correlation does not imply causality. "Critical thinking calls for persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends.” (Glaser, 1941) skils: • Rationality • SelfAwareness • Honesty • Openmindedness • Discipline • Judgment Leadership Implications ◦ Use Evidencebased management Understand and analyze the relevance and importance of research findings ◦ Critical thinking: examine both strengths and weaknesses of managerial theories and their practical applications (i.e., managerial tools) ◦ Use OB research to improve employee job performance, team performance, and organizational performance. OB3: leadership Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. AN INFLUENCE PROCESS: The process of influencing others to understand and agree what needs to be done and how to do it; and the process of facilitating individual and collective effort to accomplish shared objectives; No all leaders are managers nor are all managers leaders. Nonsanctioned leadership is often as important or more important than formal influence. Strong leadership and strong management are needed for optimal effectiveness. Leaders: challenge the status quo, create visions of the future, and inspire organizational members to want to achieve the visions. Managers: formulate detailed plans, create efficient organizational structures, and oversee daytoday operations. Successful leader o Traits o Behavior Traits: Great person theory: Leaders possess special traits that set them aside from others, and these special traits are the basis for their power and authority Assume that personality traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and nonleaders, in that leaders must have the “right stuff.” TRAIT theories of leadership focus on personal qualities and characteristics. The search for personality, social, physical, or intellectual attributes that differentiate leaders from nonleaders goes back to the earliest stages of leadership research. A breakthrough, of sorts, came when researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework (next week). Most of the dozens of traits in various leadership reviews fit under one of the Big Five (ambition and energy are part of extraversion, for instance), giving strong support to traits as predictors of leadership The trait approach does have something to offer: Leaders … Who like being around people and are able to assert themselves (extraverted), Who are disciplined and able to keep commitments they make (conscientious), and who are creative and flexible (open to experience) … do have an apparent advantage when it comes to leadership, suggesting good leaders do have key traits in common. Ohio State Studies two behaviors that accounted for leadership behavior 1. Initiating structurethe extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. 2. Consideration is the extent to which a person’s job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings. University of Michigan’s study: also came up with two behavioral dimensions 1. The employeeoriented leader emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among them. The productionoriented leader emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job, focusing on accomplishing the group’s tasks The GLOBE study: International differences in preference for initiating structure and consideration. For example: Based on the values of Brazilian employees, a U.S. manager leading a team in Brazil would need to be team oriented, participative, and humane. Leaders high in consideration would succeed best in this culture. Contingency Theory Fiedler Model Key factor is individual’s leadership style: Task or Relationship oriented Assumes leadership style is fixed Contingency Theory 1: Fiedler Model Define the situation: 3 contingency dimensions Leadermember relations Task structure Position power Evaluation of Fiedler: Supported? There is considerable research evidence to support at least substantial parts of the model. There are problems with the practical use of the model that need to be addressed. Contingency theory 2: Situational Leadership Theory Situational leadership is a contingency theory that focuses on THE FOLLOWERS. Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness. Contingency theory 3: Leadermember exchange (LMX) The leadermember exchange (LMX) theory argues that because of different abilities and contributions of followers and because of time pressures, leaders different relationships with different followers LMX: quality of leadermember relationship Steps: Managing Your Boss . Find out what “good” looks like to make sure you meet expectations. 2. Ask your boss what kind of followup he or she wants. 3. Examine and adjust to your boss’ style. 4. Tell your boss when you feel you haven’t been fully heard. 5. Become aware of other managers’ styles. 6. Manage up. Understand your boss and teach your boss how to work with you. Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral Theories Leaders 1) who have certain traits and 2) who display consideration and structuring behaviors do appear to be more effective. As important as traits and behaviors are in identifying effective or ineffective leaders, they do not guarantee success. The context matters, too > CONTINGENCY THEORIES Knowing what makes a good leader should thus be valuable in improving group performance. Search for universal leadership TRAITS: Big Five Personality traits BEHAVIORAL approach’s contribution was narrowing leadership into taskoriented (initiating structure) and peopleoriented (consideration) styles. Consider the situation! > CONTINGENCY theories Research in leadership contributed to our understanding of leadership effectiveness. OB4 Charisma Certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he or she is set apart from ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These are not accessible to the ordinary person…” Charismatic leader Training individuals for charismatic behavior. Charismatic leadership theory followers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors A threestep process is suggested. Develop the aura of charisma by maintaining an optimistic view; using passion as a catalyst for generating enthusiasm; and communicating with the whole body, not just with words. Creating a bond that inspires others to follow. Brings out the potential in followers by tapping into their emotions. The Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership Dark Side Charismatic can affect all types of organizations . Many have allowed their personal goals to override the goals of the organization. Research has shown that individuals who are narcissistic are also higher in some behaviors associated with charismatic leadership. Some charismatic leaders are too successful convincing followers to pursue a vision that can be disastrous Transactional Leaders: Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements Transformational Leadership: Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own selfinterests and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. Transformational Behaviors: The 4 I’s Idealized influence. Being admired and respected by followers is the core of this leadership component. They are seen as change agents in the organization. Inspirational motivation. Leaders inspire others to work hard toward organizational goals by providing challenge. They are positive and upbeat and get others to feel optimistic. Intellectual stimulation. Transformational leaders encourage innovation and new ideas. They listen to followers openly and don’t criticize novel solutions to problems. Individualized consideration. Transformational leaders treat each follower as a unique person. They get to know people oneonone and mentor them. Research evidence: Transformational leadership has been impressively supported at diverse job levels and occupations (school principals, teachers, marine commanders, ministers, presidents of MBA associations, military cadets, union shop stewards, sales reps). Ethics and Leadership Transformational leaders foster moral virtue when they try to change the attitudes and behaviors of followers. Unethical leaders use their charisma to enhance power over followers, directed toward selfserving ends. An example, when leaders give themselves large bonuses while they seek to cut costs by laying off longtime employees. Ethical leadership: 4 components What is servant leadership? Followers are first rather than leaders: Creating value for the community; empowering; putting subordinates first; behaving ethically; helping subordinates succeed; emotional healing TRUST is a psychological state that exists when you agree to make yourself vulnerable to another because you have positive expectations about how things are going to turn out. Trust is a primary attribute associated with leadership. When trust is broken, it can have serious adverse effects on a group’s performance. Mentor connection : Mentoring is an intense developmental relationship whereby advice, counseling, and developmental opportunities are provided to a protégé by a mentor, which, in turn, shapes the protégé’s career experiences (Eby 1997, p. 127). Mentors provide Career support Social support Are role models for mentees Much of an organization’s success or failure is due to factors outside the influence of leadership. In many cases, success or failure is just a matter of being in the right or wrong place at a given time. The attribution theory of leadership says leadership is merely an attribution people make about other individuals. OB5 PERSONALITY: o What is personality? o How is it measured? o What are the factors that determine an individual’s personality? o TWO MAIN MODELS o The MyersBriggs Type Indicator personality framework : Strengths and weaknesses. o The key traits in the Big Five personality model: How the Big Five traits predict behavior at work. o Other personality traits relevant to OB: Psychological capital; The dark triad; o Analyzing the link between personality and situation: o Situational strength o Defining Personality o Personality: Regularities in feeling, thought, and action that are characteristic of an individual o It looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. o The structure of personality: Personality traits Managers can use personality tests because they are useful in hiring decisions and help managers forecast who is best for a job. The most common means of measuring personality is through selfreport surveys. Observerratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality. Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. Popular characteristics include shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal, and timid. These are personality traits. Early efforts to identify the primary traits that govern behavior often resulted in long lists that were difficult to generalize from and provided little practical guidance to organizational decision makers. > NEED FOR NEW MODELS: NEXT Heredity or Environment? Genetics (nature) explains 50% of the personality differences Genetics (nature) explains 50% of differences in occupational and leisure interests. Genetics (nature) explains 40% of differences in values related to work motivation Heredity sets the potential but environment shapes the realization of such a potential. MODEL 1: The MyersBriggs Type Indicator personality framework: Strengths and weaknesses One of the most widely used personality frameworks is the MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Individuals are classified as: Extroverted or introverted (E or I). Sensing or intuitive (S or N). Thinking or feeling (T or F). Perceiving or judging (P or J). MODEL 2: The Big Five personality model Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional stability (or Neuroticism) Openness to experience. The five factors appear in almost all crosscultural studies. Differences are complex but seem to depend on whether countries are predominantly individualistic or collectivistic. They appear to predict a bit better in individualistic than in collectivist cultures. The Dark Triad 1. Machiavellianism – the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. 2. Narcissism – the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement. Psychopathy – the tendency for a lack of concern for others and a lack of guilt or remorse when their actions cause harm Personality and Situations Situation strength theory – indicates that the way personality translates into behavior depends on the strength of the situation. The degree to which norms, cues, or standards dictate appropriate behavior. Situation strength depends on 4Cs: Clarity of the situation Consistency of the norms, cues, and standards Constraints in the situation Consequences if norms, cues, and standards are violated Managerial implications Screen job candidates for high conscientiousness, as well as the other Big Five traits, depending on the criteria your organization finds most important. Other traits, such as core selfevaluation or narcissism, may be relevant in certain situations. The importance of psychological capital Analyze and manage situation strength Ensure personorganization fit
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'