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Study Guide Cultural Anthropology Test 1

by: Bailey Baker

Study Guide Cultural Anthropology Test 1 anth1001

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > anthropology, evolution, sphr > anth1001 > Study Guide Cultural Anthropology Test 1
Bailey Baker
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Study Guide for Test Number 1! Covers material covered in class. Hope this helps your studying!!!
Cultural Anthropology
Dr. Strauss
Study Guide
Cultural Anthropology
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Baker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to anth1001 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Strauss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 01/29/16
Cultural Anthropology Test 1 Review Sheet - Test: February 3, 2016  Anthropology: the holistic study of everything there is to know about humans o Subfields of anthropology:  Physical/Biological: study genetic variation and ask, what do different genes tell us about humans?  Cultural: concerned with the rules that govern life Ethnography: studying living cultures Ethnographer: studies cultures of modern groups by collecting data Ethnographic present: writing description of how culture was Ethno historian: study of culture in historic past based on written history  Linguistics: the study of language and how that affects the interactions in the world  Archeology: the study of past cultures that no longer exist based on artifacts, etc.  Applied Anthropologists: using their understanding of anthropology to help people (specifically in a non-industrialized world that needs help as they modernize) Culture: o Specific Meaning: refers to a specific society such as Japanese society o General Meaning: Culture is a learned system of beliefs around which a group of people organize their lives o It is unique to humans o Culture is how humans survive o Cultural Adaptive Kit: use culture to adapt to surroundings o Somatic Adaptations - Animals: adaptations of the body to help them survive in their culture o Culture is learned (baby raised in Ohio will have a different culture then one raised in Africa) o Downside to language: can easily share fears, can easily share anxiety o Culture is shared – you can never have an individual culture!!!! o Culture is a system, or pattern, where Religion, political organization, social organization, economic organization, and technology all affect one another to create culture. o Symbolic Communication: communicating using symbols  Symbol: an object or event that represents another object or event only because it is agreed upon by the people who use that symbol o Enculturation: process by which you learn values, language, beliefs, practice of culture  Three Types of Learning: Cultural Learning: the ability to use symbols to communicate (unique to humans) Individual – Situational Learning: animals learn and base future behavior on its own experiences Social – Situational Learning: animals learn from another animal (Lion teaches cubs to hunt by allowing them to finish the kill) (Culture is telling) o Cultural Evolutionism: 19 Century (1800’s) – emphasized analyzing cultures in stages of development from savagery to civilization  Franz Boas: Father of anthropology!!! Focus on facts not opinions – collecting accurate information based on studies of people by doing field work Studied arctic peoples Says every culture has different traits and says cultures should NOT be ranked against each other Cultural Relativism: cultural traits are best understood in the context of the culture in which they are a part of, therefore, Boas says we should not use standards of our own culture to judge other cultures Started ethnography: studying living cultures in many settings Participant observation: participate in the foreign culture to learn more Interview: ask people questions about their culture Emic data: analysis that describes a culture in a way that makes sense to an insider of that culture Etic data: analysis that describes a culture in categories that make sense to an outsider of that culture o Evolution: change over long period of time  Types of Evolution: General Evolution: main changes both biological and cultural that have occurred over a long period of time within the genus (homosapians- the thinking man) Specific Evolution: specific populations evolving by long term adaptations and changes in specific areas. o (Homohabilis- first person with tools) o (Homoerectis- first to stand up) o As brains grow, pelvis’ change to allow room for birth changes o Example of specific evolution: teosinte grass in Mexico evolved into corn Unilineal Evolution: Leslie White says that culture developed from primitive to complex over time in a specific timeline o Societies develop from those who rely on human energy to those with food making capabilities and governments o Does not rank stages on superiority o Leslie personally thought primitive was better Multilineal Evolution: Julian Steward says that for a culture to evolve it did not need to go through every stage in a set path (can skip stages) o Societies change in relation to available resources o Stewards ideas started cultural ecology: studying culture based on environment o Said to follow 4 steps to cause change in a culture:  1) ask what resources are available  2)Find out what human actions and interactions are needed to achieve the level of cooperation needed to get resources  What kind of social organization do you need to achieve the level of cooperation needed to get resources  What system of belief do you need to validate that social organization o Culture Core: set of traits that can be tied directly to the resources in an environment and explains how and why society changes based on resources  Ideology on top of pyramid – farther away from resources: meaning it is hard to explain how resources affect ideology  Political institutions in middle  Technology and economy on bottom of pyramid – they are the most closely related to and affected by resources Subsistence: the study of how we get our food o Hunter-Gatherer: (most successful strategy every created by humans & most persistent)  Louis Binford: developed collector-forager spectrum Foragers: move to where food resources are (highly mobile) (highly variable group sizes) Collectors: organize into task groups – go and collect resources and bring it back to share, more stable homes, store resources for future use CULTURAL SIDENOTE IMPORTANT FOR TEST: o Hadza: foragers of Eastern Africa that care about resource location, not about who owns the land. Nobody here owns any land and even non Handzan people can use the land. They do not story any food, they simply eat them right when they find them. If men kill an animal, they build a fire right there, eat it, and bring leftovers back for other men and women o Ainu: collectors and native people of Japan that look like Vikings. Their biggest resource is the collection of salmon from the river that they build their houses next to. They are extremely territorial so you cannot go in anyone else land or part of the river to hunt for salmon. Collect and store salmon as a resource. Also use task groups. Producers: plant and animal producers o 1) Horticulture: produce plants-the cultivation of crops using simple hand tools and without fertilization of soil, no rotation of crops, often don’t irrigate (which means bringing water to farm). They clear the land, use it, and abandon it because of soil erosion or weeds. CAN’T YIELD BIG PRODUCTION OF CROPS AND CANT FEED BIG POPULATIONS  Slash-burn Horticulture: tropical soils aren’t nutrient rich, so they chop down land and burn it right there to add nutrients o Agriculture: requires more labor because use land more intensely – need labor to maintain water systems and labor to cut into hill to make it flat for use. Has good pay off food wise. Agriculture allows the support of bigger populations because no land goes unused and it is used continuously. Allows for a more predictable and reliable food source. o Pastoralism: herders- subsistence strategy based on animal husbandry. It is an off-shoot of agriculture because lots of plants leads to a lot of animals so pastoralists usually live by agriculturalists. Animals are dependent on humans and vice versa. The amount of animals you own is a status symbol. They don’t eat animals unless they have to because they are a good resource (milk and blood, etc.). Economies: way people deal with goods and services in a society. o All cultures vary in what is valuable to them o Commodity: goods and service that people buy/trade if it is worthy (may be intangible such as music or insurance) o People work to get provide food, shelter, and reproduce  Optimal Foraging Theory: tells us that people use food resources in direct proportion to the caloric effort required to obtain them. People work to get greatest return for their efforts (want to maximize return from work). What you eat and like is based upon where you live. Production: o The right to resources: sometimes the right to use a resource is restricted by social status, age, sex or marriage, first come first serve (hunters and gatherers) o Ownership: held even when not exercised and gives you the right to deny people the use of your resources, they must get your permission – ownership can be bought, given, or sold o Production divided up by 1) age 2) gender 3) group  Age and Gender: work divided up like this on a family level – men and women do certain jobs as well as adults and children o More complex a society is, more people it takes to make production o Distribution: movement of goods and resources from where they are found or produced to where they are used  Reciprocity: system of exchange in which goods/services are passed from individual or group to another as gifts without the need for contracting of payment No bargaining over what is to be given in return for a gift Mutual Sharing: eventually something will be given back for your gift Generosity: survival technique so that people share back No one prospers at anyone else’s expense No one fears lack of food or resources Success based on desire to receive o Generalized Reciprocity: gifts given with no expectation of immediate exchange (motivated by obligation to others) o Balanced Reciprocity: between people who lack a sense of kinship or obligation – people who like eachother & its just a gift- return gift expected in reasonable time (Amish people) o Negative Reciprocity: one individual tries to get more then they receive – range from stingy to theft – happens between strangers – fake beans sold in place of cackow beans)  Redistribution: commodities produced by the members of a social group contribute to a common pool from which they are then redistributed to the community. Involves a third party to decide where to distribute goods. (give them the power). Encourages production to allow extra for yourself. Community insurance policy.  Market Economy: todays economy form. System of distribution for goods/services based primarily on established locations. Can occur randomly in any society. The more people there are the more markets. Place of exchange. Guided by self-interest.


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