American Lit 1 Midterm Review
American Lit 1 Midterm Review EH 201
Jacksonville State University
Popular in American Literature I
Popular in Foreign Language
This page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EH 201 at Jacksonville State University taught by Mr. Bennett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see American Literature I in Foreign Language at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
American Lit l Midterm 0 Diego Colon Native Indian Taino tribe I Given name by Christopher Columbus took Diego to England 0 Natives adopt English tools clothing amp politics I In uenced by Church amp state I Church wants to convert amp civilize I State economic gain 0 America will be reshaped starting in the West Indies I Workers from Africa introduced I Europeans are superior have tools amp technology I Native populations are decimated by disease I Colonies are changing I More diverse than Europe 0 More languages amp religions 0 Rule councils kings men women 0 Literature mostly no written language I Oral tradition before written languages stories passed verbally o Europeansexplorers battled with natives colonists amp their people I Colonists fight among themselves I Now in Jamestown prisoners for England p92 0 Richard Hakylut edited a book called Principal Navigations I Book of letters amp reports from explorers I Popularized the idea of going to the New World 0 Why people wrote in the early days I To in uence policy report what they saw amp encountered to send to Europe I To justify actions that violate policy I Literature of witness lSt person accounts of what was going on I Europe s viewpoint of colonization bringing civilization to this country Born in Italy Began career at sea as a young man Ferdinand amp Isabella Spanish monarchs supported his quest to locate route to Asia Sailed across the Atlantic 4 times lSt voyage to Hispaniola filled with wonder amp discovery Later voyages tainted with political charges against him settler s rebellions amp brutality of colonization Letter to Luis de Santangel Regarding the First Voyage pg 3438 I Basis for the rst printed description of America I Written at sea details the islands discovered on 1st voyage to West Indies I Describes Canary islands I Island the natives call Guarahani he names San Salvador I Finds amp names Isla de Santa Maria de Concepcion Fernandina Isabela amp Isla Juana today s Cuba I Finds what he believes is China but is only another Island I Finally finds Hispaniola he believes is the finest island of them all beyond comparison with the Canary Island I Doesn t include many details except that there is a lot of people amp he receives no opposition in claiming them for Spain I Other details focus on beauty amp wonder of Hispaniola o Majestic fertile land harbors amp coastlines greenery birds fruits availability of metal to be mine inland I Luis helped finance the trip letter could be an exaggeration 0 Letter to Ferdinand amp Isabella Regarding the Fourth Voyage pg3438 00000 O 00000 I Re ects upon his mounting difficulties in the colonies and in the royal court I Complaining about not being given enough credit for opening up South amp Central America to Spanish I bc of him they would be wealthy off natural resources there I Describes actual travels focuses on bad fortune amp bad equipment that left him stranded in Jamaica I Trying to reform his reputation with the court in Spain after having suffered humiliation amp imprisonment I Recounts suffering hard work amp heroic efforts of him amp his crew as they eXplored the eastern edges of South America I He wanted to get the Spanish crown to allow him to eXplore other places I He also wants it to be known that he was the first of many amp of all eXplorers after him to be so successful Often characterized as the quotDefender and Apostle to the Indiansquot known for eXposing and condemning the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New World against native Americans Marked by emotionally charged language and often exaggerated statistics harshly criticized in his own lifetime as a threat to Spanish rule in America Born to an aristocratic family in Seville He studied theology and law at the University of Salamanca before accompanying Columbus on his third voyage to America in 1498 Went to Santo Domingo to join the priesthood 1 year later he participated in the colonization of Cuba The torture enslavement and generally inhumane treatment of the Indians that he witnessed during Cuba39s colonization compelled him to defend them against further mistreatment granted an opportunity to plan and implement a system of nonviolent colonization and Christian indoctrination in the district of Cumana in Venezuela failed Drafted and circulated among them many treatises proclamations and petitions calling for the reform of Spain39s colonization practices Named Bishop of Chiapas in Mexico in 1543 remained in this position until he returned to Spain in 1549 The Very Brief Relation of the Devastation of the Indies pg 3842 I From his book Hispaniola I Says Christians are suppressing women amp children take them for ill use taking food earned by Indians I He attacks the vast amount of food Christians eat compared to Indians I People are hiding food women amp children Indians eeing for mountains I Attack Indians until they reached village nobles I Indians want to get rid of Christians but their weapons are ineffective amp they are very weak I Christian cruelties hacking to pieces betting on violent modes of death killing babies burning groups of 13 alive to represent Jesus amp his apostles burning people wrapped in straw cutting off people s hands amp stringing them around their neck roasting people alive on grids of rods amp forked sticks Spanish eXplorer and chronicler Born in the Spanish town of Jerez de la Frontera near the port at San Lucar de Barrameda His family had a long history of service to Spanish royalty No university education career in the military Cabeza de Vaca and nearly 500 men set sail did not return to Spain until 1537 one of only four men from the entire eXpedition to survive storms shipwreck disease starvation attacks from Native Americans and the blundering decisions of Narvaez and the only member to return to Spain Spent many of his final years defending his South American actions in court After years of trials and appeals he was stripped of his honorary titles sentenced to banishment from the New World and condemned to eight years of eXile in North Africa He was sued by many investors in the South American eXpedition who were unable to recoup their financial losses o The Relation ofAlvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca pg4351 I Retells in harrowing detail the many illfated adventures that doomed the Narvaez expedition to failure and the eventual death of all but four of the original crew of 500 men I First work by a European to offer details of North American species such as the buffalo opossum armadillo and Gila monster to recount the terrible fury of a Caribbean hurricane and to bear witness to the lives of Native Americans 0 Stories of the Beginning of the World 0 trickster describes a character who is wandering bawdy gluttonous amp obscene usually male sel sh amoral foolish destructive 0 Some of the most ancient stories in Native American culture amp have probably survived bc they both instruct amp please the listenersreaders 0 Cultural context enhances the enjoyment from trickster tlaes bc they are not merely etiological Can be different from 1 telling to another passed orally 0 Sioux Ikto Conquers Iya the Eater pg 111114 I Iktomi is wandering the world amp reaches the top of a hill the same time as Iya amp Iktomi expects that he will die I Iktomi created Iya after he created the sky amp earth I The 2 head to the same village together I They stop for the night amp while Iya sleeps Iktomi looks inside him through his mouth amp sees all the villages he has already eaten living happily inside him I Iktomi is frightened by Iya plans to capture him I Iktomi asks Iya what he fears o Iya fears the sound of rattles drums hooting of owls amp shouts of men 0 Iktomi fears the same things I Iktomi makes a deal with Iya to each eat 12 of the village beginning at either end the winner is whoever gets to the middle first 0 Iktomi warns all the people that Iya is coming amp tells them his fears amp tells them to frighten them 0 They scare Iya o Iktomi tears Iya from the inside out amp releases all the people inside 0 Iktomi is praised amp blamed for the world being overpopulated o Navajo Coyote Skunk amp the Prairie Dogs pg114120 I Coyote was trotting along when he came upon a prairie dog town I The prairie dogs started cursing and yelling at him and coyote got angry and prayed for it to rain which it did and coyote was washed away I Coyote came across Skunk and together they created a plan to get revenge on the prairie dogs Coyote told Skunk to tell the prairie dogs that he died in the rainstorm I Coyote played dead and all the prairie dogs started dancing around his body and clubbing him As they were dancing and celebrating Skunk sprayed his stink into their eyes and Coyote jumped up and clubbed them all to death and cooked them in a fire pit I Then Coyote convinced Skunk to have a footrace with him to decide who would get to eat the prairie dogs Coyote started running and Skunk hid behind a rock and doubled back and took the prairie dogs and buried them When Coyote returned there were only four little prairie dogs left in the fire pit He ung them away in anger Skunk was sitting on a high perch eating the prairie dogs and dropping the bones onto Coyote who only got to chew the bones O 0 Age 12 heard sermons from Nonconformist pastor Clyfton 0 Church of England started by King Henry VIII Episcopal Church I People who didn t want to conform nonconformists I Met in secret house Bradford joined I Separatistspilgrims amp Puritans o Puritans make religion what they think it should be change Church of England I Believe in personal connection with God I English Protestants simplify religion 0 Separatists extreme Puritans oppose amp separate from the Church of England I Saints nonconformists strangers other people 0 John Calvin Calvinism I Nonconformists amp Pilgrims used his ideas TULIP Total depravity everyone is a sinner Unconditional election predestination elect go to heaven Limited atonement Jesus died for the elect Irresistible Grace saved whether you want to or not Perseverance of the saints once saved saved for good 0 Scrooby Community Clyfton s Church I Had to leave country moved to HollandNetherlands I Bradford learned to be a weaver I Eventually had to leave Holland for America But that which was more lamentable be corrupted p 125 o 12 left 12 stayed why they went to America Ended up in Plymouth Massachusetts 0 Bradford became governor head of community 0 Natives are after them I But here full of arrows than otherwise pl33 I No one to help them Bible says Paul was helped when shipwrecked stick to beliefs Of Plymouth Plantation record of time in America Believed they were fulfilling God s plan 0 Not liked by Pilgrims he traded with Indians for furs to make money Shipped back to England 0 Lord of Misrule 0 New English Canaan pg157l65 I First Book Account of the Native Americans 0 Languages ancestors rites beliefs and way of life 0 Largely sympathetic o Insists on the natives39 basic goodness and humanity admires their simple life and closeness with nature and extols their hospitality He draws parallels between their values and those of the English including their love of pleasure Contrasts them with the Puritans who are in his view illeducated and devoid of common humanity I Second Book Describes the natural resources of New England He comments on the country39s beauty and promise fertile soil pure air and healthy climate Shows an intimate familiarity with the country Ulterior motive he means to show Englishmen what commodities are available in New England so that they might settle there and take advantage of the fur trade before the Dutch can do so Reveals a deep love for his natural surroundings using metaphorical language and biblical allusions to liken it to paradise on earth I Third Book Deals with the lives of the Puritans and their con icts with the inhabitants of Mare Mount I The tone in this book is deeply satirical o Blends fact and fiction using classical allusions and references I Stories are often disjointed and use a variety of styles from satire to straight narrative to complex allegory I The most notable portion tells of the erecting of the maypole and the revels at Mare Mount I Includes two poems o The first The Poem or Rise Oedipus is attached to the maypole and its meaning confounds the Puritans o The second Song is a drinking song sung by the revelers as they dance around the maypole I Tone of the book is increasingly serious as Morton attacks those who have sought to destroy him but there are still touches of humor as he lampoons his enemies and satirizes the wickedness of the supposedly saintly Puritans 000000 0 0 American minister philosopher historian and essayist One of the best known Puritans in American history Born to two distinguished Massachusetts families Served as a prominent minister at the Old North Church in Boston Became an in uential leader in the Puritan community Gave scholars a better understanding of Puritan ideology and offer a rare glimpse into the daily life of seventeenthcentury America Remembered for his role in the Salem witch trials I Lent his support to the persecution of witches I Never attended them and his attention to witchcraft was slight I His significance to the trials lies in the fact that he was an important figure in the New England church establishment who later admitted that persecution of alleged witches was wrong I Worked with the victims to insure their recovery and salvation I Became interested in the famed witch trials in Salem during which twenty people were executed and more than one hundred arrested I Publicly supported the state39s investigation into witchcraft but he warned judges to exercise caution and restraint in the prosecution of those accused The Wonders of the Invisible World pg327333 I An account of the witch trials I Defending Mather39s role in the witchhunt conducted in Salem and promoting the belief that witchcraft was an evil magical power I Saw witches as tools of the devil in Satan39s battle to quotoverturn this poor plantation the Puritan colonyquot and prosecution of witches as a way to secure God39s blessings for the colony Common Sense pg639647 0 000000000 Period of Revolutionary Journalism I Pamphlets cheap easy to print spread ideas quickly say what you want large audience allows writers to be very specific can be done anonymously I Well publicized revolution Called Inspired Agitator Had natural gift for writing pamphlets Born in England father was a Quaker Heard a sermon that made him think Christianity was cruel became Deist Apprenticed with father went off to sea became tax collector grocery clerk English teacher Married twice 1 died 1 left Selfeducated Neoclassical man Not born a gentlemannobility rebelled against classes Ben Franklin saw Paine s potential I Came back to America amp became a journalist amp magazine editor I Wrote against slavery amp for women s rights 0 3 things that make him think about Independence I Proclamation of rebellion I Battles begin I Second Continental Congress 0 Common Sense I Doesn t use logic amp reason exaggerates wild claims I pg 641 they are killingburningwiping us out I New way of using language not fancy I pg 641 put personal prejudices aside amp listen I 3 Major Points I Emphasizes cruelness of Britain I Tries to get people to pit colonists I Paints a picture of gloriousness of freedom 0 Creates mood that favors Independence I Sold over 10000 copies in 3 months I Ultimately sold 12 million copies I Couldn t remain anonymous I Charged with treason by England 0 Job write things to get people fired up I Joined Revolution to write 0 Political Parties I Tory loyal to king amp England I Whigs want independence England parliament party 0 House confiscated Tory estate Inventor candle that smoked less iron bridge 0 Well received in England amp France until he put his nose in things I Wrote 2Ild famous work in England Rights of Man I Against monarchy accused of treason again I In France writes condemning them for executing the King I In jail visited by James Monroe who gets him back in America 0 Last thing he did in NY made people mad I Pg 654 missions amp revelations I Attacks religions I Idea that God reveals himself to everyone as something different is ridiculous I Pg 655 angered a lot of people I Attack on Christianity I People tried to assassinate him 0 Asked for a Quaker funeral they refused heavily disliked o 1819 someone dug up his grave for a monument auctioned off body 0 o A prominent eighteenthcentury American writer 0 Early proponent of women39s rights and a contributing in uence on the emerging theater of the post Revolutionary era 0 Liberal in much of her thinking challenges many prevailing opinions about the roles and rights of women and the uses of the theater 0 On the Equality of the Sexes pg737747 I Poses the argument of spiritual and intellectual equality between men and women I Includes a liberal analysis of traditional male superiority in the Bible and criticism of the deprivation of female education of the time I Argues for the necessity of women39s education selfesteem opportunities for achievement and autonomy O O O O 0000 Out of the Puritan age wrote to express herself lSt woman writer Father worked for a Puritan nobleman Anne got an education bc of this Pilgrims vs Puritans I Both nonconformists I Puritans largest group think they can change people I Pilgrim separatists Jamestown not Christian 9 Puritans land at Plymouth 9 Puritans settle Boston Anne comes over with Puritans settles in Boston wife amp mother Married Simon Bradstreet nobleman important in community I Writes personal poetry common everyday things I Puritans are supposed to write spiritual poetry I Bro in law thinks her poetry is good takes it to England 0 Published The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung in America 0 Muse mythological creature in ancient Greece 0 Anne is upset thinks her poetry is bad She proves Puritan woman can have knowledge charm amp maintain her wifely duties writes about husband children family faith nature I Claims she is praising God through admiring nature The Author to Her Book pg225 I Metaphor compares book to child I Wrote poem to describe her feelings about books I Edits poems amp republishes in Boston The Prologue pg208209 I The poet does not think she will write about wars captains kings or cities of commonwealths I She believes that these topics are too quotsuperiorquot for her pen and should be written by historians I However when she lets her eyes wander over Bartas39 work she wishes the Muses had not given him so much more talent She feels that her work is simple compared to the work of that great man She claims that readers do not expect fancy words from schoolboys or sweet music from broken instruments and blames her Muse for giving her quotbroken blemishedquot words She is angry with people who tell her that her hand is better with a needle in it and advise her to scorn the quotpoet39s penquot Even if she does write something worthy she knows that critics will say she copied it with or that her success is just due to luck The poet thinks that the Greeks must have been more quotmildquot toward feminine achievement because of all the powerful female characters in mythology However she criticizes Greek men saying the quotplay the fools and liequot She just asks for Greeks to be Greeks and for women to be women She accepts that men excel and feels that there is no point for women to wage war on that reality She hopes that women will get some small acknowledgment Scientist printer diplomat humanist liberal humanitarian rationallogical logic has all the answers Embraced amp demonstrated Neoclassical qualities Believed in reality of world as experienced through senses Deist Believed in progress through education amp humanitarianism Unique life long life 1 of 15 children self taught I Father was a soap amp candle maker I Father wanted to give him to the church as a preacher needed college for that I Apprenticed with his brother as a printer At the Print Shop I Wrote essays amp slid them under the door at night amp used pen name Silence Dogood I Brother goes to jail for offending the local authorities amp Ben runs shop I Brothers have falling out ben leaves amp ends up in Philadelphia 0 In Philadelphia I Sets up his own print shop I Publisher of Pennsylvania Gazette newspaper amp I Publisher of Poor Richard s Almanack pen name Richard Saunders most famous work I Popularized sayings I Americana American Folklore I Published every year for 25 years I Some sayings were funny America s lSt humorist I Print shop amp Almanack made him rich symbol of the American dream 0 Most significant figure of the American Revolution I Signed Declaration of Independence constructed amp signed Constitution wrote amp signed Treaty of Paris 0 Constitutional Convention I Led a prayer to help Rebels God governs in the affairs of man I Probably for the Theist in attendance 0 20000 people attended his funeral o Other inventions Franklin stove bifocals lightning rod lSt Fire Department lSt circulating library amp researched whirlwinds tornadoes I Stove wood burning to keep homes warm I Library out growth of his I unto club borrowed books from each other 0 Information of Those Who Would Remove to America pg47l476 I United States is a country in which people are all fairly equal I Democratic country both in attitudes and in economics I Vision a country where everyone is equal to one another I A land of opportunity where anyone can become something if they are willing to work hard I A land where no one is better than anyone else but anyone can get ahead I Economics I Europeans think that they could just come over to American and become rich not likely to happen I There are few poor people amp few very rich people I No point in leaving Europe if you think that your birth matters I US is not a place for aristocracy I it is a very bad idea for a person to come to the US who has no other quality to recommend him but his birth I Opportunities that are not available to them in Europe 0 a wellknown abolitionist suffragist and novelist 0 Letters from New York pgl80l82 190210 VOL B I rst published as a series of columns in The National AntiSlavery Standard I observed not only the quotdense crowding of human existencequot but also the public executions that drew thousands of spectators I Her columns combined urban journalism with transcendental rhapsodizing and they fused the two majors strains of her public life I These writings display heavily religious language and incessant moralizing I Her columns attempted to portray all of New York rich and poor black and white Jew and gentile I She ventured into areas that many of her contemporaries preferred to contemplate only from afar I A black evangelical service the wretched Five Points district the prisons of Blackwell39s Island Rip Van Winkle pg254l VOL B O 00 0000 0 1st American to be popular internationally lSt American to earn a living as an author Most famous for short stories Father of short stories in America I Rip Van Winkle The Legend of Sleepy Hollow Born in NYC after the revolution Never went to college read amp traveled Named after George Washington lSt successful work collection of history of NY I lSt humorous I Historical Fiction set in New Amsterdam Dutch colony NY Pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker a Dutch scholar I Knickerbocker means any author of this time I Used pseudonyms bc his work was mostly plagiarism The Sketch Book collected tales amp sketches I Author Geoffrey Crayon Found Knickerbocker s work I collection of tales often w Gothic element I Travel lit I Rip Van Winkle amp Sleepy Hollow included in here Wrote biographies Never married buried in Sleepy Hollow NY he invented the name Rip Van Winkle I Based of folktale plagiarized I Set in New York before amp after Revolutionary War I At this time NY still has a lot of Dutch in uence I Local Color WritingRegionalism I Rip doesn t like to work goes into woods meets dwarfs playing 9 pins drinks their liquor passes out amp sleeps for 20 years I Pg 3031 Rip is a good person I Shrews amp termagant nag wife I Thrice blessed his wife is 3X worse than other wives I Everyone blames wife I pg 31 he doesn t like work but will help anyone I pg 32 only friend is dog wife picks on dog too I typical of male writers at this time to make wifewoman bad characters bc men write amp men read I Blames confusion when he wakes up on drink I Walks back to town I Doesn t recognize anything or anyone his house is in ruin wife is gone kids are grown up I Turning point when Rip sees inn I Irving changes to ironysatire o The town is the same but different I How colonists fee after war 0 Satire change happens overnight 0 20 years of sleep 20 years of war 0 Government is different now I Pg 3637 all of the old men used to hang out at Inn I Rip goes there the building is the same but different I Now has red night cap amp American ag he has never seen before someone changed to picture of the King to represent George Washington 0 Like the country look different after the war but it is the same underneath 0 King is no longer in control King is o Irony picture of the King changed to Washington liberator Pg 39 proof that the man is Rip People ask oldest man in village whose father wrote history of village Other people have seen the dwarfs People thought the rolling balls were thunder Pg 40 wife is dead goes to hang out with friends his revolution wife dies of stroke bc blood vessel burst while she was fighting with someone loved to fight Gothic Story has supernatural elements Ghost men that appear every 20 years Drink makes ordinary men sleep
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