American Lit 2 - Test 2
American Lit 2 - Test 2 EH 202
Jacksonville State University
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Date Created: 01/30/16
American Lit 2 – Test 2 • Modernism o 4 Stages: § Began in France & England in 1890 – 1910 § Comes to America in 1910 – 1930; explodes, truly American movement nd nd § 2 generation in America – 2 wave raised on Modernism – 1930-1945 § High Modernism - highest peak o Happening in the world in the early 20thcentury – WW1 § Closely tied to Modernism – writers fought in/experienced the war § Modernism in Europe – lost whole generation – similar to America § Picked up the broken pieces to make something new § Art form invented in the 1920’s – collage; music form – jazz; both = chaotic § Writing is a heap of broken images o Writers are dark, pessimistic o 3 groups – all disillusioned with modern society § Expatriates “Lost Generation” – Fitzgerald, Hemmingway, Cummings • Former citizen who moved somewhere else • Felt America was boring, wanted newness • A lot of writers went to Paris & French Riviera § Rebels at Home – critics at home – Stevens, Frost • Felts the same as expatriates but stayed in America § Southern Agrarians – Faulkner – look to the past for answers, Old South o Characteristics: § Reject tradition – wanted to discover radical new ways to make art § Like to experiment with shape, color, sound, & form § Wanted to defy expectations, shock reader § Force readers to questions perception – question reality § Reject conventional lifestyles & politics § Very open about sexuality § More urban than rural – dirty, dark § More technology – phonographs (record players) § Very irreverent – make fun of reverence • Robert Frost – “Nothing Gold Can Stay”, After Apple Picki ng”, “Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening” o Savvy in marketing his writing – associated himself with England to sell his writing st § 1 book of poetry was published in England “Rebels at Home” Modernist o 2ndbook of poetry published in America with the help of Ezra Pound o Lived on a farm in New Hampshire, made money from his poetry o Poetry = seen as a reaction against the Modernist movement § Embraced by “middle America,” not modernists § Rural, colloquial, simple images, folksy speaker, rejects modern themes & fragmentation for traditional • Folksy speaker – correlates with the persona Frost made for himself: quiet, wise, New England country farmer • Nature themes – situate Frost as a descendent of the American Transce ndentalist writers o Won a Pulitzer Prize 4 times, more times than any other writer, & read at JFK’s inauguration o “Nothing Gold Can Stay” – encapsulates Modernist movement § “Nature’s first green in gold,/ Her hardest hue to hold./ Her early leaf’s a flower; / But only so an hour./ Then leaf subsides o leaf./ So Eden sank to grief,/ So dawn goes down to day./ Nothing gold can stay.” § Spring = new life; her = nature § Paradox – “Nature’s first green in gold” § Personification & alliteration – “Her hardest hue to hold” § Hyperbole/exaggeration – “But only so an hour” § “Eden sank” – loss of innocence, now new & perfect § Gold – expensive, status, shiny, limited, wanted ; Things that are precious b/c they don’t last (irony) § Published in 1923 – WW1 is over – talks about peace, gold before the war o “After Apple Picking” § “My long 2-pointed ladder’s sticking through a tree/ Toward heaven still./ & there’s a barrel that I didn’t fill/ Beside it, & there may be two or three/ Apples didn’t pick upon some bough.” • Extended metaphor - Compares apple picking to dying; ladder pointed to Heaven ; things he never did § “But I am done with apple-picking now./ Essence of winter sleep is on the night./ The scent of apples: I am drowsing off.” – death § “I cannot rub the strangers from my sight / I got from looking through a pane of glass/ I skimmed this morning from the drinking trough/ & held against the world of hoary grass./ It melted, & I let it fall & break.” – going out in the morning & water is frozen like a window pane § “But I was well/ Upon my way to sleep before it fell,/ & I could tell/ What form my dreaming was about to take./ Magnified apples appear & disappear,/ Stem end & blossom end,/ & every fleck of russet showing clear.” – dreams of big apples = big things in life § “My instep arch not only keeps the ache,/ It keeps the pres sure of a ladder-round./ I feel the ladder sway as the boughs bend.” – still feels the ladder rungs on his feet § “And I keep hearing the cellar bin/ The rumbling sound/ Of load on load of apples coming in./ For I have had too much/ Of apple-picking: I am overtired/ Of the great harvest I myself desired./ These were ten thousand fruit to touch,/ Cherish in hand, lift down, & not let fall.” – youth, too old now § “For all/ That struck the earth,/ No matter if not bruise d or spiked with stubble,/ Went surely to the cider-apple heap/ As of no worth.” – things he didn’t get done, wished he had done in his youth § “One can see what will trouble/ This sleep of mine, whatever sleep it is./ Were he not gone,/ The woodchuck could say whether it’s like his/ Long sleep, as I describe its coming, on,/ Or just some human sleep.” – hibernation implies coming back; human sleep implies death § Apples – original sin, knowledge o “Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening” § “The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,/ But I have promises to keep,/ & miles to go before I sleep./ & miles to go before I sleep.” – suicidal thoughts, pulls himself out, repeats to convince himself § Dark, dreary, winter, snow – emotional landscape § Person in a dark place, isola ted, alone • Edwin Arlington Robinson- “Richard Cory” & “Miniver Cheevy” o Man out of sync with the world he lived in, felt he was born too la– seen in characters like Miniver Cheevy o Raised on Gardiner Maine – which becomes the fictitious Tilbury Town of many of his poems o Experienced a lot of tragedy in his life: father’s business failure, drug addict brother, alcoholic brother o In NYC, published many books of poetry & won 2 more Pulitzer Prizes o In early poetry – Robinson seemed a New England regionalist po et § He distinguished his writing by taking the recurring them of a lost, glorious past o Poetry § Traditionalist in form & style § Modernism comes through characters who are “modern” in their disillusionment § Sought an alternative world of beauty & elegance thr ough poetry – ironic: poetic worlds were often sad o “Richard Cory” § “Whenever Richard Cory went down town,/ We people on the pavement looked at him;/ He was a gentleman from sole to crown,/ Clean favored, & imperially slim.” – bow to him, perfect from head t o toe • Royal vocab – crown, imperially; he’s like royalty § “& he was always quietly arrayed,/ & he was always human when he talked;/ But still he fluttered pulses when he said,/ ‘Good -morning,’ & he glittered when he walked.” – subtle, treats everyone the same § “& he was rich – yes, richer than a king,’ -/ & admirably schooled in every grace:/ In fine, we thought that he was everything/ To make us wish that we were in his place.” – refined, people are envious § “So on we worked, & waited for the light,/ & went without the meat, & cursed the bread;/ & Richard Cory, one calm summer night/ Went home & put a bullet through his head.” • People are waiting for food thing, can’t afford meat • Irony – suicide is not calm • Richard is perfect b/c money & good lucks – don’t know his inner thoughts o “Miniver Cheevy” § “Miniver Cheevy, child of scorn,/ Grew lean while he assailed the seasons ;/ He wept that he was ever born,/ & he had reasons.” - Doesn’t fit in § “Miniver loved the days of old/ When swords were bright & steeds were prancing;/ The vision of a warrior bold/ Would set him dancing./ Miniver sighed for what was not,/ & dreamed, & rested from his labors;/ He dreamed of Thebes & Camelot,/ & Priam’s neighbors./ Miniver mourned the ripe renown/ That made so many a name so fra grant;/ He mourned Romance, now on the town,/ & Art, a vagrant.” • Wished he had lived in the middle ages; loves Medieval traditions § “Miniver cursed the commonplace/ & eyed a khaki suit with loathing;/ He missed the medieval grace/ Of iron clothing.” – suit of armor > khakis § “Miniver scorned the gold he sought,/ But sore annoyed was he without it;/ Miniver thought, & thought, & thought,/ & thought about it.” – always on his mind how he was born too late § “Miniver Cheevy, born too late,/ Scratched his head & kept on thinking;/ Miniver coughed, & called it fate, & kept on drinking.” – alcoholic, sick from drinking • Imagists o Group of poets writing in England & America o Ezra Pound – the image presented “an intellectual & emotional complex in an instant of time” § Intellectual element – created by the visual; emotional created by auditory o Major movement objectives: § To use language of a common speech but to employ always the exact word – not the nearly exact § To avoid cliché § To create new rhythms as the expression of a new mood § To allow absolute freedom in the choice of subject § To present an image (to be concrete, firm, definite, in their pictures) § To strive always for concentration – the essence of poetry § To suggest rather than to offer complete statements • Wallace Stevens –“Disillusionment of Ten O’clock”, “Sunday Morning”, “Anecdote of the Jar”, “Death of a Soldier” o Raised in Pennsylvania, went to Harvard, dropped out to have a liter ary career o Worked at a high paying job in Connecticut in an insurance company – where he worked & lived his whole life o Makes business trips to Florida – poetry uses lush vegetation of South & bleak landscape of North to illustrate opposing ways of imagining the world o 1 poetry book – Harmonium – established literary career & poems known for wit, imagery, & color o 2 themes to signify act of creation – observing things & playing musical instruments o Liked to question what is real – hallmark of Modernism o Questioned ideas of religion, believing in Christianity had lost its old power – hallmark of Modernism o Style: simple but complex, uses neologisms, vivid & colorful imagery o Like Transcendentalists he saw the individual at the center of perception & wor– skeptical that this centrality brought the individual closer to God o Methodical, Type A life; crazy poetry o Known as Poet of the Imagination o Types of Imagery: visual (sight), olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), auditory (hearing), tactile (touch) o “Disillusionment of Ten O’clock” § “The houses are haunted/ By white n ight-gowns./ None are green,/ Or purple with green rings,/ Or green with yellow rings,/ Or yellow with blue rings,/ None of them are strange,/ With socks of lace,/ With socks of lace/ & b eaded ceintures./ People are not going/ To dream of baboons & periwinkles./ Only, here & there, an old sailor,/ Drunk & asleep in his boots,/ Catches tigers / In red weather.” • People like ghosts with no life, boring, sleepwalking through life, conformist pe ople • Emphasize how plain gowns are, not weird & no strange dreams • Sailor = strange person, drunk § Critique of modern society § Disillusionment – dream crushed by reality § Negative language o “Sunday Morning” – most famous poem; Divine World vs. Natural World (Heaven vs. Earth) § “Complacencies of the peignoir, & late/ Coffee & oranges in a sunny chair,/ & the green freedom of a cockatoo/ Upon a rug mingle to dissipate/ The holy hush on ancient sacrifice./ She dreams a little, & she feels the dark/ Encroachment of that old catastrophe,/ As a calm darkens among water -lights.” • Visual – the sun; taste & smell – food • Main character – female, home relaxing in night gown, with her bird, not in church • Real world – real colors, sunlight, animals § “Why should she give her bounty to the dead?/ What is divinity if it can come/ Only in silent shadows & in dreams?/ Shall she not find in comforts of the sun,/ In pungent fruit & bright, green wings, or else/ In any balm or beauty of the earth,/ Things to be cherished like the though t of heaven?” • Bounty = tithes, time, youth • Rather cherish the natural world § “She says, ‘But in contentment I still feel/ The need of some imperishable bliss.’/ Death is the mother of beauty; hence from her,/ & our desires . . .” • Appreciate beauty & life • Natural world – death gives birth to beauty – love it more b/c it isn’t forever § “Is there no change of death in paradise?/ Does ripe fruit never fall? Or do the boughs/ Hang always heavy in that perfect sky,/ Unchanging, yet so like our perishing earth,/ W ith rivers like our own that seek for seas/ They never find, the same receding shores/ That never touch with inarticulate pang?/ Why set the pear upon those river-banks/ Or spice the shores with odors of the plum?” – stop appreciating • Paradise is poor imitation of natural world § “&, in the isolation of the sky,/ At evening, casual flocks of pigeons make/ Ambiguous undulations as they sink,/ Downward to darkness, on extended wings.” - Pigeons circling to land (ties stanzas 1 & 8) § Poem organization – morning to night – cycle of day § Uses traditional/quiet churches as contrast § Uses female characters rather than male – Christianity is more male o “Anecdote of the Jar” § “I placed a jar in Tennessee,/ & round it was, upon a hill./ It made the slovenly wilderness/ Surr ound that hill.” – point of reference; slovenly = lazy, messy § “The wilderness rose up to it,/ & sprawled around, no longer wild./ The jar was round upon the ground/ & tall & of a port of air./ It took dominion everywhere./ The jar was gray & bare./ ITnot give of bird or bush,/ Like nothing else in Tennessee.” – create something where there was nothing • Order in the chaos of the wilderness § Anecdote – good/amusing short story o “Death of a Soldier” § “Life contracts and death is expected,/ As in season of autumn./ The soldier falls./ He does not become a three-days personage./ Imposing his separation,/ Calling for pomp./ Death is absolute & without memorial,/ As in a season of autumn,/ When the wind stops,/ When the wind stops &, over the heavens,/ The clouds go, nevertheless,/ In their direction.” § 3 lines per stanza, death of main character is insignificant, landscape & season describes life & death § Compared to “Landscape with the Fall of Icarus” by Williams § No one is going to stop their life – death isn’t special – it’s a natural process § Post WW1, expect solider to die • William Carlos Williams – “Landscape with the fall of Icarus”, “The Dance ”, “The Red Wheelbarrow”, “This is Just to Say” o Born in New Jersey to a multi -ethnic family: English, Puerto Rican, Fre nch, & Dutch o Mainly raised by mother & grandmother – female, earth mother figure is prominent in his poetry o Pediatrician by trade, but he wrote poetry too o Married, unfaithful to his wife, until later years & she became the subject of much of his love poetry o Known for disagreeing with other Modernists o In NYC, he became friends with influential poets & artists: Ezra Pound, Marianne Moore, Wallace Stevens o Detested Eliot’s The Waste Land for its internationalism & pessimism; also objected Frost’s folksy poetry o Poetry § Known for everyday images & matter -of-factness § Sought to make a new kind of poetry to speak as an American within an American context § His America centered on small towns, im migrants, factories, & poor working class § Known for his accumulation of detail in his poetry & modern diction § Closely associated with imagism o “Landscape with the Fall of Icarus” § “According to Brueghel/ when Icarus fell/ it was spring/ a farmer was ploughi ng/ his field/ the whole pageantry/ of the year was/ awake tingling/ near/ the edge of the sea/ concerned/ with itself/ unsignificantly/ off the coast/ there was/ a splash quite unnoticed/ this was/ Icarus drow- negative • Short lines, no punctuation, no capitalization = emphasize short life • Icarus’ dad is Deadus – Icarus falls to death when trying out his dad’s manmade wings § Death is miniscule/insignificant in modern world – compared to “The Death of a Soldier” § Ekphrasis – writing a poem about a painti ng; Painting “The Fall of Icarus” – farmer is center o “The Dance” – Ekphrasis example § “In Brueghel’s great picture, The Kermess,/ the dancers go round, they go round &/ around, the squeal & the blare & the/ tweedle of bagpipes, a bugle & fiddles/ tipping their bellies (round as the thick-/ sided glasses whose was they impound)/ their hips & their bellies off balance/ to turn them. Kicking & rolling about/ the Fair grounds, swinging their butts, those/ shanks must be sound to bear up under such/ rollicking measures, prance as they dance/ in Brueghel’s great picture, The Kermess.” • Wash = beer; shanks = hip/thigh; animalistic terms • Auditory – instruments; sexual imagery; Simile – compare bellies to drinking glasses § Painting = “The Wedding Dance” § Punctuates in the middle of line – no pause at the end of line – written like a dance – kinesthetic imagery • 1st & last line are the same – end up in the same place, like a dance o “The Red Wheelbarrow” – Imagism example § “so much depends/ upon/ a red wheel/ barrow/ glazed with rain/ water/ beside the white/ chickens” • Farm – animals, people, barn, crops, not bright & colorful • Wheel barrow - Used to feed, carry, useful; different & bright, contrasted to chickens • Glazed = artistic term, shiny red • Word picture – visual o “This is Just to Say” – Imagist Poem § “I have eaten/ the plums/ that were in the icebox/ & which/ you were probably/ saving/ for breakfast/ Forgive me/ they were delicious/ so sweet/ & so cold” – not sorry, describes taste • Tone – sarcastic, playful; Tactile – cold; visual – see plum • T.S. Elliot – The Waste Land o Born in St. Louis, spent summers on New England Coast o Harvard Philosophy major, also studied at Sorbonne, worked on PhD in Philosophy (never defended it) o In Germany when WW1 broke out – left for England, met Vivienne (had mental & physical problems) o Wanted to impress his father, father died before he could o Worked at Lloyd’s Bank in the City District of London – worked in the basement for 8 years o Became a British citizen & joined Anglo -Catholic Church o Lecture tour in the U.S o Legally separated from his wife – marries Valerie Fletcher (his secretary) o Wins Nobel Prize for Literature o Modern writers are against religion – Eliot is oddball & turns to religion as a way out of darkness o Poetry Goals: § Literature had to be “new” & innovative – throw out conventions, be experimental, experiment with form, use startling images, use various languages & vocabularies § Poetry had to be intellectual & emotional – slammed the Victorians, made allusions to history & other authors, brings reader to work by addressing him directly § Combine past & present – draw on both as much as possible, the 2 can’t be separated § Artist should be impersonal – objectify & dramatize with other characters, don’t present personality o Eliot’s Theme: The Search for Meaning in the Human Experience § 1 stage – recognize the sterility of modern life (what he was doing up until he wrote Waste Land § 2ndstage – search for something that may fill the void & sterility (seen in his middle poems) rd § 3 stage – revelation about what will give meaning to life: Christianity (never directly says it) o The Waste Land § Most important poem of the 20thcentury § Wants to establish common ground with & challenge readers, & make them work to discover meaning § Plays on 4 different themes/motifs • Dante’s Inferno – structure, tour guide/shape shifter protagonist o Dante (narrator) is led around by Virgil (Poet) o Protagonist is led through waste land like Dante is led through hell – comparison o Protagonist is a shape shifter, trying to r ecreate duality of man (faces & personalities) § Cubism – Picasso Painting • The Fisher King Myth – Pagan myth o Celts – 1 people in British Isles – worshipped spirits associated with nature o Christians converted Celts – keep symbols if you make them Christian § Evergreen – pagan symbol of everlasting life, return of life § Bunny – pagan symbol of birth, spring o Fisher King – multiple figures – king of great land whose power is waning (infertile) § King is questing to bring back fertility & power – like King Arthur & grail § Kingdom & king are infertile – fishing for something to bring it back o Waste land – we are fisher kings trying to bring life back to the land • Journey/Pilgrimage (spiritual/religious) o The Canterbury Tales – Chaucer – famous literary pilgrimage § Spring, people of pilgrimage travel together & tell their stories • All from different walks of life • Fertility/Infertility (Sterility) o Goes back & forth between images of each – hope to no hope o Fertility – need water for life to happen o Infertility – desert, no water, stone, dry, trash § Epigraph – quote that comes before a piece of literature to hint at main idea • In Greek – from Pretorius’s Satyrian – about Sibyl, an oracle o Asks for eternal life, just keeps getting older, wishes to die o Not hopeful for the waste lan d journey § Dedicated to Ezra Pound “the better maker” – poet known for helping other poets • Helped Eliot cut down most of the poem § Fragment 1: lines 1-7 • “April is the cruelest month, breeding/ Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing/ Memory & desire, stirring/ Dull roots with spring rain./ Winter kept us warm, covering/ Earth in forgetful snow, feeding/ A li ttle life with dried tubers.” o Don’t have to think in winter, numb • Ironic reversal of Canterbury Tales where Spring in April is happy o In Waste Land – it’s cruel, people would rather be covered in snow § Numb, don’t have to feel – do not want to go on pilgrimages § Fragment 2: lines 8-18 • “Summer surprised us, coming over the Starnbergersee/ With a shower of rain; we stopped in the colonnade,/ & went on in sunlight, into the Hofgarten,/ & drank coffee, & talked for an hour./ Bin gar keine Russin, stamm’ aus Litauen, echt deutsch./ & when we were children, staying at the arch -duke’s,/ My cousin’s, he took me out on a sled,/ & I was frightened. He said, Marie,/ Marie, hold on tight. & down we went./ In the mountains, there you feel free./ I read, much of the night, & go south in the winter.” o “I am certainly not Russian; I come from Lithuania, a true German.” • New season – Summer • Meet woman – upper class, related to nobility, can be dead as winter inside o Not happy, reads at night instead of sleeping, lonely o Remembers being happy, sledding in the mountains as a child o Now she goes south for the winter – leaves snow to avoid memories § Fragment 3: lines 19-30 • “What are the roots that clutch, what branches grow/ Out of this stony rubbish? Son of man,/ You cannot say, or guess, for you know only/ A heap of broken images, where the sun beats,/ & the dead tree gives no shelter, the cricket no relief,/ & the dry stone no sound of water. Only/ There is a shadow under the red rock./ (Come in under the shadow of this red rock),/ & I will show you something different from either/ Your shadow at morning striding behind you/ Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you;/ I will show you fear in a handful of dust.” o Eliot uses cinematic technique to shift scenes – fade out, fade in o Eliot is seeing London bombings – stony rubbish o Land looks like desert – infertile landscape o Shelter only under the shadow of red rock (symbol of Christianity) § Biblical reference – Eliot finding Christianity § Addresses reader – tells them to come under rock § Fragment 4: lines 31-42 • “Frisch weht der Wind/ Der Heimat zu/ Mein Irisch Kind,/ Wo weilest du?” – Opera Quote o Fresh blows the wind to the homeland; my Iris h child, where are you waiting? o Allusion – Wagner’s Opera Tristan & Isolde; Famous lovers – Eliot sees the opera • “‘You gave me hyacinths first a year ago;/ They called me the hyacinth girl.’/ - Yet when we came back, late, from the hyacinth garden,/ Your arms full, & your hair wet, I could not/ Speak, & my eyes failed, I was neither/ Living nor dead, & I knew nothing,/ Looking into the heart of light, the silence./ Oed’ und leer das Meer.” o “Empty & barren is the sea” o Euphemism – want to have sex in the garden o Negative language – unable to have sex o Women’s hair – symbol of sexuality & fertility o Fertility – lovers, water – but they can’t even act on their love § Fragment 5: lines 43-59 • “Madame Sosostris, famous clairvoyant,/ Had a bad cold, nevertheless/ Is known to be the wisest woman in Europe,/ With a wicked pack of cards. Here, said she,/ Is your card, the drown Phoenician Sailor,/ (Those are pearls that were his eyes. Look!)/ Here is Belladonna, the Lady of the Rocks,/ The lad y of situations./ Here is the man with three staves, & here the Wheel,/ & here is the one -eyed merchant, & this card,/ Which is blank, is something he carries on his back,/ Which I am forbidden to see. I do not find/ The Hanged Man. Fear deathsee crowds of people, walking round in a ring./ Thank you. If you see dear Mrs. Equitone,/ Tell her I bring the horoscope myself:/ One must be so careful these days.” o Religion has been replaced by occult (tarot cards, phenomena, supernatural, Ouija) § Popular when Eliot wrote the poem • Tarot cards o Lady of the Jocks – allusion to The Virgin of the Rocks by Da Vinci § Rocks – ties to red rock religious symbol o Man with 3 staves (staffs) – man looking out on the ocean with crown on his head § Ties to the Fisher King; Staff – phallic symbol, fertility o Wheel of Fortune – symbolizes chance § Egyptian mythological symbol – tarot cards were 1 used to predict rise & fall of Nile River – fertility of Land o 1 eyed merchant - symbolizes corruption o Hanged man – death, positive b/c also symbolizes rebirth § 1 thing ends & another begins • Impersonal ending § Fragment 6: lines 60-76 • “Unreal city,/ Under the brown fog of a winter dawn,/ A crowd flowed over London Bridge, so many,/ I had not thought death had undone so many./ Sighs, short & infrequent, were exhaled,/ & each man fixed his eyes before his feet./ Flowed up the hill & down King William Street,/ To where Saint Mary Woolnooth kept the hours/ With a dead sound on the final stroke of nine./ There I saw one I knew, & stop ped him, crying: ‘Stetson!/ ‘You who were with me in the ships at Mylae!/ ‘That corpse you planted last year in your garden,/ ‘Has it begun to sprout? Will it bloom this year?/ ‘Or has the sudden frost disturbed its bed?/ ‘ O keep the Dog far hence, that’s friend to men,/ ‘Or with his nails he’ll dig it up again!/ ‘You! Hypocrite lecteur! – mon semblable, - mon frère!’” o Hypocrite reader! – my likeness – my brother! o People going to work in financial district – eyes down, dead/buried alive o Uses real places to emphasize that this is real life o Stetson buried a corpse – allusion to fertility rites – sacrifice person/animal to gods for fertile earth for good harvest – like Christian sacrifice for life § Fragment 7: lines 77-138 • “The Chair she sat in, like a burnished throne,/ Glowed on the marble, where the glass/ Held up by standards wrought with fruited vines/ From which a golden Cupidon peeped out/ (Another hid the eyes behind his wing)/ Doubled the flames of sevenbranched candelabra/ Relfecting light upon the table as/ The glitter of her jewels rose to meet it,/ From satin cases poured in rich profusion./ In vials of ivory & coloured glass/ Unstoppered, lurked her strange synthetic perfumes,/ Unguent, powdered, or liquid – troubled, confused/ & drowned the sense in odours; stirred by the air/ That freshened from the window, these ascended/ In fattening the prolonged candle -flames,/ Flung their smoke into the laquearia,/ Stirring the pattern on the coffered ceiling./ Huge sea-wood fed with copper/ Burned gre en & orange, framed with the coloured stone,/ In which sad light a carved dolphin swam./ Above the antique mantel was displayed/ as though a window gave upon the sylvan scene/ The change of Philomel, by the barbarous king/ So rudely forced; yet there the nightingale/ Filled all the desert with inviolable voice/ & still she cried, & still the world pursues,/ ‘Jug Jug’ to dirty ears./ & other withered stumps of time/ Were told upon the walls; staring forms/ Leaned out, leaning, hushing the room enclosed./ Under the firelight, under the brush, her hair/ Spread out in fiery points/ Glowed into words, then would be savagely still./ ‘My nerves are bad to -night. Yes, bad. Stay with me./ ‘Speak to me. Why do you never speak. Speak./ ‘What are you thinking of? What t hinking? What?/ ‘I never know what you are thinking. Think.’/ I think we are in rats’ alley/ Where the dead men lost their bones./ ‘What is that noise?’/ The wind under the door./ ‘What is that noise now? What is the wind doing?’/ Nothing again nothing./ ‘ Do/ ‘You know nothing? Do you see nothing? Do you remember/ ‘Nothing?’/ I remember/ Those are pearls that were his eyes./ ‘Are you alive, or not? Is there nothing in your head?’/ But/ O O O O that Shakespearian Rag -/ It’s so elegant/ So intelligent/ ‘What shall I do now? What shall I do?’/ ‘I shall rush out as I am, & walk the street/ ‘With my hair down, so. What shall we do tomorrow?/ ‘What shall we ever do?’/ The hot water at ten./ & if it rains, a closed car at four./ & we shall play a game of chess,/ P ressing lidless eyes & waiting for a knock upon the door.” • Married couple - upper class, sterile/dull relationship ; Husband shuffles–not excited to be home • Fertility symbols – fruited vine, cupid- Frozen b/c carved into furniture/wall – like relationship • All of the scents are fake - perfumes, fake flower scent • No quotations around husbands words – he’s not really talking to her o Sings Shakespearian rag instead of listening • Tries to shock him by saying she was going out with her hair down – fertility of women’s hair • Keep going through the motions until death knocks on the door • Irony – closed top car is more expensive, today you pay more for convertible • Chess – long, boring, strategy; exchange like chess – you move, I move § Fragment 8: lines 139-172 • “When Lil’s husband got demobbed, I said –/ I didn’t mince my words, I said to her myself,/ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ Now Albert’s coming back, make yourself a bit smart./ He’ll want to know what you done with that money he gave you/ To get yourself some teeth. He did, I was there./ You have them all out, Lil, & get a nice set,/ He said, I swear, I can’t bear to look at you./ & no more can’t I, I said, & think of poor Albert,/ He’s been in the army 4 years, he wants a good time,/ & if you don’t give it him, there’s others will, I said./ Oh is there, she said. Something o’ that, I said./ Then I’ll know who to thank, she said, & give me a straight look./ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ If you don’t like it you can get on with it, I said./ Others can pick & choose if you ca n’t./ But if Albert makes off, it won’t be for lack of telling./ You ought to be ashamed, I said, to look so antique,/ (& her only 31)/ I can’t help it, pulling a long face,/ It’d them pills I took, to bring it off, she said,/ (She’s had 5 already, & nearly died of young George.)/ The chemist said it would be all right, but I’ve never been the same./ You are a proper fool, I said./ Well, if Albert won’t leave you alone, there it is, I said,/ What you get married for if you don’t want children?/ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ Well, that Sunday Albert was home, they had a hot gammon,/ & they asked me in to dto get the beauty of it hot/ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ HURRY UP PLEASE IT’S TIME/ Goonight Bill, Goonight Lou. Goonight May. Goonight./ Ta ta./ Goonight. Goonight./ Good night, ladies, good night, sweet ladies, good night, good night.” • Lower class English dialect • Women gossiping at a bar about Lil & Albert o Telling Lil to go get new teeth before Albert comes home o Lil says she looks bad b/c of abortion pills – almost died b/c of last child • Sex & fertility – cheapened by her ugliness; Infertility – abortion • Lil – allusion to Lilith in the bible – Apocrypha (edited out of myths) – both are 31 years old o Adam’s 1 wife that wouldn’t obey, cast out of Eden, lost teeth, grows fangs, demonic st (steals children in the night, 1 vampire) § Fragment 9: lines 215-256 • “At the violet hour, when the eyes & back/ Turn upward from the desk, when the human engine waits/ Like a taxi throbbing waiting,/ I Tiresias, though blind, throbbing between two live,/ Old man with wrinkled female breasts, can see/ At the violet hour, the evening hour that strives/ Homeward, & brings the sailor home from sea,/ The typist home at teatime, clears her breakfast, lights/ Her stove, & lays out food in tins,/ Out of the window perilously spread/ Her drying combinations touched by the sun’s last rays,/ On the divan are piled (at night her bed)/ Stockings, slippers, camisoles, & stays./ I Tiresias, old man with wrinkled dugs/ Perceived the scene, & foretold the rest-/ I too awaited the expected guest./ He, the young man carbuncular, arrives,/ A sma ll house agent’s clerk, with one bold stare,/ One of the low on whom assurance sits/ As a silk hat on a Bradford millionaire . . . SONNET . . ./ She turns & looks a moment in the glass,/ Hardly aware of her departed lover;/ Her brain allows one half -formed thought to pass:/ ‘Well now that’s done: & I’m glad it’s over.’/ When lovely woman stoops to folly &/ Paces about her room again, alone,/ She smoothes her hair with automatic hand,/ & puts a record on the gramophone.” • Sonnet – poem within poem – “The time is now propitious, as he guesses,/ The meal is ended, she is bored & tired,/ Endeavours to engage her is caresses/ Which still are unreproved, if undesired./ Flushed & decided, he assaults at once;/ Exploring hands encounter no defense;/ His vanity requires no response,/ & makes a welcome of indifference./ (& I Tiresias have foresuffered all/ Enacted on this same divan or bed;/ I who have sat by Thebes below the wall/ & walked among the lowest of the dead.)/ Bestows one final patronizing kiss,/ & gro pes his way, finding the stairs unlit” o Woman doesn’t want the man, but she doesn’t stop him – nonchalant when he leaves • Unmarried couple – booty call; Evening, end of day, time to leave work • Protagonist – shifts from man to woman to show both POV • Woman comes home, not a good housekeeper, lays out tins of takeout, laundry hanging outside, & divan (small couch) is covered with underwear • Man – carbuncular (boils), ugly § Fragment 10: lines 424 – end • “Fishing, with the arid plain behind me/ Shall I at least set my lands in order?/ London Bridge is falling down falling down falling down/ Poi s’ascose nel foco che gli affina * he hid himself in the fire that refines him * / Quando fiam uti chelidon * When shall I be as the swallow, that I may cease to be silent * – O swallow swallow/ Le Prince d’Aquitaine a la tour abolie * The Prince of Aquitaine in the ruined tower * / These fragments I have shored against my ruins/ Why then Ile fit you. Hieronymo’s mad againe./ Datta. Dayadhvam. Damyata./ Shantih shantih shantih” • Arid plain (dry) behind me = out of wasteland • Fishing – Fisher King reference, water (life, hope) – hasn’t given up • Biblical reference – cant fix all lands in the waste land (world) but fix his self o Start with what you know you can control; Set your lands in order • Fragments – recognize the state of waste land, collected the fragments, so we can get out • Play reference – everyone thinks it is crazy – he’s writing from asylum o He knows what they’ll say, but he feels this is important • Hindu phrases – the waste land is everywhere, not just 1 place (why he uses 7 languages) o Datta = give; Dayadhvam = compassion/empathy; Shantih = peace/end prayer (amen) • Religion, finding yourself = the way out • F. Scott Fitzgerald – “Winter Dreams” o Born in St. Paul Minnesota, went to Princeton o 1 love – Ginevre King – father says, “Poor boys don’t marry rich girls.” o Joined army, stationed in Montgomery, AL – where he met Zelda – waiting to be sent to Europe – WW1 o When Zelda was 10, she called the fire dept & said there was a chilon the roof, then climbed on the roof o Called their only daughter Scotty o Moved to France, befriended Ernest Hemingway, Zelda diagnosed with schizophrenia o Wrote short stories to make money o He & Zelda had their clothes tailored & then left them in hotel clos ets – never washed anything o Moved to Hollywood to try his skills at screen writin– has affair with Sheila Graham – fought over loaded gun § Asked to polish script for Gone With the Wind – fired o Fitzgerald dies of heart attack; Zelda dies when asylum caught fire & she’s trapped inside o Novels: This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful & Damned, The Great Gatsby, Tender is the Night, The Last Tycoon o Recurring theme – poor boys gets rich girl o “Winter Dreams” § Judy dates multiple men – maintains her herd – new men & wandering men get attention § Men stay round for the unattainable & the chase § If she got married she wouldn’t be the ideal, perfect girl to every man § She consummates relationships to keep them around § Meaning of title • Dexter is 14 year old caddy – superstar of his winter dreams o “He became a golf champion & defeated Mr. T. A. Hedrick in a marvelous match played over a hundred times in the fairways of his imagination, a match each detail of which he changed about untiringly – sometimes winning with almost laughable ease, sometimes coming up magnificently from behind. Again, stepping from a Pierce -Arrow automobile, like Mr. Mortimer Jones, he strolled frigidly into the lounge of Erminie Golf Club . . .Among those most impressed was Mr. Mortimer Jones.” § His winter dream is being the big shot rather than caddy § Judy’s affect on Dexter’s life • Judy, 11, wants Dexter to be her caddy – she’s a brat o “‘Well?’ The caddy-master turned to Dexter. ‘What you standing there like a dummy for? Go pick up the young lady’s clubs.’ . . . ‘I think I’ll quit.’ The enormity of his decision frightened him. He was a favorite caddy & the $30 a month he earned through the summer were not to be made elsewhere in Dillard. But he had received a strong emotional shock & his perturbation require d a violent & immediate outlet.” o Quit his job, he’s infatuated, caddy for her = can’t date her, help can’t be rich • “‘I suppose not . . . I hear you’re giving Irene Scheerer a violent rush.’ There was not the faintest emphasis on the name, yet Dexter was su ddenly ashamed o Leaves his fiancé for Judy , compares Irene to Judy, doesn’t like I’s name anymore • “his father, prospering now, would have paid his way – for the precarious advantage of attending an older & more famous university in the East, where he was bothered by his scanty funds.” - decisions he makes, goes to Ivy League school to join rich & powerful o Wants to possess the glittering things not caddy for them § She doesn’t love any of the guys – thrill of the chase § “‘Awfully nice girl,’ brooded Devlin, meaninglessly, ‘I’m sort of sorry for her.’ ‘Why?’ Something in Dexter was alert, perceptive, at once. ‘Oh, Joe Simms has gone to pieces in a way. I don’t mean he beats her, you understand, or anything like t hat. But he drinks & runs around -’ ‘Doesn’t she run around?’ ‘No. Stays at home with her kids.’ ‘Oh.’ ‘She’s a little too old for him,’ said Devlin. ‘Too old!’ cried Dexter, ‘why man, she’s only 27.” - Her life turns out crappy – her husband treats her badly • Maybe Dexter built her up in his mind & no one can compare • Devlin knocks Judy off her pedestal, crushed Dexter’s winter dreams § “A sort of dullness settled down upon Dexter. For the first time in his life he felt like getting very drunk. He knew that he was laughing loudly . . . He had thought that having nothing else to lose he was invulnerable at last – but he knew that he had just lost something more, as surely as it he has married Judy Jones & seen her fade away before his eyes. The dream was gone. Something had been taken from him. In a sort of panic he pushed the palms of his hands into his eyes & tried to bring up a picture of the waters lapping at Lake Erminie & the moonlit verandah, & gingham on the golf link & the dry sun & the gold color of her neck’s soft down. & her mouth damp to his kisses & her eyes plaintive with melancholy & her freshness like new fine linen in the morn ing. . . . ‘long ago, there was something in me, but now that thing is gone. Now that thing is gone, that thing is gone. I cannot cry. I cannot care. That thing will come back no more.’” - lost the dream, crying for himself, women he loved is washed up house wife • Loosing the image & memories = loosing himself – dreams, years, youth o Nothing gold can stay – lost ideal perfection • If he had married Judy, he would have lost all of the dream anyway • E. E. Cummings – “in just-“, “Buffalo Bill’s”, “My Sweet old Etcetera” o Born in Cambridge, Mass. – father was English professor at Harvard o Excited about WW1 – enlisted as ambulance driver in France – imprisoned b/c they thought he was a spy § After war, lived with the America expatriates o Published novel: The Enormous Room; & 2 volumes of poetry o Spent the rest of his life as painter & poet, no formal job, had family money to l ive in NY o Writing: no capitalization, weird spacing, random punctuation, parentheses, no title, word choice (neologisms) § Uses slang, colloquial terms (regional slang) , coins words, combines words, & archaic diction o Themes: § Praise of Individuality/Criticism of Conformity – satires of public parties, war, women’s clubs § Love, Beauty, & Nature – romantic love poems, seduction poems, beauty of natural world o “in Just-” § “in Just-/ spring when the world is mud -/ luscious the little/ lame balloonman/ whistles far & wee/ & eddieandbill come/ running from marbles &/ piracies & it’s/ spring/ when the world is puddle - wonderful/ the queer/ old balloonman whistles far& wee/ & bettyanddisbel come dancing/ from hop-scotch & jump-rope/ it’s/ spring/ &/ the/ goat-footed/ balloonMan whistles/ far/ &/ wee” § Neologisms • “Just-spring” – capital = important; the first moment of spring • “mud-luscious” – kids love mud; rainy, snow melting = mud • “puddle-wonderful” – kid perspective of spring § “Lame” – something physically wrong § “Wee” – example of archaic diction – not used anymore § Emphasizes how wonderful spring is by repetition § Balloonman = allusion to Pan (god of spring): goat -footed, plays his little flute, ½ man ½ goat o “Buffalo Bill’s” § “Buffalo Bill’s/ defunct/ who used to/ ride a watersmooth -silver/ stallion/ & break onetwothreefourfive piegeonsjustlikethat/ Jesus/ he was a handsome man/ & what i want to know is/ how do you like your blueeyed boy/ Mister Death” § “Defunct” – to cease to exist, extinct, no longer functioning – referring to death, word not used often • Jokes about death – not significant § Symbolizes Americana – blue-eyed cowboy o “My Sweet Old Etcetera” § “my sweet old etcetera/ aunt lucy during the recent/ war co uld & what/ is more did tell you just/ what everybody was fighting/ for,/ my sister/ Isabel created hundreds/ (&/ hundreds) of socks not to/ mention fleaproof earwarmers/ etcetera wristers etcetera, my/ mother hoped that/ I would die etcetera/ bravely of course my father used/ to become hoarse talking about how it was/ a privilege & if only he/ could meanwhile my/ self etcetera lay quietly/ in the deep mud et/ cetera/ (dreaming,/ et/ cetera, of/ Your smile/ eyes knees & of your Etcetera) § Illusion vs. Reality – people are caught up in illusion of patriotic duty vs. speaker in trench § Aunt Lucy – reading newspapers – gossiping § Isabel – on going list making for war effort § Mother – wants him to die, get hurt, serve, get medal, just do something bravely § Father – wants to fight, die, just wants to do it § Speaker – reality • “my – self” – separated b/c he is separated from his love & thoughts • “mud et cetera” – urine, feces, bugs, bodies, blood – separates to give more time to fill in blank • “Your, Etcetera” – goes down her body – capital to imply rather than say • Ernest Hemingway – “Soldiers Home” o Flamboyant in personal style, known for sharp & pared -down writing, worked to omit to keep it simple & clean o Born in Illinois – worked with the Kansas City Star after high school o U.S entered war – wanted to go, eye problem kept him out of the army, joined ambulance corp § Wounded by shrapnel & came home a decorated hero § Distant from family & America he left behind o Married & moved to Paris , became part of Gertrude Stein’s salon scene o Breakthrough novel: The Sun Also Rises – clear example of pared-down writing style § Main character Jake Barnes was wounded after war like Hemingway • Inhabitant of post-war “waste land” nd o 2 major work: A Farewell to Arms – sealed his fate as literary giant § View on war: “I was always embarrassed by the words sacred, glorious, sacrifice . . .” o As he got older – he had to write more masculine male lead characters – took part in masculine activities § Hemingway went on African safari & lived the rest of his life in Cuba with 6 -toed cats o Committed suicide o “Soldiers Home” § Vignette – sets the scene for short story – soldier in trench, pleading with God § Title – the home of a soldier or soldier is home – ironic: doesn’t feel at home, out of place, war is home § PTSD – shell shock in WW1 § All other soldiers have come home, everyone tired of stories, lies so people will listen § Daily routine – looking at women, plays pool, reads, sits on front porch • “Nothing was changed in the town except that the young girls had grown up. But they lived in a complicated world of already defined alliances & shifting feuds that Krebs did not feel the energy or the courage to break into it. He liked to look at them though.” • “They were too complicated. There was something else. Vaguely he wanted a girl but he did not want to have to work to get her. He would have liked to have a girl but he did not want to have to spend a long time getting her. He did not want to get into the intrigue & the politics. He did not want to have to do any courting. He did not want to tell any more lies. It wasn’t worth it.” o Girls are easy to get in war – brothels § Mundane activities that are part of this world – dad offers the car, mom tells him don’t touch newspaper § Parents want him to be normal – Krebs feels totally abandoned by God & everyone • “‘Have you decided what you are going to do yet, Harold?’ his mother said, taking off her glasses. . . . ‘God has some work for everyone to do,’ his mother said. ‘There can be no idle hands in His Kingdom.’ ‘I’m not in His Kingdom,’ Krebs said.” § “‘Yes. Don’t you love your mother, dear boy?’ ‘No,’ Krebs said. His mother looked at him across the table. Her eyes were shiny. She started crying. . . . It wasn’t any good to tell her, her couldn’t mak e her see it. It was silly to have said it. He had only hurt her.” - It = his numbness, feelings; disconnected § Harold Krebs – main character – family calls him Harold, narrator calls him Krebs (identifies w/ more) • The Harlem Renaissance o 1 major, self-conscious literary movement among African American writers § Self-conscious = actively writing about & critiquing Af Am experience present time & historically o Wrote about black characters, black struggle, racism, jazz § Tried to capture all of these elements in black dialect of the South & North o After Civil War – many blacks migrated to North (Chicago, Philadelphia, Harlem)= “Great Migration” § These areas gave rise to a renewed artistic & cultural spirit § Still found trials – factory jobs already taken by immigrants o New writers shunned the idea of having white patrons & write for themselves § Publish in African American journals & magazines – like Crisis & Opportunity § Ironically – most of their readers were white o Major writers: Langston Hughes, Jea n Toomer, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Arna Bontemps, Alain Locke • Langston Hughes – “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”, “Mother to Son”, “I, Too”, “Song for a Dark Girl” o Wanted to capture “dominant oral & improvisator traditions of black culture in written form” – capture jazz o Born in Joplin, MO – began to write poetry after high school – entered Columbia University (left after 1 year) § Held many jobs from being a busboy to working in a Paris nightclub st o 1 volume of poetry: The Weary Blues – published with the help of a white patron o Called “bard of Harlem” – the Shakespeare of Harlem o Great Depression brought an abrupt end to much African American literary activity o Became a radical political activist & joined the American Communist Party o Published several children’s books, called to testify at McCarthy trials, wrote patriotic poetry for his reputation o “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” – pg. 871 § “I’ve known rivers:/ I’ve known rivers ancient as the world & older than the/ flow of human blood in human veins./ My soul has grown deep like the rivers./ I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young./ I built my hut near the Congo & it lulled me to sleep./ I looked upon the Nile & raised the pyramids above it./ I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln/ when down to New Orleans, & I’ve seen its/ muddy blossom turn all golden in the sunset/ I’ve known rivers:/ Ancient, dusky rivers./ My soul has grown deep like the rivers.” § Collective Consciousness – group of people have set of shared memories & beliefs, share experiences • Southerners – past, language, way we do things • Includes his ancestors – being a black man in America § Racial Memory – didn’t happen to him but is carried in his race § River – symbol that ties race together; ancestry has been around since the beginning, blood runs deep • “Grown deep” = keeps flowing through cuts & erosion his people experience • List of Rivers – how far ancestry has come – Middle East, Africa, Egypt, America o “muddy blossom turn all golden” – opportunity is muddy but golden o “dusky” – dark, drown – skin color – positive § “My soul has grown deep like the rivers.” – repeats the deepness to e
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