American Lit 1 - Test 3
American Lit 1 - Test 3 EH 201
Jacksonville State University
Popular in American Literature I
Popular in Foreign Language
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American Lit 1 – Test 3 • James Fenimore Cooper – The Pioneer: “The Slaughter of the Pigeons” o Father of American lit – professional writer, internationally famous § Created a POV of American life – myth of America § Created new genres – wrote 1 international novel, & wrote 1 frontier novel § Wrote novels, history books, social/cultural criticisms, sea, famous for historical novels o Born in New Jersey, family moved to Cooperstown, NY (named after his father) o Went to Yale at 13 – expelled for pranks o Became a sailor, joined the Navy – hated it & left o Married a rich woman to pay his family debts on estate after his father died o Read historical novel & thought he could do better o 2ndbook – The Spy – got the story from John Jay (supreme court judge) o Leather Stocking Tales – most famous series – Natty Bumppo who dressed like Indians in leather pants § Bumppo aka: The Pathfinder, The Deer Slayer, The Long Rifle – named for whatever he’s good at o Hates Sir Walter Scott; condemns society & sometimes democracy o Criticized for simplicity, unconvincing charactsts, ridiculous plot, awkward writing o The Pioneer – “The Slaughter of the Pigeons” – 1 book in the Leather Stocking Tales series (chronologically at end) § Algar Edwards is main character – not Natty, people liked Natty best & he became main later § Takes place in western NY state – the frontier at this time § Romantic element – colorful, primitive landscape § Adventure novel or Frontier novel § Influenced a lot by: Captivity Narratives (Mary Rowlandson), Sentimental/ love stories, historical novels (Sir Walter Scott), & theory • Theory of Social Evolution –people & communities changed based on how they subsisted o 1) Hunting/gathering; 2) herding (animals for food); 3) agriculture; 4) modern o Takes progressively less land as time goes on o Cooper felt like people were happier living simple like hunters/gathers (Natives) § Gives Natty Bumppo this mindset § Theme: living with nature § Conservationist, don’t waste environment • “but it’s wicked to be shooting into flocks in the wastey manner; & none do it, who know how to knock over a single bird. If a body has a craving for pigeon’s flesh, why! It’s made the same as all other creaters, for man’s eating, but not to kill twenty & eat one. When I want such a thing, I go into the woods till I find one to my liking, & then shoot him off the branches without touching a feather of another, though there might be a hundred on the same tree.” § Woods are God’s work; ground is covered with birds, some not dead = evil • “‘Put and ind, Judge, to your clearings. An’t the wood his work as well as the pigeons? Use, but don’t waste. Wasn’t the woods made for the beasts & birds to harbor in? & when man wanted their flesh, their skins, or their feathers, there’s the place to seek them. But I’ll go to the hut with my own game, for I wouldn’t touch one of the harmless things that kiver the ground here, looking up with their eyes at me, as if they only wanted tongues to say their thoughts.” § Social commentary – preaching against society consuming without environm ental concern • “‘This comes of settling a country,’ he said – ‘here I have known the pigeons to fly for forty long years, &, till you made your clearings, there was nobody to scare or hurt them. I loved to see them come into the woods, for they were company to a body; hurting nothing; being, as it was, as harmless as a garter-snake. But now it gives me sore thoughts when I hear the frighty things whizzing through the air, for I know it’s only a motion to bring out all the brats in the village at them. Well! The Lord won’t see the waste of his creaters for nothing, & right will be done to the pigeons, as well as others, by-and-by.’” § “The pigeons described in this chapter – the passenger pigeons – are extinct, the last known specimen dying in 1914 at the Cincin nati Zoological Garden.” • Footnote #3 – passenger pigeons extinct; don’t waste environment • Natty is representative of nature – bridge between white men & natives, lone hero o Western tradition – lives off nature, good shot, tries to help but doesn’t understan d modern thinking § Judge Temple is based loosely on Cooper’s father § 4 ideals Natty symbolizes: • Every man would like to live primitively – Cooper thinks • Brings to light mixed feelings white man has against natives • Fear of hurting the environment • Admiration for being a skilled marksman § Challenge that Natty is the best shot • “Natty had dropped his piece from his arm, when the challenge was made, &, waiting a moment, until the terrified victim had got in a line with his eyes, & had dropped near the bank of the lake, he raised his rifle with uncommon rapidity, & fired. It might have been chance, or it might have been skill, that produced the result; it was probably a union of both; but the pigeon whirled over in the air, & fell into the lake, with a broken wing.” • William Cullen Bryant – “Thanatopsis” & “To a Waterfowl” o Born in rural Massachusetts o Neoclassical education, strict Calvinist family, father couldn’t afford Yale, became lawyer by reading & watching o Moves to NYC & joins group of famous writers – works as newspaper editor § Works in politics – helped form Republican party & promoted Lincoln, helped get Central Park built o Gave country what it needed when it felt short on good authors o Influenced by “graveyard poets” – sad, death, question religious beliefs, Ro mantic o “Thantopsis” – most famous poem § Bryant’s view on death ; called meditation on death § Doesn’t mention afterlife – not religious – about what happens to mind instead of soul § Theme: comforted by nature regarding death • Everything dies – soothes that harsh fact – part of nature, not sentimental § Like a sermon about death – structure • Broken up in to 3 parts = tripartite division: doctrine; reasons for doctrine; usage/ ideas in life § 2 ways nature comforts us: • “Yet not to thy eternal resting place/ Shalt t hough retire alone” - won’t retire alone • “nor couldst thou wish/ Couch more magnificent” – everyone dies & rest in wonderful place o “Thou shalt lie down/ With patriarchs of the infant world – with kings,/ The powerful of the earth – the wise, the good,/ Fair forms, & hoary seers of ages past,/ All in one mighty sepulcher.” – lie in tomb of earth with greats o Everybody who has ever lived with die too § Not punished by death, trust nature, take comfort in that it’s part of nature • “Thou go not, like the quarry-slave at night,/ Scourged to his dungeon, but sustain’d, & sooth’d/ By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave.” § Listen, nature speaks to man, could be Deist or Biblical • “Go forth under the open sky, & list/ To Nature’s teachings, while from all around-/ Earth & her waters, & the depths of air, -/ Comes a still voice” § Forms, nature speaks in good or bad time; if you’re scared of dying listen to nature • “To him who in the love of Nature holds/ Communion with her visible forms, she speaks/ A various language; for his gayer hours/ She has a voice of gladness, & a smile/ & eloquence of beauty, & she glides/ Into his darker musings, with a mild/ & gentle sympathy, that steals away/ Their sharpness, ere he is aware.” § Bodies go back to the soul & become na ture again • “Earth, that nourished thee, shall claim/ Thy growth, to be resolv’d to earth again;/ &, lost each human trace, surrend’ring up/ Thine individual being, shalt thou go/ To mix forever with the elements” o “To a Waterfowl” § Called Poem of Vision § Person is on a journey, sees bird flying over his head, makes him think bout things, comforted by bird § Something is leading bird, not lost ; Power = God; God leads you • “There is a Power whose care/ Teaches thy way along that pathless coast, -/ The desert & illimitable air,-/ Lone wandering, but not lost.” § Whatever guides bird will guide me ; moral of the poem = last 2 lines • “He, who, from zone to zone,/ Guides through the boundless sky thy certain flight,/ In the long way that I must tread alone,/ Will lead my st eps aright.” § See reference to God in nature = finding God within § Bird symbolizes man – going lonely path, something could be waiting to hurt it, trust God to lead • Ralph Waldo Emerson – “Self-Reliance” o Source of inspiration/influence on all other writers – especially Thoreau, put Emerson’s ideas in action o Talked about individual, non -conformists; influenced Ghandi & MLK o Born in Boston § Dominant religion – Unitarianism – believe whatever • Jesus not the son of God, writers of Bible are human & could make mistakes o Went to Grammar school, Harvard, school teacher (hated being authoritative), minister (lovedpublic service) o Read lit from other countries (like India) o Believed being moral, good works > church, faith; not Deist o Spiritual experience – got in touch with little piece of God inside (called over-soul), emotional, for anyone o Stopped believing in sacraments o Wife dies, uses $ to travel Europe o 1 book – Nature – published anonymously § Ideas of Transcendentalism – go beyond • Idealism based on understanding of world through reason rather than sensory perception o 4 things about Transcendentalism: § Nature is expression/part of God – can be found in nature § Find God in nature = find God in self § Individual experiences > traditions; trust yourself § Feeling & imagination > thought; Romantic, trust your heart o Transcendental clubs – followers; lectures recorded, included in his essays § Learn from others but do not imitate – be different o Publishes collection called Essays o “Self-Reliance” § Use intuition, question things, trus t your interpretation § Envy, imitation – what other’s believe is not for you • “There is a time in every man’s education where he arrives at the conviction the envy is ignorance; that imitation is suicide; that he must take himself for better, for worse, as his portion” § Trust thyself – trust God, that he has you where you need to be • “Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string. Accept the place the divine Providence has found for you” § 2 things that rob us of self-reliance: • Conformity, need individuality o “Society everywhere is in conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members.” o “The virtue in most request is conformity. Self -reliance is its aversion. It loves not realities & creators, but names & customs. Whoso would be a man must be a nonconformist.” • Consistency, we act the same way b/c we are expected to – say today what you really mean o “The other terror that scares us from self -trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word, b/c the eyes of others have no other d ata for computing our orbit than our past acts, & we are loath to disappoint them.” o “A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adores by the little statesmen & philosophers & divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do.” § Explanation – “Else, if you would be a man, speak what yo u think to-day in worse as hard as cannon balls, , & to -morrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict everything you said to-day.” § Discoveries come with new, different thought § 5 things that help us be self-reliant • Rely less on prayer –selfish is bad, want the best for everyone o “Prayer that craves a particular commodity – any thing less than all good, is vicious. Prayer is the contemplation of the facts of life from the highest point of view.” o “As soon as the man is at one with God, he will not beg . He will see prayer in all action. The prayer in all action. The prayer of the farmer kneeling in his field to weed it, the prayer of the rower kneeling with the stoke of his oar, are true prayers” • Rely less on travel – study nature o “It is for want of self-culture that the idol of Travelling, the idol of Italy of England, of Egypt, remains for all educated Americans.” o “Travelling is a fool’s paradise.” • Be yourself, maker gives individual talents, use them o “Insist on yourself; never imitate.” o “That which each can do best, none but his Maker can teach him.” • Society is a wave – bigger in some places & less in others o “Society never advances.”; “Society is a wave. The wave moves onward, but the water of which it is composed, does not.” • Stuff doesn’t make you self-reliant, don’t look to outside sources o “And so the reliance of Property, including the reliance on governments which protect it, is the want of self-reliance.” • Nathaniel Hawthorne – “Young Goodman Brown” & “The Ministers Black Veil” o Born in Salem, Massachusetts o At 9, hurt his foot & couldn’t play, read a lot – how he was educated o Went to college with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow & Franklin Pierce o Wrote 7 Tales of My Native Land – collection of short stories – started his lit career o Had to have a real job – Franklin Pierce became president & gave him a job o Started a commune but didn’t like it o Got married & moved to “The Old Manse” (m ansion) – spooky, old Puritan home o Very influenced by Puritan ancestors – he is not Puritan but had an ancestor judge at witch trials o Writing is Historical Fiction o Writes a lot about sin – characters confronted with sin, more important to be moral than Chr istian o Focuses on Gothic elements – spooky, isolated setting, horror atmosphere, supernatural , evil character § Romanticism emphasizes feelings (fear, suspense) § “Gothic” term comes from Architecture Style § Woman in some kind of danger ( The Scarlet Letter) o Hawthorne’s stories § Focuses on sin, human nature vs. relationship with God § Not optimistic that people can change for good § Setting – puritan, religious oriented • He is more concerned with morality b/c people are lacking it • You can learn from everything § Isolation – sin isolates you from other people – separating/judging others makes people sinful § Ambiguous – is it real or did he imagine it? § Writes in 3rdperson o “Young Goodman Brown” § Set in Puritan Salem § Brown leaves wife (Faith) to go into woods – symbol of religion § Initiation story – let yourself be tempted to see what happens, meet someone who will change his life § Forest – dark, deep, scary – where he meets devil • “the second traveler was about fifty years old, apparently in the same rank of life as good man Brown, & bearing a considerable resemblance to him, though perhaps more in expression than features. Still, they might have been taken for father & son.” § Goodman = Mr.; Goodwife or Goody = married woman § “‘Too far, too far!’ exclaimed the goodman, unconsciously resuming the walk. ‘My father never went into the woods on such an errand, nor his father before him. We have been a race of honest men & good Christians, since the day of the martyrs. & shall I be the first of the name Brown, that ever took his path, & kept’- ‘Such company, thou wouldst say,’ I observed the elder person interpreting his pause. ‘Good, goodman Brown! I have been as well acquainted with your family as with ever a one among the Puritans; & that’s no trifle to say. I helped your grand father, the constable, when he lashed the Quaker woman so smartly through the streets of Salem. & it was I that brought your father a pitch-pine knot, kindled at my own hearth, to set fire to an Indian village, in King Philip’s war. They were my good frien ds, both; & many a pleasant walk have we had along this path, & returned merrily after midnight. I would fain be friends with you, for their sake.’ ‘If it be as thou saye‘I marvelied goodman Brown, they never spoke of those matters. Or, verily, I marveled not, seeing that the least rumor of the sort would have driven them from New-England. We are people of prayer, & good works, to boot, & abide no such wickedness.’ ‘Wickedness or not,’ said the traveler with the twisted staff, ‘I have a very general acquaintance here in New-England.’” st • Feels like he has gone too far, doesn’t want to be 1in family to walk with the devil • Devil tells him that he was with Brown’s grandfather when he beat a Quaker woman & with his father when he burned a village – family must not be good people o Persecuting people makes you morally bad & if true Puritans are not good people § Old woman was his religious instructor, if she knows devil what did she teach him • “‘That old woman taught me my catechism!’ said the young man; & there was a world of meaning in this simple comment.” § Analogy – yelling out for Faith = yelling out for religion/help • Faith almost kept him from the woods, sees pink ribbon=his faith is gone § People gathered together – some living, some dead, Faith is there – the Devil’s gathering • He feels despair – the loss of Faith, the opposite of faith • The Devil has them there for a ceremony o “‘Welcome, my children,’ said the dark figure, ‘to the communion of your race! Ye have found, thus young, your nature & your destiny. My children, look behind you!’ They turned; & flashing forth, as it were, in a sheet of flame, the fiend-worshippers were seen; the simile of welcome gleamed darkly on every visage. ‘There,’ resumed the sable form, ‘are all whom ye have reverenced from youth. Ye deemed them holier than yourselves, & shrank from your own sin, contrasting it with their lives of righteousness, & prayerful aspirations heavenward. Yet, here are they all, in my worshipping assembly! This night it shall be granted you to know their secret deeds; how hoary-bearded elders of the church have whispered wanton words to the young maids of their households; how many a woman, eager for widow’s weeds, has given her husband a drink at bed-time, & let him sleep his last sleep in her bosom; how beardless youths have made haste to inherit their fathers’ wealth; & how fair damsels – blush not, sweet ones! – have dug little graves in the garden, & bidden me, the sole guest, to an infant’s funeral. By the sympathy of your human hearts for sin, y e shall scent out all the places – whether in church, bed-chamber, street, field, or forest – where crime has been committed, & shall exult to behold the whole earth one stain of guilt, one mighty blood -spot. Far more than this! It shall be yours to penetrate, in every bosom, the deep mystery of sin, the fountain of all wicked arts, & which, inexhaustibly supplies more evil impulses than human power – than my power, at its utmost! – can make manifest in deeds. & now, my children, look upon each other.’” § Goodman Brown & wife are the converts – see ancestors & villagers § People they thought were good & religious – wives poison husbands, old men after young girls, sons killing fathers, mothers killing children o Baptized by Devil, can see others sins but not his o wn, judging § “Herein did the Shape of Evil dip his hand, & prepare to lay the mark of baptism upon their foreheads, that they might be partakers of the mystery of sin, more conscious of the secret guilt of others, both in deed & thought, than they could now be of their own.” o Tells Faith to look toward Heaven – everyone is gone § “‘Faith! Faith!’ cried the husband. ‘Look up to Heaven, & resist the Wicked One!’ Whether Faith obeyed, he knew not. Hardly had he spoken, when he found himself amid calm night & solitude, listening to a roar of the wind, which died heavenly away through the forest. He staggered against the rock & felt it chill & damp, while a hanging twig, that had been all on fire, besprinkled his check with the coldest dew.” § “Had goodman Brown fallen asleep in the forest, & only dreamed a wild dream of a witch -meeting? Be it so, if you will. But, alas! It was a dream of evil omen for young goodman Brown. A stern, a sad, a darkly meditative, a distrustful, if not a desperate m an, did he become, from the night of that fearful dream. On the Sabbath-day, when the congregation were singing a holy psalm , he could not listen, because an anthem of sin rushed loudly upon his ear, & drowned all the blessed strain. When the minister sp oke from the pulpit, with power and fervid eloquence, &, with his hand on the open Bible, of the sacred truths of our religion, & of saint-like lives & triumphant deaths, & of future bliss or misery unutterable, then did goodman Brown turn pale, dreading, lest the roof should thunder down upon the gray blasphemer & his hearers. Often, awakening suddenly at midnight, he shrank from the bosom of Faith, & at morning or eventide, when the family knelt down at prayer, he scowled, & muttered to himself, & gazed sternly at his wife, & turned away. & when he had lived long, & was borne to his grave, a hoary corpse, followed by Faith an aged woman, & children & grandchildren, a goodly procession, besides neighbors, not a few, they carved no hopeful verse upon his tomb-stone; for his dying hour was gloom.” • Dream or reality? – for the reader to decide • Couldn’t praise God anymore • Only hears sinners singing & preaching, retreats from wife & real faith, doesn’t pray • Died unhappy & judgmental § Goodman Brown listened to Devil – isolated b/c he only judges & doesn’t realize he is a sinner too o “The Minster’s Black Veil” § “There was but one thing remarkable in his appearance. Swathed about his forehead, & hanging down over his face, so low as to be shaken by his breath , Mr. Hooper had on a black veil. On a nearer view, it seemed to consist of two folds of crape, which entirely concealed his features, farther than to give a darkened aspect to all living and inanimate things.” • Appearance He looks different now, veil covers down to his mouth • Everything looks darker (foreshadow), maybe like Goodman Brown sees sin • Veil is symbol of isolation (characteristic of sin) • Never clearly tells why he wears it § Ambiguous – interpret how reader reads it; his sin or people’s sin? • “Thus, from beneath the black veil, there ro lled a cloud into the sunshine, an ambiguity of sin or sorrow, which enveloped the poor minister, so that love or sympathy could never reach him.” § One day all of our veils will be taken away • Introduces idea of secret sin o “Mr. Hooper’s smile glimmered faintly. ‘There is an hour to come,’ said he, ‘when all of us shall case aside our veils. Take it not amiss, beloved friend, if I wear this piece of crape till then.’” • People will think he’s a sinner, hide in sorrow for sinful people; Hide from his sin – everyone could do the same; typology o “‘Elizabeth, I will,’ said he, ‘so f ar as my vow may suffer me. Know, then, this veil is a type and a symbol, & I am bound to wear it ever, both in light & darkness, in solitude & before the gaze of multitudes, & as with strangers, so with my familiar friends. No mortal eye will see it withdrawn. This dismissal shade must separate me from the world: even you, Elizabeth, can never come behind it.’” o “‘But what if the world will not believe that it is the type of an innocent sorrow?’ urged Elizabeth. ‘Beloved & respected as you are, there may be whispers, that you hide you r face under the consciousness of secret sin. For the sake of your holy office, do away this scandal!’ The color rose into her cheeks as she intimated the na ture of the rumors that were already abroad in the village. But Mr. Hooper’s mildness did not forsake him. He even smiled again – that same sad smile, which always appeared like a faint glimmering of light, proceeding from the obscurity beneath the veil. ‘ If I hide my face for sorrow, there is cause enough,’ he merely replied; ‘& if I cover it for secret sin, what mortal might not do the same.’” § Preaching/sermon; Preaching as always, congregation feels like he see s sins from behind veil • “The sermon which he now delivered, was marked by the same characteristics of style & manner, as the general series of his pulpit oratory. But there was something, either in the sentiment of the discourse itself, or in the imagination of the auditors, which made it greatly the most powerful effort that they had ever heard from their pastor’s lips. It was tinged, rather more darkly than usual, with the gentle gloom of Mr. Hooper’s temperament. The subject had reference to secret sin, & those sad mysteries which we hide from our nearest and dearest, & would fain conceal from our own consciousness, even forgetting that the Omniscient can detect them. A subtle power was breathed in to the words. Each member of the congregation, the most innocent girl, & the man of hardened breast f elt as if the preacher had crept upon them, behind his awful veil, & discovered their hoarded iniquity of deed or thought.” • Veil makes him a better preacher, God -like influence, now called Father Hooper o “Among all its bad influences, the black veil had the one desirable effect, of making its wearer a very efficient clergyman. By the aid of his mysterious emblem – for there was no other apparent cause – he became a man of awful power, over souls that were in agony for sin.” § “& yet the faint, sad smile, so often there, now seemed to glimmer from its obscurity, & linger on Father Hooper’s lips. ‘Why do you tremble at me alone?’ cried he, turning his veiled face round the circle of pale spectators. ‘Tremble also at each other! Have men avoided me, & women shown no pity, & children screamed & fled, only for my black veil? What, but the mystery which is obscurely typifies, has made this piece of crape so awful? When the friend shows his inmost heart to his friend; the lover to his best - beloved; when man does not va inly shrink from the eye of his Creator, loathsomely treasuring up the secret of his sin; then deem me a monster, for the symbol beneath which I have lived, & die! I look around me, & lo! On every visage a black veil!’” • Dying, other minister tries to get h im to take off veil b/c he thought he was not confessing a sin • Looks at all the people there • When he is the only 1 hiding sin, then he’d be a monster – we all hide sin • Everyone is guilty of secret sin § All of mankind is cut off from God b/c of sin – Puritan ideology § 2 symbols: veil & simile • Simile – sad, melancholy, dies smiling, sadness § Parable – teaches a lesson in obscure way; biblical – Jesus knew not everyone would get it o Goodman Brown vs. Minister’s Veil § Like: Hawthorne, 3 rdperson, sin, isolation § Veil – psychological rather than supernatural § Brown – sees sins & judges, ignores his sin § Veil – Hooper admitting he’s a sinner isolates him, doesn’t see sin, knows everyone sins • Edgar Allan Poe – “The Raven” & “The Fall of the House of Usher” o Born in Boston – parents are actors, alcoholic father, kids sent to adoption after parents’ deaths o Poe sent to Allan’s home in VA, family went to England, educated there o Went to U of VA – left after 1 year b/c of debt o Began drinking at school – maybe b/c of lost love inte rest o Wrote 1 book of poetry in college – Tamerlane & Other Poems o Went to army under a different name § Mr. Allan helped his get into West Point – trying to please Mr. Allan o Allan gets remarried & has children – Poe no longer an option for his heir § Poe looses interest in West Point & moves in with his aunt in Baltimore, marries 1stcousin • Wife suddenly dies of TB o Always in financial trouble & having alcoholic problems o Working as editor, disappeared for 1 month, found in Baltimore in gutter, died soon after o Became known as literary critic § Essay: “The Philosophy of Composition” - beliefs about writing, what makes a good short story or poem • Short enough to read in 1 sitting; about beauty, ultimate topic: death of beautiful woman; most appropriate tone: sad or melancholy • Uses “The Raven” as an example o Famous for writing “The Raven” o Aspects of his writing: § Wrote about tragic/sad things – dark Romantic: very gothic, supernatural, violence § Setting – isolated, individual with problem/obsession & on the verge of madne ss or obsessed with death § No moral lessons § Wants readers’ imagination to run wild – fear, suspense o Poe’s favorite story is Ligeia – woman obsessed with the idea that the mind can conquer death o “The Raven” § Theme: love lost to death § Changes mood of narrator – readers’ mood changes too § “Ah, distinctly, I remember it was in the black December,/ & each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor./ Eagerly I wished the morrow; - vainly I had tried to borrow/ From my books surcease of sorrow – sorrow for the lost Lenore -/ For the rare & radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore -/ Nameless here for evermore. • Misses Lenore, trying to get over thought of her – suspense, tension • Changes to humor when he realizes it is a raven § The raven speaks “nevermore”, countenance of bird is stately • “Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door/ Perched & sat, & nothing more,/ Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,/ By the grave & stern decorum of the countenance it wore,/ ‘Though thy cres t be shorn & shaven thou,’ I said, ‘art sure no craven,/ Ghastly grim & ancient raven wandering from the Nightly shore -/ Tell me why thy lordly name is on the Night’s Plutonian shore!’/ Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’” § Wants drug to forget & bird says you w ont forget • “‘Wretch,’ I cried, ‘thy God hath lent thee – by these angels he hath sent thee/ Respite – respite & Nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore!/ Let me quaff the kind of Nepenthe & forget this lost Lenore!/ Let me quaff this kind Nepenthe & forget th is lost Lenore!’/ Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’” § Devil sent or just chance?; Balm in Gilead – heal my spirit; bird says nevermore • “‘Prophet!’ said I, ‘thing of evil! – prophet still, if bird or devil! -/ Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee her ashore,/ Desolate, yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted -/ On this home by Horror haunted – tell me truly, I implore -/ Is there – is there balm in Gilead? – tell me – tell me, I implore!’/ Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’” § Will I be with Lenore in Heaven? • “‘Prophet!’ said I, ‘thing of evil! – prophet still, if bird or devil!/ By that Heaven that bends above us – by that God we both adore -/ Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn,/ It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore -/ Clasp a rare & radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore.’/ Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’” § Bird remained with him, will always be depressed about Lenore, like being in hell • “And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting/ On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;/ & his eyes have all the seeming of a demon that is dreamin g,/ & the lamp-light o’er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;/ & my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor/ Shall be lifted – nevermore!” § Rhyme sometimes in the middle of lines & at the end of lines, last 2 lines of stanzas (sa me word) § Supernatural or psychological? § Narrator is never named but is a character – like the Fall of the House of Usher o “The Fall of the House of Usher” § One of Poe’s greatest terror stories st § 1 person narrator – character in story – only source we have but he has been around crazy people • Identified as specific character, reader’s perception is narrator’s POV • Roderick’s childhood friend – doesn’t feel close to him – objective POV § Divided 5 parts: • Description of house & background info (exposition) o Technique – doubling/double image o “I looked upon the scene before me – upon the mere house, & the simple landscape features of the domain – upon the vacant eye-like windows – upon a few rank sedges - & upon a few white trunks of decayed trees – with an utter depression of soul which I can compare to no earthly sensation more properly than to the after -dream of the reveler upon opium – the bitter lapse into common life – the hideous dropping off of the veil.” § Presents 2 parallel ideas to contrast or to support § Gothic imagery (dark, gloomy house), mere house (bare house), bushes & trees are dying § Feeling when he sees the house is like coming off Opium (drug) – depressing § Tarn – small lake next to house; reflection is gloomier • “I reined my horse to the precipitous bring of a black & lurid tarn that lay in unruffled lustre by the dwelling, & gazed down – but with a shudder even more thrilling than before – upon the re-modelled & inverted images of the gray sedge, & the ghastly tree -stems, & vacant & eye-like windows.” o The House of Usher = literal house & the people who live inside-describe each other • Narrator’s 1 meeting with Roderick & Madeline o “Surely, man had never before so terribly altered, in so brief a period, as had Roderick Usher! It was with difficulty that I could bring myself to admit the identity of the wan being before me with the companion of my early boyhood. Yet the character of his face had been at all times remarkable. A cadaverousness of complexion; an eye large, liquid, & luminous beyond compa rison; lips somewhat thin & very pallid, but of a surpassingly beautiful curve; a nose of a delicate Hebrew model, but with a breadth of nostril unusual in similar formations; a finely moulded chin, speaking, in its want of prominence, of a want of moral e nergy; hair of a more than web-like softness & tenuity; these features, with an inordinate expansion above the regions of the temple, made up altogether a countenance not easily to be forgotten.” o Roderick – small nose, large nostrils, creepy description § Doubling – Roderick & the house look alike • Large luminous eyes = windows • Hair is like web = fungus on roof • Gray color to both • House has thin crack – Roderick has a crack too (fear of fear) o Damaged – significant at end o Roderick’s fear of fear, the house too § “To an anomalous species of terror I found him a bounden slave. ‘I shall perish,’ said he, ‘I must perish in this deplorable folly. Thus, thus, & not otherwise, shall I be lost. I dread the events of the future, no in themselves, but in their results. I shudder at the thought of any, even the most trivial, incident, which may operate upon this intolerable agitation of soul. I have, indeed, no abhorrence of danger, except in its absolute effect – in terror. In this unnerved – in this pitiable condition-I feel that I must inevitably abandon life & reason together in my struggles with some fatal demon of fear.” § Feels the house & his family are cursed & he is victim of it • “He was enchained by certain superstitious impressions in regard to the dwelling which he tenanted, & from which, for many years, he had never ventured forth – in regard to an influence whose supposititious force was conveyed in terms t oo shadowy here to be restated” • Doubling of art & house & happenings o Music, paintings, books – supernatural, funeral o Doubling – twins, Madeline looks like Roderick • Bury Madeline o Revealed that they are twins o Madeline’s corpse is blushed (foreshadow); Cataleptical–coma that looks like death § “The disease which had thus entombed the lady in the maturity of youth, had left, as usual in all maladies of a strictly cataleptical character, the mockery of a faint blush upon the bosom & the face, & that suspici ously lingering smile upon the lip which is so terrible in death.” • The return of Madeline & her real death, Roderick’s death, & the house’s death o Parallelism – house collapses when Roderick collapses o Supernatural – curse or psychological thriller & coincid ences? o Roderick is mad – isolated from humanity o Narrator speaking, line of descent full of incest § Why Roderick & Madeline are unstable – family insanity § “I had learned, too, the very remarkable fact, that the stem of the Usher race, all time-honored as it was, had put forth, at no period, any enduring branch; in other words, that the entire family lay in the direct line of descent, & had always, with very trifling & very temporary variation, so lain. It was the deficiency, I considered, while running over i n thought the perfect keeping of the character of the premises with the accredited character of the people, & while speculating upon the possible influence which the one, in the long lapse of centuries, might have exercised upon the other” o Twins are involved together- § “The exact similitude between the bother & sister even here again startled & confounded me. Usher, divining, perhaps, my thoughts, murmured out some few words from which I learned that they deceased & himself had been twins, & that sympathies of a scarcely intelligible nature had always existed between them.” o Final clue – Roderick has gone insane, story parallels events in the house § Sounds from Madeline o Roderick is speaking – heard her trying to get out & too scared to get her § “‘Not hear it? – yes I hear it, & have heard it. Long – long – many minutes, many hours, many days, have I heard it – yet I dared not – oh, pity me, miserable wretch that I am! – I dared not – I dared not speak! We have put her living in the tomb! Said I not that my senses were acute? – I now tell you that I heard her first feeble movements in the hollow coffin. I heard them – many, many days ago – yet I dared not – I dared not speak! . . .Will she not be here anon? Is she not hurrying to upbraid m e for my haste? Have I not heard her footsteps on the stair? Do I not distinguish that heavy & horrible beating of her heart? Madman!’ – here he sprung violently to his feet, & shrieked out his syllables, as if in the effort he were giving up his soul – ‘Madman! I tell you that she now stands without the door!’” § Now she’s outside door, Roderick is totally mad, d ie together • “but then without those doors there did stand the lofty & enshrouded figure of the lady Madeline of usher. There was blood upon her white robes, & the evidence of some bitter struggle upon every portion of her emaciated frame. For a moment she remained trembling & reeling to & fro upon the threshold – then, with a low moaning cry, fell heavily inward upon the person of her brother, & i n her horrible & now final death-agonies, bore him to the floor a corpse, & a horrible victim to the terrors he had dreaded.” o House dies & collapses into lake – line & family destroyed § “From the chamber, & from that mansion, I fled aghast. The storm was st ill abroad in all its wrath as I found myself crossing the old causeway. Suddenly there shot along the path a wild light, & I turned to see whence us gleam so unusual could have issued – for the vast house & its shadows were alone behind me. The radiance w as that of the full, setting, & blood red moon, which now shone vividly through that once barely-discernible fissure, of which I have before spoken, as extending from the roof of the building, in a zig-zag direction, to the base. While I gazed, this fissure rapidly widened – there came a fierce breath of the whirlwind – the entire orb of the satellite burst at once upon my sight – my brain reeled as I saw the might walls rushing asunder – there was along tumultuous shouting sound like the voice of a thousan d waters - & the deep & dank tarn at my feet closed sullenly & silently over the fragments of the ‘ House of Usher.’” • Harriet Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin o Born in Connecticut, father was a preacher, brothers are preachers, sisters are teachers & suffra gists o Moved to Ohio – next to Kentucky, saw slavery, father housed runaway slaves o Married Calvin Stowe (preacher), had 7 children § Started writing domestic novels, stories about loss § Moved to Maine – got a vision of old slave being beaten – wrote “The Martyr” – seed for Tom’s Cabin • “The Compromise of 1850” was inspiration for Tom’s Cabin o Uncle Tom’s Cabin § Most influential novel written in Antebellum period (pre civil war) § Context • Religious book – if everyone was a Christian then we wouldn’t have slav ery, Calvinist, equals o Phillis Wheatley’s poem about religious equals • Political Aspect – 1830s Abolitionist movement o William Loyd Garrison – newspaper editor (The Liberator), stir people up § Felt North wasn’t moral & should secede from the South § Allowed escapee slaves to put their stories in his paper (Frederick Douglas) § Tries to break stereotypes o “The Compromise of 1850” § California wants to be a free state, North gives concessions to South § 1) California becomes free state § 2) Utah & New Mexico become terr itory – 1 step to be a state • Allowed to choose between free state or slave state § 3) Pass New Fugitive Slave Law • Old law – Northerners had to return slaves • New – Northerners have to hunt slaves & return them § Uncle Tom’s Cabin – written in Protest – especially to #3 st § 1 published in cereal form – once a week in newspaper for 1 year § Later published in book form – sold 350,000 copies, translated into 22 languages, civil war 3 mil copies § Stowe called trouble maker by abolitionists. South said it was pro -slavery • Aunt Phillis’s Cabin – written by southerner, slaves set free but ask to come back • Lincoln called her Little Lady who started a big war § Uncle Tom – Christian, martyr, courage, firm in his beliefs, tries not to sin • “‘Missis,’ said Tom, after a while, ‘I can see that, some how, you’re quite ‘bove me in everything; but there’s one thing Missis might learn even from poor Tom. Ye said the Lord took sides against us, because he lets us be ‘bused & knocked round; but ye see what come on his own Son, - the blessed Lord of Glory, - want he allays poor? & have we, any on us, yet come so low as he come? The Lord hadn’t fogot us, - I’m sartin’ o’ that ar’. If we suffer with him, we shall also reign, Scripture says; but, if we deny Him, he also will deny us. Didn’t th ey all suffer? – the Lord & all his? IT tells how they was stoned & sawn asunder, & wandered about in sheep-skins & goat-skins & was destitute, afflicted, tormented. Sufferin’ an’t no reason to make us think the Lord’s turned agin us; but just the contrary , if only we hold on to him, & doesn’t give up to sin.’ ‘But why does he put us where we can’t help but sin?’ said the woman. ‘I think we can help it,’ said Tom.” § Senator Bird – New Fugitive Slave Law, illegal to help slaves ;Mrs. Bird didn’t think Christia n men pass • “‘Well; but is it true that they have been passing a law forbidding people to give meat & drink to those poor colored folks that come along? I heard they were talking of some such law, but I didn’t think any Christian legislature would pass it!’ ” § “‘You ought to be ashamed, John! Poor, homeless, houseless creatures! It’s a shameful, wicked, abominable law, & I’ll break it, for one, the first time I get a chance; & I hope I shall have a chance, I do! Things have got to a pretty pass, if a woman cant five a warm supper & a bed to poor, starving creatures, just because they are slaves, & have been abused & oppressed all their lives, poor things! . . . Now, John, I don’t know about p olitics, but I can read my Bible; & there I see that I must feed the hungry, clothe the naked, & comfort the desolate; & that Bible I meant to follow.’” • Law – Mrs. Bird says Bible says to help & Bible > law • Stowe getting rid of idea that Bible says slavery is OK o Politicians are acting wrong - Wrong is wrong o Makes Bird for the law, but later he can’t follow it & helps Eliza § Popular b/c evoked emotion – Sentimental Power – appeals to mothers & families • “If it were your Harry, mother, or your Willie, that were going to be torn from you by a brutal trader, to-morrow morning, - if you had seen the man, & heard that the papers were signed & delivered, & you had only from twelve o’clock till morning to make good your escape, - how fast could you walk? How many miles could you make in those few brief hours, with the darling at your bosom, - the little sleepy head on your shoulder, - the small, soft arms trustingly holding on to your neck?” o Narrator to reader – how far could you run to save your baby o Make readers feel for Eliza, stir emotion, appeal to motherhood • “‘Ma’am,’ she said, suddenly, ‘have you ever lost a child?’ The question was unexpected, & it as a thrust on a new wound; for it was only a month since a darling child of the family had been laid in the grave. Mr. Bird turned around & walked to the window & Mrs. Bird burst into tears; but, recovering her voice, she said, ‘Why do you ask that? I have lost a little one.’ ‘Then you will feel for me. I have lost two, one after another, - left ‘em buried there when I came away; & I had only this one left. I never slept a night without him; he was all I had. He was my comfort & pride, day & night; & ma’am, they were going to take him away from me, - to sell him, - sell him down south, ma’am, to go all alone, - a baby that had never been away from his mother in his life! I couldn’t stand it, ma’am.” o Eliza to Mrs. Bird – appeal to motherhood & family o Stowe pleading with readers to protect bond with mother, children, & family § Slavery breaks up families – real evil • Cassy’s story – “In the course of a year, I had a son born. O, that child! – how I loved it! How just like my poor Henry the little thing looked! But I had made up my mind, - yes, I had. I would never again let a child live to grow up! I took the little fello w in my arms, when he was two weeks old, & kissed him, & cried over him; & then I gave him laudanum, & held him close to my bosom, while he slept to death. How I mourned & cried over it! & who ever dreamed that it was anything but a mistake, that had made me five it the laudanum? But it’s one of the few things that I’m glad of, now, I am not sorry, to this day; he, at least, is out of pain. What better than death could I give him, poor child!” o Ch. Called “The Quadroon Story”; Quadroon = person who is ¼ blac k, labeled black § Why Cassy is a slave o Children sold to cover gambling debts – children with white men often sold o Cassy kills baby with laudanum b/c slavery is worse than death § Laudanum – Opium dissolved in alcohol, dangerous o Slavery destroys black & white families – selling children, black mistresses o Sentimental power to change hearts § Most slaves are Christian or become Christian § Claim that Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a racist book • “As she was also so white as not the be known of colored lineage, without a critical survey, & her child was white also, it was much easier for her to pass on unsuspected.” o Racist – Eliza is part white o All of the characters look white o Stowe is Northern white woman writing for Northern white women – makes them sympathetic, influence husbands, husbands makes laws o Mrs. Bird impacts Senator Bird § Stowe doesn’t try to make the South look bad • Legree is Northerner who came to the South • Shelby’s son went to buy Tom, found him dying, then set all of his slaves free
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