Week 4 Notes
● Emergence of political parties
● Hamilton Secretary of Treasury largest department in executive branch and very important role to George Washington!
○ Hamilton’s Grand Design
■ proposals to Congress:
■ First Plan: Report on the Public Credit (1790)
■ THE CRITICS SAID plan would enrich speculators, but it was approved in exchange for locating the national capital in the South (on the Potomac)
● we don’t know who originally paid us, so we need to give the
money we owe to the original holders
● Slave owners did not want to lose their slaves and move north,
which is why they wanted the capital in the south
■ Second Plan: Report on a National Bank (1791)
● THE CRITICS SAID national bank was not constitutional.
Hamilton responded with the doctrine of “Implied Powers”
● UNCONSTITUTIONAL if the Constitution doesn’t say it, the
government cannot do it
● Hamilton argues: The Constitution does not specifically say
everything we can and cannot do, but it is implied. “Loose
construction” of the Constitution (versus “strict constructionists”
■ Third Plan: Report on Manufactures (1791)
● THE CRITICS SAID this was nothing more than
governmentsponsored privilege for Hamilton’s pals in
business and was rejected.
● Hamilton thought that if you help the wealthy, then they will
spread/share their wealth
● Hamilton basically says: WE NEED A STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT, but people were fearful of a powerful government abusing its authority and possibly taking away their freedom Don't forget about the age old question of Why does sodium react to water immediately?
● Mid 1790s, Hamilton’s opponent was now: Thomas Jefferson (?)
● Thomas Jefferson
○ born from influential Virginia family
○ went to College of William and Mary
○ elected to the House of Burgesses, 1769
○ “Summary view of the Rights of British America” 1774
○ Member of Continental Congress, 17751776
■ He was on what was thought of as the least important out of the three main committees
○ Governor of Virginia, 17791781 (2 days after he fled from the British army, so obviously no election)
○ He was not involved in writing the Constitution (he was an American minister in Paris)
○ He was the main author of the Declaration of Independence
○ He was elected (not by choice) to Secretary of State, 1789
○ Founded the University of Virginia
Jefferson’s View: An Agrarian Republic
● Government will be virtuous if they are predominately agricultural in order to make sure the Americans survive
Jefferson → Opponents
Central (Federal) government → State government
Manufacturing → agricultural
● Hamilton and the “Federalists” (not to be confused with the “Federalists” who supported ratification of the Constitution
● Jefferson and the “Republicans” (Later started calling themselves “Democrats”) Division was ideological, but also regional, economic, and personal Don't forget about the age old question of What is the formula of substitution method?
● Jefferson wasn’t as well known as Hamilton in the 1780s/1790s
○ Hamilton was a soldier in the war Colonel Hamilton the Revolutionary War HERO
○ Jefferson didn’t do anything during the war, and then went to France (nothing to do for writing the Constitution, but did help with writing the Declaration of Independence)
● Political parties there is no LOYAL OPPOSITION
○ nobody wants people to be disloyal to their government
● War in Europe, 17921815
○ Federalists are more sympathetic towards Great Britain
○ Republics are more sympathetic toward France
● George Washington was elected to office twice everyone wanted him to be the president for as long as possible
○ Was perceived “Federalist” (even though he didn’t want to support political parties)
○ Began tradition of president only being able to run for 2 terms (except for Roosevelt)
○ Election of 1796 very close Electoral vote (no popular vote yet)
■ 49% DemocraticRepublican, 51% Federalist (clear NorthSouth divide already) If you want to learn more check out How do we know global politics exist?
● Issues of Adams Administration (17971801)
1. Jefferson was VP A member of the other party!
2. To to maintain neutrality was France really a threat?
3. Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 (could deport any Irish or French that are suspicious)
4. Republican Response:
a. The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions (James Madison wrote VA
resolution, Jefferson wrote KY resolution)
● People didn’t want Adams to be president
○ Republicans feared that military power was put for the Federalists and against the DemocraticRepublicans Don't forget about the age old question of How does social class influence families?
○ Election of 1800 won by Jefferson (53% DemocraticRepublican or JEFFERSON, 27% Federalist or ADAMS)
● Hamilton is never president but leader of the FEDERALIST PARTY ● Jefferson’s election: “The Revolution of 1800”
○ The DemocraticRepublican victory saved the corruption of Federalists ○ “Midnight Appointments” back then the new elected officials come into the office in March after the election in November
○ 1801 John Marshall Chief Justice of Supreme Court
■ Strong Federalist
■ Supported Hamilton no matter who the president was
■ His being in the Supreme Court helped Adams
● The “Republicans” in Power
○ The purpose of government is limited we do not want a vigorous government
● Jefferson in Office:
1. Set a more informal tone
2. Reduced government expenses
a. army made smaller, navy ships are sold, close embassies overseas, ENDED NATIONAL DEBT
3. Purchased Louisiana not such as “strict constructionist,” after all? a. Napoleon Bonaparte wanted to recreate a French empire in America, but gave it up as a bad go...
4. Kept us out of war?
● Jefferson Louisiana Purchase 1803
Britain and France wouldn’t respect any American president views
Why War with Britain in 1812?
1. Attacks on neutrality We also discuss several other topics like Who are the funk brothers? why were they central to the ‘motown sound’ and the success of the record label?
Don't forget about the age old question of What makes water an excellent solvent?
2. Quasiwar with France (17981800)
a. undeclared war fought on the high seas
b. Alien and Sedition Acts
3. Impressment The Chesapeake incident, June 1807
a. British Act
b. Stopping ships and seizing sailors to man the British ships
4. A “Second War of American Independence”
5. How else to get Britain’s attention?
a. They’re in a war with Europe during this time
b. Madison’s war letter to congress: “let’s declare war on them, that will get their attention”
c. Constitution doesn’t say that war declarations have to be passed by the President Congress can declare war
d. 80% republicans war; 100% federalists no war (?)
● British listened to US before war even started!
● Outline of the War
○ First half of war America on the offensive. The goal is to seize Canada! (It is the only “British” thing we can get at.)
○ Federalist opposition complicates strategy making
■ Remember: Federalists didn’t want to go to war can’t ask for their militias/troops
○ Our operations characterized by lack of preparedness and incompetent leadership
○ Only achievement an important one is Perry’s Victory at Lake Erie (on of the great Lakes near Michigan) (Sept 1813)
○ Second half of the war Americans are on the defensive, our efforts characterized by bettertrained troops and better leaders (Generals Winfield Scott and Andrew Jackson), but with Napoleon’s apparent defeat in 1814, Britain is now able to send large forces to America
○ British Naval blockade of the coast
○ British burn the public buildings in Washington, DC
■ Apparently in reaction to US burning buildings in Toronto
○ Jackson wins big victory (January 1815) at New Orleans, but the war is already over
○ Lesser known but more important was the naval victory (Sept 1814) on Lake Champlain (Plattsburg) under Thomas Macdonough
○ 1815 Peace Treaty
● The Results of the War
1. Destroyed the Federalist party
a. Federalists opposed the war, nobody paid attention to them (opposition party warning sign to not be like the Federalists)
b. Convention in Hartford, CT modifications to Constitution to give them a more equal say, asked Washington but looked like traitors
2. Destroyed Indian power in the west
3. Legacy of Anglophobia
a. hatred toward Britain
4. As for neutral “rights” on the high seas Read the chapter about “World War I” in your textbook!
a. neutral rights respected?
● War of 1812 British understands that America is independent
The Era of Good Feelings
● James Monroe
○ Monroe Doctrine we don’t want Europe to interfere with us
○ Everyone is calling themselves a Republican the Era of Good Feeling ● “The American Economic Miracle”
○ Declining farm employment
○ Growing manufacturing employment
○ Economic life isn’t defined by their own farm it’s becoming national in scope! (in other words, people are interacting with others to buy food and clothes instead of just making it for themselves)
* Trend is more pronounced in the North than it is in the South
● The Transportation Revolution
○ Reduced time and cost of shipping goods inland
○ Turnpikes Major Toll Roads
○ Steamboats on Western Rivers (from 1815 travelling North from New Orleans) ■ 69 Steamboats in 1820, 727 in 1855
○ Canals “Erie Canal” (NY) the single most important, finished 1825
■ Reoriented Western produce from south to east
○ Railroads starting in 1820s; by the 1850s, 8 times as many rail miles as canal miles
■ lines ran east to west
■ cheaper and easier than creating canal miles
1. The English background to colonization
2. Contrasting colonies
3. The American Revolution
4. Articles of Confederation and the Constitution
5. The emergence of political parties and the War of 1812
6. The economic transformation of the United States and the Democratic age (Chapter 116 in The American Past)
EXAM is Thursday, 2/18/16