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American Lit 2 - Test 2

by: Kimberly Burke

American Lit 2 - Test 2 EH 202

Kimberly Burke
Jacksonville State University
GPA 4.0

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Covers Modernism, Robert Frost, Edwin Arlington Robinson, Imagists, Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams, T.S. Eliot, F. Scott Fitzgerald ("Winter Dreams"), e.e. cummings, Ernest Hemingway, The...
American Literature II
Dr. Porter
Study Guide
American Lit, Literature
50 ?




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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EH 202 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Porter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see American Literature II in Foreign Language at Jacksonville State University.

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Date Created: 01/30/16
American Lit 2 – Test 2 • Modernism o 4 Stages: § Began in France & England in 1890 – 1910 § Comes to America in 1910 – 1930; explodes, truly American movement nd nd § 2 generation in America – 2 wave raised on Modernism – 1930-1945 § High Modernism - highest peak o Happening in the world in the early 20thcentury – WW1 § Closely tied to Modernism – writers fought in/experienced the war § Modernism in Europe – lost whole generation – similar to America § Picked up the broken pieces to make something new § Art form invented in the 1920’s – collage; music form – jazz; both = chaotic § Writing is a heap of broken images o Writers are dark, pessimistic o 3 groups – all disillusioned with modern society § Expatriates “Lost Generation” – Fitzgerald, Hemmingway, Cummings • Former citizen who moved somewhere else • Felt America was boring, wanted newness • A lot of writers went to Paris & French Riviera § Rebels at Home – critics at home – Stevens, Frost • Felts the same as expatriates but stayed in America § Southern Agrarians – Faulkner – look to the past for answers, Old South o Characteristics: § Reject tradition – wanted to discover radical new ways to make art § Like to experiment with shape, color, sound, & form § Wanted to defy expectations, shock reader § Force readers to questions perception – question reality § Reject conventional lifestyles & politics § Very open about sexuality § More urban than rural – dirty, dark § More technology – phonographs (record players) § Very irreverent – make fun of reverence • Robert Frost – “Nothing Gold Can Stay”, After Apple Picki ng”, “Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening” o Savvy in marketing his writing – associated himself with England to sell his writing st § 1 book of poetry was published in England “Rebels at Home” Modernist o 2ndbook of poetry published in America with the help of Ezra Pound o Lived on a farm in New Hampshire, made money from his poetry o Poetry = seen as a reaction against the Modernist movement § Embraced by “middle America,” not modernists § Rural, colloquial, simple images, folksy speaker, rejects modern themes & fragmentation for traditional • Folksy speaker – correlates with the persona Frost made for himself: quiet, wise, New England country farmer • Nature themes – situate Frost as a descendent of the American Transce ndentalist writers o Won a Pulitzer Prize 4 times, more times than any other writer, & read at JFK’s inauguration o “Nothing Gold Can Stay” – encapsulates Modernist movement § “Nature’s first green in gold,/ Her hardest hue to hold./ Her early leaf’s a flower; / But only so an hour./ Then leaf subsides o leaf./ So Eden sank to grief,/ So dawn goes down to day./ Nothing gold can stay.” § Spring = new life; her = nature § Paradox – “Nature’s first green in gold” § Personification & alliteration – “Her hardest hue to hold” § Hyperbole/exaggeration – “But only so an hour” § “Eden sank” – loss of innocence, now new & perfect § Gold – expensive, status, shiny, limited, wanted ; Things that are precious b/c they don’t last (irony) § Published in 1923 – WW1 is over – talks about peace, gold before the war o “After Apple Picking” § “My long 2-pointed ladder’s sticking through a tree/ Toward heaven still./ & there’s a barrel that I didn’t fill/ Beside it, & there may be two or three/ Apples didn’t pick upon some bough.” • Extended metaphor - Compares apple picking to dying; ladder pointed to Heaven ; things he never did § “But I am done with apple-picking now./ Essence of winter sleep is on the night./ The scent of apples: I am drowsing off.” – death § “I cannot rub the strangers from my sight / I got from looking through a pane of glass/ I skimmed this morning from the drinking trough/ & held against the world of hoary grass./ It melted, & I let it fall & break.” – going out in the morning & water is frozen like a window pane § “But I was well/ Upon my way to sleep before it fell,/ & I could tell/ What form my dreaming was about to take./ Magnified apples appear & disappear,/ Stem end & blossom end,/ & every fleck of russet showing clear.” – dreams of big apples = big things in life § “My instep arch not only keeps the ache,/ It keeps the pres sure of a ladder-round./ I feel the ladder sway as the boughs bend.” – still feels the ladder rungs on his feet § “And I keep hearing the cellar bin/ The rumbling sound/ Of load on load of apples coming in./ For I have had too much/ Of apple-picking: I am overtired/ Of the great harvest I myself desired./ These were ten thousand fruit to touch,/ Cherish in hand, lift down, & not let fall.” – youth, too old now § “For all/ That struck the earth,/ No matter if not bruise d or spiked with stubble,/ Went surely to the cider-apple heap/ As of no worth.” – things he didn’t get done, wished he had done in his youth § “One can see what will trouble/ This sleep of mine, whatever sleep it is./ Were he not gone,/ The woodchuck could say whether it’s like his/ Long sleep, as I describe its coming, on,/ Or just some human sleep.” – hibernation implies coming back; human sleep implies death § Apples – original sin, knowledge o “Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening” § “The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,/ But I have promises to keep,/ & miles to go before I sleep./ & miles to go before I sleep.” – suicidal thoughts, pulls himself out, repeats to convince himself § Dark, dreary, winter, snow – emotional landscape § Person in a dark place, isola ted, alone • Edwin Arlington Robinson- “Richard Cory” & “Miniver Cheevy” o Man out of sync with the world he lived in, felt he was born too la– seen in characters like Miniver Cheevy o Raised on Gardiner Maine – which becomes the fictitious Tilbury Town of many of his poems o Experienced a lot of tragedy in his life: father’s business failure, drug addict brother, alcoholic brother o In NYC, published many books of poetry & won 2 more Pulitzer Prizes o In early poetry – Robinson seemed a New England regionalist po et § He distinguished his writing by taking the recurring them of a lost, glorious past o Poetry § Traditionalist in form & style § Modernism comes through characters who are “modern” in their disillusionment § Sought an alternative world of beauty & elegance thr ough poetry – ironic: poetic worlds were often sad o “Richard Cory” § “Whenever Richard Cory went down town,/ We people on the pavement looked at him;/ He was a gentleman from sole to crown,/ Clean favored, & imperially slim.” – bow to him, perfect from head t o toe • Royal vocab – crown, imperially; he’s like royalty § “& he was always quietly arrayed,/ & he was always human when he talked;/ But still he fluttered pulses when he said,/ ‘Good -morning,’ & he glittered when he walked.” – subtle, treats everyone the same § “& he was rich – yes, richer than a king,’ -/ & admirably schooled in every grace:/ In fine, we thought that he was everything/ To make us wish that we were in his place.” – refined, people are envious § “So on we worked, & waited for the light,/ & went without the meat, & cursed the bread;/ & Richard Cory, one calm summer night/ Went home & put a bullet through his head.” • People are waiting for food thing, can’t afford meat • Irony – suicide is not calm • Richard is perfect b/c money & good lucks – don’t know his inner thoughts o “Miniver Cheevy” § “Miniver Cheevy, child of scorn,/ Grew lean while he assailed the seasons ;/ He wept that he was ever born,/ & he had reasons.” - Doesn’t fit in § “Miniver loved the days of old/ When swords were bright & steeds were prancing;/ The vision of a warrior bold/ Would set him dancing./ Miniver sighed for what was not,/ & dreamed, & rested from his labors;/ He dreamed of Thebes & Camelot,/ & Priam’s neighbors./ Miniver mourned the ripe renown/ That made so many a name so fra grant;/ He mourned Romance, now on the town,/ & Art, a vagrant.” • Wished he had lived in the middle ages; loves Medieval traditions § “Miniver cursed the commonplace/ & eyed a khaki suit with loathing;/ He missed the medieval grace/ Of iron clothing.” – suit of armor > khakis § “Miniver scorned the gold he sought,/ But sore annoyed was he without it;/ Miniver thought, & thought, & thought,/ & thought about it.” – always on his mind how he was born too late § “Miniver Cheevy, born too late,/ Scratched his head & kept on thinking;/ Miniver coughed, & called it fate, & kept on drinking.” – alcoholic, sick from drinking • Imagists o Group of poets writing in England & America o Ezra Pound – the image presented “an intellectual & emotional complex in an instant of time” § Intellectual element – created by the visual; emotional created by auditory o Major movement objectives: § To use language of a common speech but to employ always the exact word – not the nearly exact § To avoid cliché § To create new rhythms as the expression of a new mood § To allow absolute freedom in the choice of subject § To present an image (to be concrete, firm, definite, in their pictures) § To strive always for concentration – the essence of poetry § To suggest rather than to offer complete statements • Wallace Stevens –“Disillusionment of Ten O’clock”, “Sunday Morning”, “Anecdote of the Jar”, “Death of a Soldier” o Raised in Pennsylvania, went to Harvard, dropped out to have a liter ary career o Worked at a high paying job in Connecticut in an insurance company – where he worked & lived his whole life o Makes business trips to Florida – poetry uses lush vegetation of South & bleak landscape of North to illustrate opposing ways of imagining the world o 1 poetry book – Harmonium – established literary career & poems known for wit, imagery, & color o 2 themes to signify act of creation – observing things & playing musical instruments o Liked to question what is real – hallmark of Modernism o Questioned ideas of religion, believing in Christianity had lost its old power – hallmark of Modernism o Style: simple but complex, uses neologisms, vivid & colorful imagery o Like Transcendentalists he saw the individual at the center of perception & wor– skeptical that this centrality brought the individual closer to God o Methodical, Type A life; crazy poetry o Known as Poet of the Imagination o Types of Imagery: visual (sight), olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), auditory (hearing), tactile (touch) o “Disillusionment of Ten O’clock” § “The houses are haunted/ By white n ight-gowns./ None are green,/ Or purple with green rings,/ Or green with yellow rings,/ Or yellow with blue rings,/ None of them are strange,/ With socks of lace,/ With socks of lace/ & b eaded ceintures./ People are not going/ To dream of baboons & periwinkles./ Only, here & there, an old sailor,/ Drunk & asleep in his boots,/ Catches tigers / In red weather.” • People like ghosts with no life, boring, sleepwalking through life, conformist pe ople • Emphasize how plain gowns are, not weird & no strange dreams • Sailor = strange person, drunk § Critique of modern society § Disillusionment – dream crushed by reality § Negative language o “Sunday Morning” – most famous poem; Divine World vs. Natural World (Heaven vs. Earth) § “Complacencies of the peignoir, & late/ Coffee & oranges in a sunny chair,/ & the green freedom of a cockatoo/ Upon a rug mingle to dissipate/ The holy hush on ancient sacrifice./ She dreams a little, & she feels the dark/ Encroachment of that old catastrophe,/ As a calm darkens among water -lights.” • Visual – the sun; taste & smell – food • Main character – female, home relaxing in night gown, with her bird, not in church • Real world – real colors, sunlight, animals § “Why should she give her bounty to the dead?/ What is divinity if it can come/ Only in silent shadows & in dreams?/ Shall she not find in comforts of the sun,/ In pungent fruit & bright, green wings, or else/ In any balm or beauty of the earth,/ Things to be cherished like the though t of heaven?” • Bounty = tithes, time, youth • Rather cherish the natural world § “She says, ‘But in contentment I still feel/ The need of some imperishable bliss.’/ Death is the mother of beauty; hence from her,/ & our desires . . .” • Appreciate beauty & life • Natural world – death gives birth to beauty – love it more b/c it isn’t forever § “Is there no change of death in paradise?/ Does ripe fruit never fall? Or do the boughs/ Hang always heavy in that perfect sky,/ Unchanging, yet so like our perishing earth,/ W ith rivers like our own that seek for seas/ They never find, the same receding shores/ That never touch with inarticulate pang?/ Why set the pear upon those river-banks/ Or spice the shores with odors of the plum?” – stop appreciating • Paradise is poor imitation of natural world § “&, in the isolation of the sky,/ At evening, casual flocks of pigeons make/ Ambiguous undulations as they sink,/ Downward to darkness, on extended wings.” - Pigeons circling to land (ties stanzas 1 & 8) § Poem organization – morning to night – cycle of day § Uses traditional/quiet churches as contrast § Uses female characters rather than male – Christianity is more male o “Anecdote of the Jar” § “I placed a jar in Tennessee,/ & round it was, upon a hill./ It made the slovenly wilderness/ Surr ound that hill.” – point of reference; slovenly = lazy, messy § “The wilderness rose up to it,/ & sprawled around, no longer wild./ The jar was round upon the ground/ & tall & of a port of air./ It took dominion everywhere./ The jar was gray & bare./ ITnot give of bird or bush,/ Like nothing else in Tennessee.” – create something where there was nothing • Order in the chaos of the wilderness § Anecdote – good/amusing short story o “Death of a Soldier” § “Life contracts and death is expected,/ As in season of autumn./ The soldier falls./ He does not become a three-days personage./ Imposing his separation,/ Calling for pomp./ Death is absolute & without memorial,/ As in a season of autumn,/ When the wind stops,/ When the wind stops &, over the heavens,/ The clouds go, nevertheless,/ In their direction.” § 3 lines per stanza, death of main character is insignificant, landscape & season describes life & death § Compared to “Landscape with the Fall of Icarus” by Williams § No one is going to stop their life – death isn’t special – it’s a natural process § Post WW1, expect solider to die • William Carlos Williams – “Landscape with the fall of Icarus”, “The Dance ”, “The Red Wheelbarrow”, “This is Just to Say” o Born in New Jersey to a multi -ethnic family: English, Puerto Rican, Fre nch, & Dutch o Mainly raised by mother & grandmother – female, earth mother figure is prominent in his poetry o Pediatrician by trade, but he wrote poetry too o Married, unfaithful to his wife, until later years & she became the subject of much of his love poetry o Known for disagreeing with other Modernists o In NYC, he became friends with influential poets & artists: Ezra Pound, Marianne Moore, Wallace Stevens o Detested Eliot’s The Waste Land for its internationalism & pessimism; also objected Frost’s folksy poetry o Poetry § Known for everyday images & matter -of-factness § Sought to make a new kind of poetry to speak as an American within an American context § His America centered on small towns, im migrants, factories, & poor working class § Known for his accumulation of detail in his poetry & modern diction § Closely associated with imagism o “Landscape with the Fall of Icarus” § “According to Brueghel/ when Icarus fell/ it was spring/ a farmer was ploughi ng/ his field/ the whole pageantry/ of the year was/ awake tingling/ near/ the edge of the sea/ concerned/ with itself/ unsignificantly/ off the coast/ there was/ a splash quite unnoticed/ this was/ Icarus drow- negative • Short lines, no punctuation, no capitalization = emphasize short life • Icarus’ dad is Deadus – Icarus falls to death when trying out his dad’s manmade wings § Death is miniscule/insignificant in modern world – compared to “The Death of a Soldier” § Ekphrasis – writing a poem about a painti ng; Painting “The Fall of Icarus” – farmer is center o “The Dance” – Ekphrasis example § “In Brueghel’s great picture, The Kermess,/ the dancers go round, they go round &/ around, the squeal & the blare & the/ tweedle of bagpipes, a bugle & fiddles/ tipping their bellies (round as the thick-/ sided glasses whose was they impound)/ their hips & their bellies off balance/ to turn them. Kicking & rolling about/ the Fair grounds, swinging their butts, those/ shanks must be sound to bear up under such/ rollicking measures, prance as they dance/ in Brueghel’s great picture, The Kermess.” • Wash = beer; shanks = hip/thigh; animalistic terms • Auditory – instruments; sexual imagery; Simile – compare bellies to drinking glasses § Painting = “The Wedding Dance” § Punctuates in the middle of line – no pause at the end of line – written like a dance – kinesthetic imagery • 1st & last line are the same – end up in the same place, like a dance o “The Red Wheelbarrow” – Imagism example § “so much depends/ upon/ a red wheel/ barrow/ glazed with rain/ water/ beside the white/ chickens” • Farm – animals, people, barn, crops, not bright & colorful • Wheel barrow - Used to feed, carry, useful; different & bright, contrasted to chickens • Glazed = artistic term, shiny red • Word picture – visual o “This is Just to Say” – Imagist Poem § “I have eaten/ the plums/ that were in the icebox/ & which/ you were probably/ saving/ for breakfast/ Forgive me/ they were delicious/ so sweet/ & so cold” – not sorry, describes taste • Tone – sarcastic, playful; Tactile – cold; visual – see plum • T.S. Elliot – The Waste Land o Born in St. Louis, spent summers on New England Coast o Harvard Philosophy major, also studied at Sorbonne, worked on PhD in Philosophy (never defended it) o In Germany when WW1 broke out – left for England, met Vivienne (had mental & physical problems) o Wanted to impress his father, father died before he could o Worked at Lloyd’s Bank in the City District of London – worked in the basement for 8 years o Became a British citizen & joined Anglo -Catholic Church o Lecture tour in the U.S o Legally separated from his wife – marries Valerie Fletcher (his secretary) o Wins Nobel Prize for Literature o Modern writers are against religion – Eliot is oddball & turns to religion as a way out of darkness o Poetry Goals: § Literature had to be “new” & innovative – throw out conventions, be experimental, experiment with form, use startling images, use various languages & vocabularies § Poetry had to be intellectual & emotional – slammed the Victorians, made allusions to history & other authors, brings reader to work by addressing him directly § Combine past & present – draw on both as much as possible, the 2 can’t be separated § Artist should be impersonal – objectify & dramatize with other characters, don’t present personality o Eliot’s Theme: The Search for Meaning in the Human Experience § 1 stage – recognize the sterility of modern life (what he was doing up until he wrote Waste Land § 2ndstage – search for something that may fill the void & sterility (seen in his middle poems) rd § 3 stage – revelation about what will give meaning to life: Christianity (never directly says it) o The Waste Land § Most important poem of the 20thcentury § Wants to establish common ground with & challenge readers, & make them work to discover meaning § Plays on 4 different themes/motifs • Dante’s Inferno – structure, tour guide/shape shifter protagonist o Dante (narrator) is led around by Virgil (Poet) o Protagonist is led through waste land like Dante is led through hell – comparison o Protagonist is a shape shifter, trying to r ecreate duality of man (faces & personalities) § Cubism – Picasso Painting • The Fisher King Myth – Pagan myth o Celts – 1 people in British Isles – worshipped spirits associated with nature o Christians converted Celts – keep symbols if you make them Christian § Evergreen – pagan symbol of everlasting life, return of life § Bunny – pagan symbol of birth, spring o Fisher King – multiple figures – king of great land whose power is waning (infertile) § King is questing to bring back fertility & power – like King Arthur & grail § Kingdom & king are infertile – fishing for something to bring it back o Waste land – we are fisher kings trying to bring life back to the land • Journey/Pilgrimage (spiritual/religious) o The Canterbury Tales – Chaucer – famous literary pilgrimage § Spring, people of pilgrimage travel together & tell their stories • All from different walks of life • Fertility/Infertility (Sterility) o Goes back & forth between images of each – hope to no hope o Fertility – need water for life to happen o Infertility – desert, no water, stone, dry, trash § Epigraph – quote that comes before a piece of literature to hint at main idea • In Greek – from Pretorius’s Satyrian – about Sibyl, an oracle o Asks for eternal life, just keeps getting older, wishes to die o Not hopeful for the waste lan d journey § Dedicated to Ezra Pound “the better maker” – poet known for helping other poets • Helped Eliot cut down most of the poem § Fragment 1: lines 1-7 • “April is the cruelest month, breeding/ Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing/ Memory & desire, stirring/ Dull roots with spring rain./ Winter kept us warm, covering/ Earth in forgetful snow, feeding/ A li ttle life with dried tubers.” o Don’t have to think in winter, numb • Ironic reversal of Canterbury Tales where Spring in April is happy o In Waste Land – it’s cruel, people would rather be covered in snow § Numb, don’t have to feel – do not want to go on pilgrimages § Fragment 2: lines 8-18 • “Summer surprised us, coming over the Starnbergersee/ With a shower of rain; we stopped in the colonnade,/ & went on in sunlight, into the Hofgarten,/ & drank coffee, & talked for an hour./ Bin gar keine Russin, stamm’ aus Litauen, echt deutsch./ & when we were children, staying at the arch -duke’s,/ My cousin’s, he took me out on a sled,/ & I was frightened. He said, Marie,/ Marie, hold on tight. & down we went./ In the mountains, there you feel free./ I read, much of the night, & go south in the winter.” o “I am certainly not Russian; I come from Lithuania, a true German.” • New season – Summer • Meet woman – upper class, related to nobility, can be dead as winter inside o Not happy, reads at night instead of sleeping, lonely o Remembers being happy, sledding in the mountains as a child o Now she goes south for the winter – leaves snow to avoid memories § Fragment 3: lines 19-30 • “What are the roots that clutch, what branches grow/ Out of this stony rubbish? Son of man,/ You cannot say, or guess, for you know only/ A heap of broken images, where the sun beats,/ & the dead tree gives no shelter, the cricket no relief,/ & the dry stone no sound of water. Only/ There is a shadow under the red rock./ (Come in under the shadow of this red rock),/ & I will show you something different from either/ Your shadow at morning striding behind you/ Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you;/ I will show you fear in a handful of dust.” o Eliot uses cinematic technique to shift scenes – fade out, fade in o Eliot is seeing London bombings – stony rubbish o Land looks like desert – infertile landscape o Shelter only under the shadow of red rock (symbol of Christianity) § Biblical reference – Eliot finding Christianity § Addresses reader – tells them to come under rock § Fragment 4: lines 31-42 • “Frisch weht der Wind/ Der Heimat zu/ Mein Irisch Kind,/ Wo weilest du?” – Opera Quote o Fresh blows the wind to the homeland; my Iris h child, where are you waiting? o Allusion – Wagner’s Opera Tristan & Isolde; Famous lovers – Eliot sees the opera • “‘You gave me hyacinths first a year ago;/ They called me the hyacinth girl.’/ - Yet when we came back, late, from the hyacinth garden,/ Your arms full, & your hair wet, I could not/ Speak, & my eyes failed, I was neither/ Living nor dead, & I knew nothing,/ Looking into the heart of light, the silence./ Oed’ und leer das Meer.” o “Empty & barren is the sea” o Euphemism – want to have sex in the garden o Negative language – unable to have sex o Women’s hair – symbol of sexuality & fertility o Fertility – lovers, water – but they can’t even act on their love § Fragment 5: lines 43-59 • “Madame Sosostris, famous clairvoyant,/ Had a bad cold, nevertheless/ Is known to be the wisest woman in Europe,/ With a wicked pack of cards. Here, said she,/ Is your card, the drown Phoenician Sailor,/ (Those are pearls that were his eyes. Look!)/ Here is Belladonna, the Lady of the Rocks,/ The lad y of situations./ Here is the man with three staves, & here the Wheel,/ & here is the one -eyed merchant, & this card,/ Which is blank, is something he carries on his back,/ Which I am forbidden to see. I do not find/ The Hanged Man. Fear deathsee crowds of people, walking round in a ring./ Thank you. If you see dear Mrs. Equitone,/ Tell her I bring the horoscope myself:/ One must be so careful these days.” o Religion has been replaced by occult (tarot cards, phenomena, supernatural, Ouija) § Popular when Eliot wrote the poem • Tarot cards o Lady of the Jocks – allusion to The Virgin of the Rocks by Da Vinci § Rocks – ties to red rock religious symbol o Man with 3 staves (staffs) – man looking out on the ocean with crown on his head § Ties to the Fisher King; Staff – phallic symbol, fertility o Wheel of Fortune – symbolizes chance § Egyptian mythological symbol – tarot cards were 1 used to predict rise & fall of Nile River – fertility of Land o 1 eyed merchant - symbolizes corruption o Hanged man – death, positive b/c also symbolizes rebirth § 1 thing ends & another begins • Impersonal ending § Fragment 6: lines 60-76 • “Unreal city,/ Under the brown fog of a winter dawn,/ A crowd flowed over London Bridge, so many,/ I had not thought death had undone so many./ Sighs, short & infrequent, were exhaled,/ & each man fixed his eyes before his feet./ Flowed up the hill & down King William Street,/ To where Saint Mary Woolnooth kept the hours/ With a dead sound on the final stroke of nine./ There I saw one I knew, & stop ped him, crying: ‘Stetson!/ ‘You who were with me in the ships at Mylae!/ ‘That corpse you planted last year in your garden,/ ‘Has it begun to sprout? Will it bloom this year?/ ‘Or has the sudden frost disturbed its bed?/ ‘ O keep the Dog far hence, that’s friend to men,/ ‘Or with his nails he’ll dig it up again!/ ‘You! Hypocrite lecteur! – mon semblable, - mon frère!’” o Hypocrite reader! – my likeness – my brother! o People going to work in financial district – eyes down, dead/buried alive o Uses real places to emphasize that this is real life o Stetson buried a corpse – allusion to fertility rites – sacrifice person/animal to gods for fertile earth for good harvest – like Christian sacrifice for life § Fragment 7: lines 77-138 • “The Chair she sat in, like a burnished throne,/ Glowed on the marble, where the glass/ Held up by standards wrought with fruited vines/ From which a golden Cupidon peeped out/ (Another hid the eyes behind his wing)/ Doubled the flames of sevenbranched candelabra/ Relfecting light upon the table as/ The glitter of her jewels rose to meet it,/ From satin cases poured in rich profusion./ In vials of ivory & coloured glass/ Unstoppered, lurked her strange synthetic perfumes,/ Unguent, powdered, or liquid – troubled, confused/ & drowned the sense in odours; stirred by the air/ That freshened from the window, these ascended/ In fattening the prolonged candle -flames,/ Flung their smoke into the laquearia,/ Stirring the pattern on the coffered ceiling./ Huge sea-wood fed with copper/ Burned gre en & orange, framed with the coloured stone,/ In which sad light a carved dolphin swam./ Above the antique mantel was displayed/ as though a window gave upon the sylvan scene/ The change of Philomel, by the barbarous king/ So rudely forced; yet there the nightingale/ Filled all the desert with inviolable voice/ & still she cried, & still the world pursues,/ ‘Jug Jug’ to dirty ears./ & other withered stumps of time/ Were told upon the walls; staring forms/ Leaned out, leaning, hushing the room enclosed./ Under the firelight, under the brush, her hair/ Spread out in fiery points/ Glowed into words, then would be savagely still./ ‘My nerves are bad to -night. Yes, bad. Stay with me./ ‘Speak to me. Why do you never speak. Speak./ ‘What are you thinking of? What t hinking? What?/ ‘I never know what you are thinking. Think.’/ I think we are in rats’ alley/ Where the dead men lost their bones./ ‘What is that noise?’/ The wind under the door./ ‘What is that noise now? What is the wind doing?’/ Nothing again nothing./ ‘ Do/ ‘You know nothing? Do you see nothing? Do you remember/ ‘Nothing?’/ I remember/ Those are pearls that were his eyes./ ‘Are you alive, or not? Is there nothing in your head?’/ But/ O O O O that Shakespearian Rag -/ It’s so elegant/ So intelligent/ ‘What shall I do now? What shall I do?’/ ‘I shall rush out as I am, & walk the street/ ‘With my hair down, so. What shall we do tomorrow?/ ‘What shall we ever do?’/ The hot water at ten./ & if it rains, a closed car at four./ & we shall play a game of chess,/ P ressing lidless eyes & waiting for a knock upon the door.” • Married couple - upper class, sterile/dull relationship ; Husband shuffles–not excited to be home • Fertility symbols – fruited vine, cupid- Frozen b/c carved into furniture/wall – like relationship • All of the scents are fake - perfumes, fake flower scent • No quotations around husbands words – he’s not really talking to her o Sings Shakespearian rag instead of listening • Tries to shock him by saying she was going out with her hair down – fertility of women’s hair • Keep going through the motions until death knocks on the door • Irony – closed top car is more expensive, today you pay more for convertible • Chess – long, boring, strategy; exchange like chess – you move, I move § Fragment 8: lines 139-172 • “When Lil’s husband got demobbed, I said –/ I didn’t mince my words, I said to her myself,/ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ Now Albert’s coming back, make yourself a bit smart./ He’ll want to know what you done with that money he gave you/ To get yourself some teeth. He did, I was there./ You have them all out, Lil, & get a nice set,/ He said, I swear, I can’t bear to look at you./ & no more can’t I, I said, & think of poor Albert,/ He’s been in the army 4 years, he wants a good time,/ & if you don’t give it him, there’s others will, I said./ Oh is there, she said. Something o’ that, I said./ Then I’ll know who to thank, she said, & give me a straight look./ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ If you don’t like it you can get on with it, I said./ Others can pick & choose if you ca n’t./ But if Albert makes off, it won’t be for lack of telling./ You ought to be ashamed, I said, to look so antique,/ (& her only 31)/ I can’t help it, pulling a long face,/ It’d them pills I took, to bring it off, she said,/ (She’s had 5 already, & nearly died of young George.)/ The chemist said it would be all right, but I’ve never been the same./ You are a proper fool, I said./ Well, if Albert won’t leave you alone, there it is, I said,/ What you get married for if you don’t want children?/ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ Well, that Sunday Albert was home, they had a hot gammon,/ & they asked me in to dto get the beauty of it hot/ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ Goonight Bill, Goonight Lou. Goonight May. Goonight./ Ta ta./ Goonight. Goonight./ Good night, ladies, good night, sweet ladies, good night, good night.” • Lower class English dialect • Women gossiping at a bar about Lil & Albert o Telling Lil to go get new teeth before Albert comes home o Lil says she looks bad b/c of abortion pills – almost died b/c of last child • Sex & fertility – cheapened by her ugliness; Infertility – abortion • Lil – allusion to Lilith in the bible – Apocrypha (edited out of myths) – both are 31 years old o Adam’s 1 wife that wouldn’t obey, cast out of Eden, lost teeth, grows fangs, demonic st (steals children in the night, 1 vampire) § Fragment 9: lines 215-256 • “At the violet hour, when the eyes & back/ Turn upward from the desk, when the human engine waits/ Like a taxi throbbing waiting,/ I Tiresias, though blind, throbbing between two live,/ Old man with wrinkled female breasts, can see/ At the violet hour, the evening hour that strives/ Homeward, & brings the sailor home from sea,/ The typist home at teatime, clears her breakfast, lights/ Her stove, & lays out food in tins,/ Out of the window perilously spread/ Her drying combinations touched by the sun’s last rays,/ On the divan are piled (at night her bed)/ Stockings, slippers, camisoles, & stays./ I Tiresias, old man with wrinkled dugs/ Perceived the scene, & foretold the rest-/ I too awaited the expected guest./ He, the young man carbuncular, arrives,/ A sma ll house agent’s clerk, with one bold stare,/ One of the low on whom assurance sits/ As a silk hat on a Bradford millionaire . . . SONNET . . ./ She turns & looks a moment in the glass,/ Hardly aware of her departed lover;/ Her brain allows one half -formed thought to pass:/ ‘Well now that’s done: & I’m glad it’s over.’/ When lovely woman stoops to folly &/ Paces about her room again, alone,/ She smoothes her hair with automatic hand,/ & puts a record on the gramophone.” • Sonnet – poem within poem – “The time is now propitious, as he guesses,/ The meal is ended, she is bored & tired,/ Endeavours to engage her is caresses/ Which still are unreproved, if undesired./ Flushed & decided, he assaults at once;/ Exploring hands encounter no defense;/ His vanity requires no response,/ & makes a welcome of indifference./ (& I Tiresias have foresuffered all/ Enacted on this same divan or bed;/ I who have sat by Thebes below the wall/ & walked among the lowest of the dead.)/ Bestows one final patronizing kiss,/ & gro pes his way, finding the stairs unlit” o Woman doesn’t want the man, but she doesn’t stop him – nonchalant when he leaves • Unmarried couple – booty call; Evening, end of day, time to leave work • Protagonist – shifts from man to woman to show both POV • Woman comes home, not a good housekeeper, lays out tins of takeout, laundry hanging outside, & divan (small couch) is covered with underwear • Man – carbuncular (boils), ugly § Fragment 10: lines 424 – end • “Fishing, with the arid plain behind me/ Shall I at least set my lands in order?/ London Bridge is falling down falling down falling down/ Poi s’ascose nel foco che gli affina * he hid himself in the fire that refines him * / Quando fiam uti chelidon * When shall I be as the swallow, that I may cease to be silent * – O swallow swallow/ Le Prince d’Aquitaine a la tour abolie * The Prince of Aquitaine in the ruined tower * / These fragments I have shored against my ruins/ Why then Ile fit you. Hieronymo’s mad againe./ Datta. Dayadhvam. Damyata./ Shantih shantih shantih” • Arid plain (dry) behind me = out of wasteland • Fishing – Fisher King reference, water (life, hope) – hasn’t given up • Biblical reference – cant fix all lands in the waste land (world) but fix his self o Start with what you know you can control; Set your lands in order • Fragments – recognize the state of waste land, collected the fragments, so we can get out • Play reference – everyone thinks it is crazy – he’s writing from asylum o He knows what they’ll say, but he feels this is important • Hindu phrases – the waste land is everywhere, not just 1 place (why he uses 7 languages) o Datta = give; Dayadhvam = compassion/empathy; Shantih = peace/end prayer (amen) • Religion, finding yourself = the way out • F. Scott Fitzgerald – “Winter Dreams” o Born in St. Paul Minnesota, went to Princeton o 1 love – Ginevre King – father says, “Poor boys don’t marry rich girls.” o Joined army, stationed in Montgomery, AL – where he met Zelda – waiting to be sent to Europe – WW1 o When Zelda was 10, she called the fire dept & said there was a chilon the roof, then climbed on the roof o Called their only daughter Scotty o Moved to France, befriended Ernest Hemingway, Zelda diagnosed with schizophrenia o Wrote short stories to make money o He & Zelda had their clothes tailored & then left them in hotel clos ets – never washed anything o Moved to Hollywood to try his skills at screen writin– has affair with Sheila Graham – fought over loaded gun § Asked to polish script for Gone With the Wind – fired o Fitzgerald dies of heart attack; Zelda dies when asylum caught fire & she’s trapped inside o Novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful & Damned, The Great Gatsby, Tender is the Night, The Last Tycoon o Recurring theme – poor boys gets rich girl o “Winter Dreams” § Judy dates multiple men – maintains her herd – new men & wandering men get attention § Men stay round for the unattainable & the chase § If she got married she wouldn’t be the ideal, perfect girl to every man § She consummates relationships to keep them around § Meaning of title • Dexter is 14 year old caddy – superstar of his winter dreams o “He became a golf champion & defeated Mr. T. A. Hedrick in a marvelous match played over a hundred times in the fairways of his imagination, a match each detail of which he changed about untiringly – sometimes winning with almost laughable ease, sometimes coming up magnificently from behind. Again, stepping from a Pierce -Arrow automobile, like Mr. Mortimer Jones, he strolled frigidly into the lounge of Erminie Golf Club . . .Among those most impressed was Mr. Mortimer Jones.” § His winter dream is being the big shot rather than caddy § Judy’s affect on Dexter’s life • Judy, 11, wants Dexter to be her caddy – she’s a brat o “‘Well?’ The caddy-master turned to Dexter. ‘What you standing there like a dummy for? Go pick up the young lady’s clubs.’ . . . ‘I think I’ll quit.’ The enormity of his decision frightened him. He was a favorite caddy & the $30 a month he earned through the summer were not to be made elsewhere in Dillard. But he had received a strong emotional shock & his perturbation require d a violent & immediate outlet.” o Quit his job, he’s infatuated, caddy for her = can’t date her, help can’t be rich • “‘I suppose not . . . I hear you’re giving Irene Scheerer a violent rush.’ There was not the faintest emphasis on the name, yet Dexter was su ddenly ashamed o Leaves his fiancé for Judy , compares Irene to Judy, doesn’t like I’s name anymore • “his father, prospering now, would have paid his way – for the precarious advantage of attending an older & more famous university in the East, where he was bothered by his scanty funds.” - decisions he makes, goes to Ivy League school to join rich & powerful o Wants to possess the glittering things not caddy for them § She doesn’t love any of the guys – thrill of the chase § “‘Awfully nice girl,’ brooded Devlin, meaninglessly, ‘I’m sort of sorry for her.’ ‘Why?’ Something in Dexter was alert, perceptive, at once. ‘Oh, Joe Simms has gone to pieces in a way. I don’t mean he beats her, you understand, or anything like t hat. But he drinks & runs around -’ ‘Doesn’t she run around?’ ‘No. Stays at home with her kids.’ ‘Oh.’ ‘She’s a little too old for him,’ said Devlin. ‘Too old!’ cried Dexter, ‘why man, she’s only 27.” - Her life turns out crappy – her husband treats her badly • Maybe Dexter built her up in his mind & no one can compare • Devlin knocks Judy off her pedestal, crushed Dexter’s winter dreams § “A sort of dullness settled down upon Dexter. For the first time in his life he felt like getting very drunk. He knew that he was laughing loudly . . . He had thought that having nothing else to lose he was invulnerable at last – but he knew that he had just lost something more, as surely as it he has married Judy Jones & seen her fade away before his eyes. The dream was gone. Something had been taken from him. In a sort of panic he pushed the palms of his hands into his eyes & tried to bring up a picture of the waters lapping at Lake Erminie & the moonlit verandah, & gingham on the golf link & the dry sun & the gold color of her neck’s soft down. & her mouth damp to his kisses & her eyes plaintive with melancholy & her freshness like new fine linen in the morn ing. . . . ‘long ago, there was something in me, but now that thing is gone. Now that thing is gone, that thing is gone. I cannot cry. I cannot care. That thing will come back no more.’” - lost the dream, crying for himself, women he loved is washed up house wife • Loosing the image & memories = loosing himself – dreams, years, youth o Nothing gold can stay – lost ideal perfection • If he had married Judy, he would have lost all of the dream anyway • E. E. Cummings – “in just-“, “Buffalo Bill’s”, “My Sweet old Etcetera” o Born in Cambridge, Mass. – father was English professor at Harvard o Excited about WW1 – enlisted as ambulance driver in France – imprisoned b/c they thought he was a spy § After war, lived with the America expatriates o Published novel: The Enormous Room; & 2 volumes of poetry o Spent the rest of his life as painter & poet, no formal job, had family money to l ive in NY o Writing: no capitalization, weird spacing, random punctuation, parentheses, no title, word choice (neologisms) § Uses slang, colloquial terms (regional slang) , coins words, combines words, & archaic diction o Themes: § Praise of Individuality/Criticism of Conformity – satires of public parties, war, women’s clubs § Love, Beauty, & Nature – romantic love poems, seduction poems, beauty of natural world o “in Just-” § “in Just-/ spring when the world is mud -/ luscious the little/ lame balloonman/ whistles far & wee/ & eddieandbill come/ running from marbles &/ piracies & it’s/ spring/ when the world is puddle - wonderful/ the queer/ old balloonman whistles far& wee/ & bettyanddisbel come dancing/ from hop-scotch & jump-rope/ it’s/ spring/ &/ the/ goat-footed/ balloonMan whistles/ far/ &/ wee” § Neologisms • “Just-spring” – capital = important; the first moment of spring • “mud-luscious” – kids love mud; rainy, snow melting = mud • “puddle-wonderful” – kid perspective of spring § “Lame” – something physically wrong § “Wee” – example of archaic diction – not used anymore § Emphasizes how wonderful spring is by repetition § Balloonman = allusion to Pan (god of spring): goat -footed, plays his little flute, ½ man ½ goat o “Buffalo Bill’s” § “Buffalo Bill’s/ defunct/ who used to/ ride a watersmooth -silver/ stallion/ & break onetwothreefourfive piegeonsjustlikethat/ Jesus/ he was a handsome man/ & what i want to know is/ how do you like your blueeyed boy/ Mister Death” § “Defunct” – to cease to exist, extinct, no longer functioning – referring to death, word not used often • Jokes about death – not significant § Symbolizes Americana – blue-eyed cowboy o “My Sweet Old Etcetera” § “my sweet old etcetera/ aunt lucy during the recent/ war co uld & what/ is more did tell you just/ what everybody was fighting/ for,/ my sister/ Isabel created hundreds/ (&/ hundreds) of socks not to/ mention fleaproof earwarmers/ etcetera wristers etcetera, my/ mother hoped that/ I would die etcetera/ bravely of course my father used/ to become hoarse talking about how it was/ a privilege & if only he/ could meanwhile my/ self etcetera lay quietly/ in the deep mud et/ cetera/ (dreaming,/ et/ cetera, of/ Your smile/ eyes knees & of your Etcetera) § Illusion vs. Reality – people are caught up in illusion of patriotic duty vs. speaker in trench § Aunt Lucy – reading newspapers – gossiping § Isabel – on going list making for war effort § Mother – wants him to die, get hurt, serve, get medal, just do something bravely § Father – wants to fight, die, just wants to do it § Speaker – reality • “my – self” – separated b/c he is separated from his love & thoughts • “mud et cetera” – urine, feces, bugs, bodies, blood – separates to give more time to fill in blank • “Your, Etcetera” – goes down her body – capital to imply rather than say • Ernest Hemingway – “Soldiers Home” o Flamboyant in personal style, known for sharp & pared -down writing, worked to omit to keep it simple & clean o Born in Illinois – worked with the Kansas City Star after high school o U.S entered war – wanted to go, eye problem kept him out of the army, joined ambulance corp § Wounded by shrapnel & came home a decorated hero § Distant from family & America he left behind o Married & moved to Paris , became part of Gertrude Stein’s salon scene o Breakthrough novel: The Sun Also Rises – clear example of pared-down writing style § Main character Jake Barnes was wounded after war like Hemingway • Inhabitant of post-war “waste land” nd o 2 major work: A Farewell to Arms – sealed his fate as literary giant § View on war: “I was always embarrassed by the words sacred, glorious, sacrifice . . .” o As he got older – he had to write more masculine male lead characters – took part in masculine activities § Hemingway went on African safari & lived the rest of his life in Cuba with 6 -toed cats o Committed suicide o “Soldiers Home” § Vignette – sets the scene for short story – soldier in trench, pleading with God § Title – the home of a soldier or soldier is home – ironic: doesn’t feel at home, out of place, war is home § PTSD – shell shock in WW1 § All other soldiers have come home, everyone tired of stories, lies so people will listen § Daily routine – looking at women, plays pool, reads, sits on front porch • “Nothing was changed in the town except that the young girls had grown up. But they lived in a complicated world of already defined alliances & shifting feuds that Krebs did not feel the energy or the courage to break into it. He liked to look at them though.” • “They were too complicated. There was something else. Vaguely he wanted a girl but he did not want to have to work to get her. He would have liked to have a girl but he did not want to have to spend a long time getting her. He did not want to get into the intrigue & the politics. He did not want to have to do any courting. He did not want to tell any more lies. It wasn’t worth it.” o Girls are easy to get in war – brothels § Mundane activities that are part of this world – dad offers the car, mom tells him don’t touch newspaper § Parents want him to be normal – Krebs feels totally abandoned by God & everyone • “‘Have you decided what you are going to do yet, Harold?’ his mother said, taking off her glasses. . . . ‘God has some work for everyone to do,’ his mother said. ‘There can be no idle hands in His Kingdom.’ ‘I’m not in His Kingdom,’ Krebs said.” § “‘Yes. Don’t you love your mother, dear boy?’ ‘No,’ Krebs said. His mother looked at him across the table. Her eyes were shiny. She started crying. . . . It wasn’t any good to tell her, her couldn’t mak e her see it. It was silly to have said it. He had only hurt her.” - It = his numbness, feelings; disconnected § Harold Krebs – main character – family calls him Harold, narrator calls him Krebs (identifies w/ more) • The Harlem Renaissance o 1 major, self-conscious literary movement among African American writers § Self-conscious = actively writing about & critiquing Af Am experience present time & historically o Wrote about black characters, black struggle, racism, jazz § Tried to capture all of these elements in black dialect of the South & North o After Civil War – many blacks migrated to North (Chicago, Philadelphia, Harlem)= “Great Migration” § These areas gave rise to a renewed artistic & cultural spirit § Still found trials – factory jobs already taken by immigrants o New writers shunned the idea of having white patrons & write for themselves § Publish in African American journals & magazines – like Crisis & Opportunity § Ironically – most of their readers were white o Major writers: Langston Hughes, Jea n Toomer, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Arna Bontemps, Alain Locke • Langston Hughes – “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”, “Mother to Son”, “I, Too”, “Song for a Dark Girl” o Wanted to capture “dominant oral & improvisator traditions of black culture in written form” – capture jazz o Born in Joplin, MO – began to write poetry after high school – entered Columbia University (left after 1 year) § Held many jobs from being a busboy to working in a Paris nightclub st o 1 volume of poetry: The Weary Blues – published with the help of a white patron o Called “bard of Harlem” – the Shakespeare of Harlem o Great Depression brought an abrupt end to much African American literary activity o Became a radical political activist & joined the American Communist Party o Published several children’s books, called to testify at McCarthy trials, wrote patriotic poetry for his reputation o “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” – pg. 871 § “I’ve known rivers:/ I’ve known rivers ancient as the world & older than the/ flow of human blood in human veins./ My soul has grown deep like the rivers./ I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young./ I built my hut near the Congo & it lulled me to sleep./ I looked upon the Nile & raised the pyramids above it./ I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln/ when down to New Orleans, & I’ve seen its/ muddy blossom turn all golden in the sunset/ I’ve known rivers:/ Ancient, dusky rivers./ My soul has grown deep like the rivers.” § Collective Consciousness – group of people have set of shared memories & beliefs, share experiences • Southerners – past, language, way we do things • Includes his ancestors – being a black man in America § Racial Memory – didn’t happen to him but is carried in his race § River – symbol that ties race together; ancestry has been around since the beginning, blood runs deep • “Grown deep” = keeps flowing through cuts & erosion his people experience • List of Rivers – how far ancestry has come – Middle East, Africa, Egypt, America o “muddy blossom turn all golden” – opportunity is muddy but golden o “dusky” – dark, drown – skin color – positive § “My soul has grown deep like the rivers.” – repeats the deepness to e


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