Psychobiology Midterm 1 Study Guide
Psychobiology Midterm 1 Study Guide Psych 5600
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by alvey.15 Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 5600 at Ohio State University taught by Derek Lindquist in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Psychobiology of Learning and Memory in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Midterm 1 Study Guide Aristotle 1) Empiricist- belief that learning occurs through experience 2) Proponent of Associationism Associationism 1) Links between events, sensations and facts are formed and the recall of one event or sensation can cause the recall of the other event linked to it. 2) An example is you are on a date with a man that has a strong smelling cologne and the smell of the cologne triggers the remembrance of the first time you met the man. The cologne is the link or association between the two memories. 3) Contiguity, Frequency, and Similarity are the three things necessary for links to form between ideas, memories or sensations. Contiguity is closeness in space and time, frequency is how often you see the two links associated, and similarity. B.F Skinner 1) Radical Behaviorist that believed that every behavior was a response to a stimulus and that free will was an allusion 2) Discovered that intermittent reinforcement produced stronger responses in rats to a stimulus than reinforcement every time. He accidently discovered this when he ran out of rat food and reinforced the rats every other time instead of every time. 3) Developed the skinner box that was used to classically condition mice. Behaviorism 1) The field of psychology that believes that looking for the unconscious mind through introspection is a waste of time. They believe that the mind can only be studied by stimulus and response tasks. 2) Developed tests that produced objective data and furthered experimental psychology Classical Conditioning 1) Developed by Ivan Pavlov 2) Variables: Unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned stimulus (CS), unconditioned response (UR) and conditioned response (CR) 3) The US is food and the UR is salivating in dogs. The CS is a tone and the conditioned response is salivating in dogs at the sound of the tone. The learning curve was developed by Pavlov to track how many trials it takes for the dogs to salivate to the tone. Confounds 1) Any variable that is not the independent or dependent variable that can cause alterations in the experiment if not controlled. Cognitive Revolution 1) A shift away from purely behavioral studies and towards the cognitive abilities of humans which are language, reasoning, and thinking. Conditioned Emotional Response 1) W.K Estes studied this response after watching people stop what they were doing and look at the sky at the sound of bomb warning sirens during WWII. 2) He conditioned rats to pair a light with an electric shock and when the light came on as the rats were pushing a food lever they were so conditioned they stopped and waited for the shock. Connectionist Model 1) Model was created by David Rumelhart 2) Shows that neurons are like nodes that work together to create a representation of an object or idea. Each node does not contain a specific piece of information but together nodes create a representation. The theory that came from this model is called distributed representation. Control and Experimental Group 1) The control group is not manipulated in the experiment and serves as a comparison for the experimental group. 2) The experimental group has an independent variable that is manipulated and measured by the dependent variable. Correlational Study 1) A study that measures the relationship between two variables. 2) Francis Galton used a correlational study to see if there was a relationship between the amount of prayer a person received and the longevity of their life. Dualism 1) The idea that the mind and body are separate entities. 2) Rene Descartes supported this idea. Empiricism 1) The belief that knowledge is accumulated through experience. 2) Empiricists- Aristotle, John Locke, William James, Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike Eugenics 1) Francis Galton, who was a nativist and proponent of natural selection, coined the idea. 2) The idea that only the smartest, strongest and most attractive people should mate to advance the human race. Experimental Psychology 1) Hermann Ebbinghaus, Ivan Pavlov, and Edward Thorndike 2) Instead of just making theories based on their own experiences/introspection these psychologists manipulated an independent variable and measured it with a dependent variable. They recorded their procedures and graphed their results which gave more weight to the study of psychology. Extinction 1) A conditioned response can be unconditioned by not pairing the unconditioned stimulus with the conditioned stimulus for many trials 2) Pavlov plotted this phenomenon on an extinction curve. The dog’s stopped salivating at the sound of the bell (CR) after some trials of not pairing the bell (CS) with the food (US). Generalization 1) John Watson observed this in his experiment with little Albert. After conditioning little Albert to fear the white rat they showed him other white objects which also frightened him. Little Alberts fear was generalized to white objects even though originally only the loud sound (CS) was paired with the white rat (US). Hermann Ebbinghaus 1) Tested his own memory of twenty nonsense syllables and developed the retention curve. 2) His methodology was learning the twenty words, wait, test and repeat. This was an important methodology for later memory experiments. 3) The y axis of the retention curve was the percent of words remembered (percent savings) and the x axis was the time in hours. Independent and Dependent Variable 1) The IV is the variable that is manipulated. Sits on the X axis. 2) The dependent variable measures the independent variable. Sits on the Y axis. Instrumental/ Operant Conditioning 1) The concept that an animal can be trained to use an instrument to avoid negative consequences or gain positive consequences. 2) Edward Thorndike came up with instrumental conditioning when he trained cats to pull a lever while they were in a box to get to food outside the box. First the cats used trial and error but got faster at getting out of the box once they found the lever. Ivan Pavlov 1) Experimented on dogs using classical conditioning 2) Developed the learning curve and extinction curve from those experiments 3) Empiricist John Watson 1) Found that rats can complete a maze with out information from any sensory stimuli. 2) Behaviorist 3) Did fear conditioning experiments on little Albert and found that the conditioned fear was generalized. Latent Learning 1) Edward Tolman, a neo behaviorist, developed the idea. 2) The idea that learning can happen without a stimulus or consequence guiding it. 3) Tolman found that if he let some rats explore a maze without rewarding them the next day they performed faster than the rats that weren’t allowed to explore the maze. The rats learned the routes of the maze with out a reward or consequence and Tolman theorized that the rats had a cognitive map of the maze. Law of Effect 1) Edward Thorndike developed this law after his instrument conditioning with cats in a box. 2) The law states that a behavior will decrease if followed by a negative consequence and increase if followed by a positive consequence. The Learning Curve 1) Developed by Ivan Pavlov 2) Extinction Curve and Conditioning Curve 3) Time is on the x axis and strength of conditioned response is on the y axis Maine de Biran 1) Theorized three types of memory A) Sensitive memory- memory of emotional stimuli and events B) Mechanical memory- memory of movement and habits C) Representative memory- memory of events and facts from the past Nativism 1) The belief that knowledge is innate and you are born with it. Natural Selection 1) Charles Darwin’s theory to explain trait variation in species. It is also called survival of the fittest. 2) The three components of natural selection are inheritability, variability and fitness 3) The trait must be inheritable to be passed on to offspring, there must be within species variation of the trait (long necks vs. short necks) and the trait must promote fitness. Fitness is the survival and reproduction of the species. Radical Behaviorism 1) The belief that free will is an allusion and every behavior is in reaction to a stimulus. 2) B.F Skinner was a radical behaviorist Reflex 1) Rene Descartes first came up with this idea based off of schematics of machinery. The idea was that humans had tubes running through there body. These tubes took in a stimulus and moved through the body to produce a reaction. Today we know these “tubes” as nerves. 2) Reflex- the idea that a stimulus can cause a behavior Stimulus 1) Any object or sensation that produces an observable reaction. Examples) light, noise, food, etc. Symbol Manipulation Models 1) Herbert Simon’s theory that neurons can be represented as nodes and each node contains a specific piece of information. 2) The way the nodes were manipulated determined the memory formed. 3) This theory came to recognized as improbable because we would have to have many more neurons for each one of them to represent one particular piece of information. William James 1) Know as the father of Psychology 2) Used associationism to try and explain habit formation. 3) Used nodes to represent how associations formed. AMPA receptor 1) An important receptor in Long Term Potentiation 2) An ionotropic receptor that lets sodium in the postsynaptic neuron once glutamate binds to the receptor. Bell-Magendie law of neural specialization 1) Sensory and Motor information have different tracts in the CNS and PNS 2) Afferent tracts carry sensory information from the body to the dorsal(back) horn of the spinal cord. 3) Efferent (exiting the spinal cord) tracts carry motor information from the ventral(front) horn of the spinal cord to the body. Central Nervous System 1) Composed of the brain and spinal cord. Cerebral Cortex 1) The outer layer of the brain composed of gray matter (neuronal bodies). Computed Tomography (CT) 1) A structural neuroimaging scan that is used to find tumors or lesions. 2) The brain image is viewed in horizontal slices after radiopaque tissues (bone) absorb x- rays and a 3D image is constructed. Dendrites and Spines 1) Dendrites form a dendritic tree branching from the soma of a neuron. The dendritic tree receives electrical signals from the axons of other neurons and passes the accumulation of signals to the soma. 2) Dendritic Spines are plastic, meaning they can grow or shrink depending on experience, and will grow in an enriched environment and shrink in a deprived environment. Dendritic spine density increases in animals when ovulating. Difference image 1) The difference image is found using a PET scan. It shows the difference between the glucose being used by the brain in a behavioral task and the glucose being used by the brain when doing nothing. 2) Hotter colors in regions of the brain mean more activity and cooler colors mean less activity in a PET scan. Donald Hebb 1) Furthered Cajal’s doctrine that when information is transferred between two neurons the connection is strengthened. 2) Hebb theorized that if two neurons were to fire close in time the connection between them would strengthen. This was called Hebbian Plasticity- cells that fire together, wire together! 3) Hebb also theorized that memory, perception and learning took place between a cell assembly that fired close in time. Electroencephalography (EEG) 1) A neurophysiology technique that measures the summed activity of a population of neurons by placing an electrode cap on the skull. 2) The amount of electrodes on the cap determines the spatial resolution of the neurons that are being recorded 3) When a person is aroused the patterns of firing are low amplitude and high frequency because each neuron is firing asynchronously. When a person is asleep the pattern is high amplitude and low frequency because the neurons are firing synchronously. 4) Temporal resolution is the best compared to all other methods of recording the brain. Engram 1) Karl Lashley damaged the brains of mice to see if he could find the exact location where the memory to complete a maze was stored. Despite his attempts the rats could complete the maze no matter where he lesioned. 2) Due to his failed experiments he rejected the idea of an engram and agreed with the theory of equipotentiality- all neurons work together to create a memory trace. 3) Although today there is some evidence that a small area of the cerebellum is the engram for classical conditioning. Event-related potential 1) Neurophysiology technique that uses EEG but has the participant complete a behavioral task while wearing the cap. An example would be recording an individual trying to distinguish the sounds between two words. Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential 1) The synapse of a neuron reaches threshold (around -65 mV) and fires and action potential to the dendrites of another neuron. Frontal Lobe 1) Involved in executive function, decision making, and personality. 2) Lesion to Phineas Gage’s medial frontal lobe caused severe personality changes. He went from a well adjusted, friendly, responsible individual to a mean, uncouth and disrespectful person. Functional MRI (fMRI) 1) Functional neuroimaging technique that uses the ratio of oxygenated blood to deoxygenated blood in brain areas to determine which areas are most active during a behavioral task 2) Similar to the PET scan, fMRI subtracts the brain scan during activity during rest from brain scan activity during a behavioral task. Activity-baseline= BOLD response 3) BOLD stands for blood oxygen level dependent Ionic Flow: Diffusion and Electrical Charge 1) Diffusion- ions move from an area of high concentration to low concentration. A) Potassium is high inside a neuron so will move outside by diffusion B) Sodium is high outside a neuron so will move inside by diffusion C) Chloride is high outside a neuron so will move inside by diffusion D) Calcium is high outside a neuron so will move inside by diffusion. 2) Electrical Charge- The potential difference between the inside and outside of a neuron. Positive ionic charges attract negative ionic charges and like charges repel each other. A) The inside of a neuron is more negative that the extracellular space outside the neuron. B) Potassium is a positive ion and will want to stay inside the neuron because the inside of the cell is negative C) Sodium is a positive ion and will be attracted to the inside of the neuron because of the negative charge relative to the outside. D) Chloride is a negative ion and will want to stay outside of the neuron because of the negative inside of the neuron. E) Calcium is a positive ion and will be attracted to the inside of the neuron. Immunocytochemistry 1) A neuropharmacology technique that uses the immune system of an animal to have their antibodies detect a specific protein or antigen in neurons. 2) This happens by drawing blood from the animal and tagging the specific antibody with fluorescence. When the fluorescent antigen is injected back in to the animal the antigen attaches to the appropriate neuron or neural tissue. The animal is sacrificed and the brain is sliced with a microtome to see the neurons that were tagged. Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential 1) A neurotransmitter from the presynaptic terminal inhibits the postsynaptic neuron by closing sodium channels. The postsynaptic neuron hyperpolarizes and does not release an action potential. Lesions in Animals 1) Ablation- Areas of the brain are removed or damaged with no precision. 2) Electrical or heat lesions- Can damage tracts or neurons devoted to a certain region that you believe to be involved in a certain task. These are the first lesions to be done before further testing. 3) Neurotoxic lesions- Can target specific neurons and given to the animal by food or exocytosis 4) Reversible lesions by cooling or inactivation- The best technique for lesioning because function can be restored after a short time. Localization of Function 1) The idea that each area of the brain is devoted to a specific function. 2) Good support for localization of function: Phineas Gage, Broca’s Aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia, but there is also evidence for different brain regions working together for more complex tasks. Long Term Potentiation (LTP) 1) The mechanism by which synaptic plasticity occurs. 2) Demonstration by Lomo and Andersen of LTP: electrodes were placed in a presynaptic neuron (cell A) and a postsynaptic neuron (cell B). When cell A was given a weak stimulation, cell B responded with a weak response. When a high frequency stimulus was give to cell A, cell B responded with a strong response. After the high frequency stimulus weaker stimuli were give to cell A but this time cell B continued to have a strong response. The high frequency stimulus potentiated the connection between cell A and cell B. LTP Expression 1) The presynaptic neuron is depolarized and releases glutamate which is a excitatory neurotransmitter. 2) The glutamate binds to AMPA ionotropic receptors which begins an influx of sodium through the AMPA receptors 3) Glutamate binds to the NMDA receptors and the neuron is depolarized so the magnesium plug of the NMDA receptor is removed. Calcium starts to rush in to the neuron through the NMDA receptor. 4) Functional change of the connection between the two neurons will turn in to morphological change (increase in axons) by increasing the strength of connection. The strength of the connection is increased between the presynaptic and postsynaptic cell by A) Increase in surface area of dendritic spines on postsynaptic neuron B) Increase of the AMPA receptors on the post synaptic cell C) Phosphorylate the AMPA receptors so they stay open for longer Long Term Depression (LTD) 1) The result of presynaptic and post synaptic neurons not firing synchronously. 2) Dephosphorization of AMPA receptors, smaller dendritic trees and less glutamate being released are all consequences of LTD. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 1) A structural neuroimaging technique that uses strong magnetic fields to align hydrogen atoms in the brain in a certain direction. The hydrogen atoms return to their original positions when the magnetic field is released and send out a signal. The summation of signals produces a 3D image of the brain. The brain is viewed in slices on the screen. 2) Good for localizing tumors and lesions. NMDA receptor 1) Important receptor for long term potentiation. 2) The receptor must have glutamate attached and the postsynaptic neuron must be depolarized before the receptor can release its magnesium plug. 3) Once the magnesium plug is released calcium enters the postsynaptic neuron through the NMDA receptor. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 1) Injection of deoxyglucose in to the back of the neck lets scientists see the differences in brain activation during a task. and during rest 2) More invasive than fMRI but still a structural neuroimaging technique Neuromodulators 1) Neurotransmitters that effect entire brain regions 2) Work through metabotropic G proteins attached to the inside membrane of the postsynaptic neuron. The G proteins can open other receptors down stream of the neuron and control gene expression. 3) Important for general neuronal function and if neuromodulators don’t work properly it can lead to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s 4) Neuromodulators change the signal to noise ratio between many neurons by enhancing the action potential over the summation of neurons. 5) Acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine are modulators. Neurophysiology 1) EEG 2) ERP Neuropharmacology 1) Autoreceptors-sites on the presynaptic terminal that act as negative feedback loops to stop production of a neurotransmitter when there is to much in the synapse. 2) Drug Infusions- effects of a drug on a particular brain region 3) Microdialysis- Semipermeable tube the collects CSF. Can analyze CSF for chemicals, neurotransmitters, proteins. 4) Immunocytochemistry- previously explained. 5) Agonists- drugs that depolarizes the postsynaptic cell. 6) Antagonist- drug that hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic cell. Neurotransmitters 1) GABA- main inhibitory neurotransmitter 2) Glutamate- main excitatory neurotransmitter 3) Peptide neurotransmitters are released simultaneously with GABA and Glutamate and can enhance the signal to the postsynaptic neuron. As long as the postsynaptic neuron has receptors for both neurotransmitters dual transmission is possible. 4) Gases are retrograde neurotransmitters meaning the move from the axon, to the soma and then to the dendrites. Can cause brain damage as in carbon monoxide poisoning. Synaptic Integration 1) Spatial summation depends on the closeness of neurons within the brain 2) Temporal summation depends on if the action potentials are firing within 10 milliseconds of each other. 3) The combination of excitatory and inhibitory neurons is important because the sum of all these signals determines if an action potential is fired or not. If we wanted to make sure a action potential did not fire, then the most ideal place to put a inhibitory neuron would be at the axon hillock (end of the axon) to stop any excitatory signal coming down the axon. Theory of equipotentiality 1) All brain regions have the same functions. It is a combination of the brain cells that make behavior possible. 2) Competing theory of localization of function. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) 1) Brain regions are activated by a magnetic coil placed over the skull. Noninvasive. 2) Brain stimulation technique. Acoustic Startle Reflex 1) Rats were scared with an unexpected noise and their initial startle response is high. As the sound continues to play the rats startle response gradually decreases. The rats habituate to the loud noise. Habituation 1) Repeated exposure to stimulus causes a decreased response 2) Advantages: Allows you to focus on more important stimuli and avoid wasting energy. 3) Disadvantage: The unattended stimuli may be dangerous 4) The form of the stimulus, number of exposures and time between exposures control how much you habituate. A) Shorter form of habituation is caused by short intervals between stimuli B) Longer form of habitation is caused by longer intervals between stimuli 5) Habituation is a learning situation independent of sensory or motor neuron desensitization that would cause adaptation and fatigue. 6) Habituation is stimulus specific so presentation of novel stimuli after exposure to habituated stimuli will cause and increased response to the new stimulus. Example) Babies will fixate on similar shapes for the same amount of time but when a new shape is presented their fixation time increases on the novel object. Dishabituation 1) Release of habituation happens because the secondary stimulus was presented in between the presentation of the old stimulus. 2) Example) Men’s subjective arousal and physical arousal are closely related according to an experiment where a device was placed around the penis of men who were watching porn. When presented with the same type of porn for a while the men’s physical and subjective arousal dropped but when shown a new type of porn the men’s physical and subjective arousal increased. Afterwards when the original porn was placed on the screen the men’s physical and subjective arousal increased again to almost the original level at initial exposure. Sensitization 1) A stimulus startles and causes a drastically increased response to the same stimulus upon the next exposure. 2) Example) if you did not leave your home when a hurricane came and your home flooded the next time a tropical storm or natural disaster was predicted you would leave your home in a hurry with all your belongings. 3) Not stimulus specific like habituation but can be generalized to a bunch of stimuli. Dual Process Theory 1) Habituation and Sensitization are independent learning processes but happen in parallel. 2) Habituation weakens connections somewhere between input and output 3) Sensitization strengthens connections between input to a generalized output. Mere Exposure Learning 1) Learning without explicit training 2) A type of latent learning 3) Example) Shapes are hung in some rats’ cages and the other rats are the control group. When discrimination training occurs when the rats are adults the rats that were exposed to the shapes perform better on the discrimination task than the control group. Discrimination Training 1) Learning to discriminate the sex of a chicken will not generalize to discriminating between different breeds of dog 2) The more difficult the discrimination training the less generalizable it is. 3) Feedback is necessary in discrimination training so the individual can learn if their perception is right or wrong. Spatial Learning 1) Rats allowed to explore through a maze before being tested found the food faster when tested than rats that were not allowed to explore. 2) Niko Tinbergen moved the twigs around a wasp’s nest and found that the wasp thought the nest was where he moved the twigs. 3) Men are more likely to rely on spatial cues and women are more likely to rely on physical cues when navigating. Novel Object Recognition 1) Most animals prefer novel objects 2) Rats were placed in a cage and given time to habituate to the context and the environment. When a novel object is placed in the cage the rats spend more time near it. 3) Dolphins are one of the rare animals that do not like novel objects- neophobia- fear of new objects. Priming 1) Prior exposure without explicit knowledge primes you to respond in a certain way. 2) Individuals with anterograde amnesia (unable to form new memories) can perform well with priming tasks. This is indicative that priming is not dependent on the hippocampus or declarative memory. Non Associative Learning 1) Priming 2) Novel Object Recognition 3) Spatial Learning 4) Discrimination Training 5) Mere Exposure Learning 6) Sensitization 7) Habituation 8) Dishabituation Aplysia and glutamate signaling 1) Gill withdrawal reflex decreases in intensity as the gill is touched many times. The sensory presynaptic neuron releases less glutamate on to the motor neuron as habituation occurs. Habituation causes voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) to disappear from the presynaptic sensory neuron which means less glutamate hitting the postsynaptic neuron. Homosynaptic Plasticity- happening all on the sensory presynaptic neuron. 2) For sensitization of the Aplysia the gill is shocked following a gill touch. The shock sensitizes the Aplysia to the next gill touch. Interneurons intervene with the desensitized sensory neuron and release serotonin which blocks potassium channels and depolarizes the cell and makes glutamate stay in the synaptic terminal for longer. Heterosynaptic plasticity- happening on interneurons and the sensory neuron
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