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Spaa 343, First Exam Study Guide

by: Janell Barker

Spaa 343, First Exam Study Guide SPAA 343

Janell Barker
GPA 3.8

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This is the complete, in-depth study guide for the first exam!
Introduction to Audiology
Mr. Gregory Newman
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janell Barker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPAA 343 at Ball State University taught by Mr. Gregory Newman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Audiology in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Ball State University.

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Date Created: 01/29/16
SPAA 342/542 Exam 1 – Study Guide General Information about the Practice of Audiology 1. What is the scope of practice of an audiologist?  Audiological evaluation – behavioral (raise hand when you hear the beep) and physiological tests ( do not require participation; look at sonar/how eardrum moves) of hearing/auditory function  Balance testing (in inner ear)/rehabilitation (help)  Cerumen management (earwax management/dig it out of people’s ears)  Administration of hearing loss prevention programs (a.k.a. Hearing Conservation Program)  Administration of newborn screening programs  2 biggest causes of hearing loss for adults: age and noise  Today, there is a massive increase in noise-induced hearing loss (headphones)  Evaluation and rehabilitation of Tinnitus (ringing in ears; can be caused by gunfire, concerts, age, etc.)  Hearing habilitation/rehabilitation - Fitting and verification of hearing aids, cochlear implants and assistive listening devices  Speech screening  Intra-operative monitoring (placing electrodes to aid in surgery; someone else does the surgery)  Research  Education 2. Where do audiologists practice? ENT office; Clinic or hospital; Private practice (you’re the boss); University; Hearing aid manufacturer (a lot of traveling); School system (education audiologist); Industry (industrial audiologist; big companies/factories like General Motors where employees are around a lot of noise); Government (military or veterans affairs; i.e. veteran has hearing loss from a grenade going off close by; DIFFICULT to get into because people that work there love it/want to stay) 3. What are the educational requirements to be an audiologist? Doctor of audiology (AuD); OR Doctor of Philosophy (PhD – more researched based degree); OR Other Doctoral (ScD, EdD) Nature of Sound 1. What are the different types of wave motion? Longitudinal wave runs parallel to wave motion Transverse waves (more commonly seen in nature, i.e. ocean waves) have particle motion perpendicular to wave motion 2. What type of wave motion is involved in sound propagation through air? Longitudinal 3. Explain the rarefaction and condensation (compression) of air molecules? Condensation – molecules packed tightly together, more dense Rarefaction – molecules widely spaced, less dense 4. How is pressure defined? The exertion of force upon a surface by an object, fluid, etc., in contact with it; 5. How does sound pressure vary with cycles of rarefaction and condensation? There is more pressure during condensation, and less pressure during rarefaction 6. How does a sine wave describe the cycles of rarefaction and condensation of air molecules? When the wave goes up, that’s when condensation is taking place. The lowest points of the wave show us when rarefaction is taking place. 7. Explain the following terms: cycle, frequency, period, amplitude (intensity) and phase. Cycle – from baseline pressure to maximum and back to baseline Frequency – number of cycles in a second (unit is Hertz, Hz) Period – time it takes for 1 cycle to occur Amplitude – the magnitude of the pressure change from baseline Intensity – related to amplitude (unit decibel, dB) Phase - Describes the amount of compression or rarefaction of a sound 8. What are the perceptual correlates of frequency and intensity? Frequency – pitch Intensity - loudness Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear 1. What are the major landmarks of the pinna? KNOW: Tragus, lobule, antitragus, external auditory meatus (ear canal), helix, concha, and antihelix! 2. Which structures constitute the “outer ear”? The pinna, ear canal, and sometime the tympanic membrane is included 3. What are the functions of the outer ear? Funnels sound, localization, amplifies certain frequencies, protection 4. What are the bones and muscles of the middle ear? What connects to what? Bones: malleus -> connects to incus -> stapes Tensor tympani – “originates” at Eustachian tube & “inserts” into the manubrium of the malleus Stapedius – originates at posterior wall of middle ear cavity & inserts into neck of the stapes 5. Middle ear muscles contract reflexively…. When and why? When there is a very loud noise, acoustic reflex occurs (ossicular chain can stiffen for loud noises to protect nerves) 6. How is air pressure in the middle ear equalized with atmospheric pressure? The Eustachian tubes equalize pressure 7. What is the function of the middle ear? How do the ossicles accomplish this function? Amplify sound; the ossicular chain does the leveling and goes through that process. Then the ear undergoes ariel transformation. (the eardrum is much bigger than the stapes causing an increase in pressure equivalent to about 26 dB) 8. What are the major structures of the inner ear? Cochlea: o Coiled like a snail shell o 3 membraneous compartments: scala vistibuli, scala media, scala tympani o The basilar membrane th o The 8 cranial nerve (vestibular cochlear nerve) is what connects to the ear o Paralymph – inside scala vestibule and scala tympani o Endolymph – inside scala media 9. Explain how sound travels through the ear from the motion of the tympanic membrane to the signaling of the auditory nerve. a. Tympanic membrane vibrates b. Ariel transformation overcome impedance mismatch c. Stapes moves in and out of oval window d. Scallavestibiti is displaced e. Hair cells stimulated f. Helicatrima g. Scaletympani is displaced h. Potassium ions flow causing cycles of excitation and inhibition i. Auditory nerve relays electrical info j. Electrical info arrives at auditory cortex k. I hear it 10. Differentiate between the functions of the inner and outer hair cells. Outer hair cells amplify sound Inner hair cells are what differentiates /s/, from /f/, and things like that – primary sensory cells of hearing 11. What are the major relay centers of the auditory pathway the auditory pathway includes four main stages: 1) nuclei of the brainstem, which are both relay and reflex centers; 2) inferior colliculus; 3) medial geniculate body; 4) temporal cortex


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