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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103 2nd week - Class Notes

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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103 2nd week - Class Notes

School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103 2nd week
Description: These notes cover phylogeny (modified and added to from last week), bacteria and archaea, and protists and algae
Uploaded: 01/30/2016
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background image Bacteria & Archaea Laguna Salada de Torrevieja in Spain can reach a salt concentration of ~32% and 
appears pink 
—color due to prokaryotic halobacteria with red membranes that photosynthesize  in the salty water  domains bacteria and archaea are entirely prokaryotes and can thrive in extreme 
environments
—most abundant organisms 
—can live in pH <1 or >12 and at temps >100˚C
—earth’s first organisms likely prokaryotes
—eukarya and archaea most closely related domains 
we know so little about prokaryotes because they are so small —99% of bacteria and archaea are not culturable 
—we learn about uncultured diversity by studying DNA from different 
environments common shapes of prokaryotic cells —cocci (spheres)
—bacilli (rods)
—spirals
components in all bacterial cells —nucleoid 
—cytoplasm
—plasma membrane
—cell wall
some bacterial cells have capsules: polysaccharide or protein layer that provides protection and a  means of attachment —flagella
—sex pili: for horizontal gene transfer
prokaryotic DNA —much less DNA than eukaryotes
—most of genome consists of circular chromosome located in nucleoid
—some species have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids
cell surface structure —cell wall maintains shape, protects cell, and protects it from bursting in  hypotonic environments —while eukaryotic cell walls are made of cellulose or chitin, bacterial cell walls  contain peptidoglycan, a rigid network of sugars and polypeptides —target of many antibiotics (ex. penicillin) is to disrupt cell wall—>lysis (rupture  of cell) bacterial endospores —dormant bodies of genetic material used by vegetative cells of Bacillus and  Clostridium to continue life in case of harsh conditions, most resistant of all life forms —depletion of nutrients triggers calcium covering of endospores
background image motility taxis: ability to move toward or away from a stimulus using embedded tails  called flagella factors of prokaryotic reproduction —asexual reproduction by binary fission
—very small
—short generation times
diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes prokaryotes can be categorized by how the obtain energy and carbon phototrophs: obtain energy from light
chemotrophs: obtain energy from chemicals 
autotrophs: “self-feeders” that require CO2 as carbon source
heterotrophs: require organic nutrients to make organic compounds 
prokaryotic metabolism varies with respect to O2 obligate aerobes: require O2 for cellular respiration
obligate anaerobes: use fermentation or anaerobic respiration
facultative anaerobes: can survive with or without O2 (ex. muscle cells)
what traits allow such diversity and high adaptiveness?  —small size
—rapid generation time
—endospores: durable resting stage and easily dispersible
—genetic recombination
genetic recombination - combining of DNA from two sources prokaryotic DNA from different individuals can be brought together by transformation: gathering of naked DNA fragments
transduction: transfer of DNA by bacteriophage
conjugation: transfer of DNA between bacteria through the sex pilus (piece of 
DNA called the F factor required to produce pili), also called horizontal gene transfer causes of horizontal gene transfer —exchange of transposable elements and plastids
—viral infection
—fusion of organisms
differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103 2nd week
Description: These notes cover phylogeny (modified and added to from last week), bacteria and archaea, and protists and algae
Uploaded: 01/30/2016
5 Pages 12 Views 9 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
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