Anatomy and Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 1004
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Friday January 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/29/16
Anatomy and Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction The first exam contains material from the Chapters 14. Chapter 1 Summary This chapter is mainly an introduction into the course. It provides brief descriptions of the various systems that will be discussed in the course. Chapter 1 Key Points Listed from smallest to largest: atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms. Positions on the body include: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial, deep, central, and peripheral. Planes/sections of the body include: sagittal, transverse, and frontal Regions of the head: cephalic, cranial, frontal, occipital, oral, nasal, and ophthalmic Regions of the chest: pectoral, mammary, axillary, vertebral, and costal Cavities of the body: dorsal cavity (has the cranial and spinal cavities), and the ventral cavity (has the thoracic and the abdominopelvic cavities) The organ systems of the body: integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, endocrine system, circulatory system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system, and the reproductive system Chapter 2 Summary This chapter discusses atoms and elements, and the various components that make them up. Also discussed are compounds and molecules and the rules of them such as the octet rule. Types of bonds are listed and described and so are types of molecules. Chapter 2 Key Points Elements and atoms: Elements are a substance that cannot be broken down by normal chemical means Atoms are smallest part of an element that can enter into a chemical reaction and smallest part of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element Electrons have a negative charge Protons have a positive charge Neutrons have a neutral charge Atomic weight is the # of protons + the # of neutrons Atomic number is the # of protons in an atom The electrical charge is the comparison of the # of protons and # of electrons Molecules and compounds: Mixture is 2 or more atoms in a nonspecific ratio Compound is 2 or more atoms in a fixed ratio Octet rule—2 electrons in the first shell, 8 in the remaining shells Chemical bonds – energy relationships between atoms that are controlled by electrons Ionic bonds – transfer of electrons from one atom to another Covalent bonds – sharing of electrons Hydrogen bonds – electropositive region attracted to electronegative region Inorganic molecules (without carbon) Polar and nonpolar – polar molecules have an electrical charge Electrolytes dissolve in water and release ions + Acids release H ions Bases release OH ions Organic molecules include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids DNA stores genetic information, RNA transfers it Chapter 3 Summary This chapter discusses how cells function and their structures. It describes how the membrane functions and the organelles on the inside of the cell. Chapter 3 Key Points The plasma membrane separates the interior of the cell from its environment and is composed of phospholipids and proteins/glycoproteins. The membrane is selectively permeable. Passive transport requires no energy and active transport is movement against a concentration gradient Endocytosis is when materials are brought into the cell and exocytosis is when materials are released from the cell. The inside of the cell: nucleus, nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleolus, ribosomes, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, centrioles, cilia and flagella. Chapter 4 Summary This chapter discusses the various types of tissue in the body and their functions. Chapter 4 Key Points Epithelial tissue Composed of tightly packed cells Lines body cavities and skin Lines the reproductive track, urinary track, digestive track, and circulatory system The types of cell it has: squamous, cuboidal, and columnar Its types of stratification are: simple, stratified, transitional, and pseudo stratified Connective tissue The types of connective tissue are: loose connective tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone, blood, and matrix Muscular tissue Skeletal muscle – attached to the bone Smooth muscle – fatigues slowly, recovers quickly and found in the digestive track, reproductive system and circulatory system Cardiac muscle – found in the heart and is nonfatiguing The function of muscular tissue is movement, can contract or relax, and require calcium and electrical stimulation to contract Nervous tissue Its function is to communicate with other body parts through electrical impluses The two types of nervous tissue are neurons and neuroglia cells Serosa/internal membranes Serosa lines the internal cavities Serosa produces fluids to limit friction
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