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TULANE / Science / GCHB 1010 / What developments in psychology were brought by sigmund freud?

What developments in psychology were brought by sigmund freud?

What developments in psychology were brought by sigmund freud?

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Science
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Melinda fabian
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology, Science, tulane, and Introduction to Psych
Cost: 25
Name: Prologue: The Story of Psychology
Description: These notes are from the Prologue and combine important points from both the textbook and the lecture in class.
Uploaded: 01/30/2016
3 Pages 52 Views 3 Unlocks
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Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Prologue: The Story of Psychology 


What developments in psychology were brought by sigmund freud?



Important Ideas in the History of Psychology

∙ Psychology began as a theoretical study of memory and personality (first thought of by  Aristotle); it was made a science when observations were measured and experiments  occurred

∙ Birth of Psychology – Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 Leipzig, Germany opened the first  psychology laboratory to test the atoms of the mind

∙ Structuralism – attempt to learn the structure of the human mind through introspection (“looking inward”) formed by Wundt and Titchener 

o Introspection proved unreliable due to its practice of self­response which varied  depending on person, experience, intelligence, and verbal ability


What are the arguments in the nurture vs nature debate?



∙ Functionalism – exploration of human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and how they  support adaptation, survival, and flourishing; formed by James and the influences of  Darwin 

Psychology’s Development from the 1920s Onward

∙ Wundt and Titchener originally defined psychology as “the science of mental life” ∙ According to Watson and Skinner, psychology was “the scientific study of observable  behavior”

∙ Behaviorism – belief that psychology should only study behavior without emphasis on  mental processes (can only study what can be observed); formed by Watson and Skinner ∙ Freudian Psychology – how childhood experiences affect behavior through their  emotional responses and unconscious thought processes (including drives, wishes, and  needs); formed by Freud 


What is the objective of counseling psychology?



We also discuss several other topics like Which gender is more affected by mdd?

∙ Humanistic Psychology – studies how the environment can nurture (support) or inhibit  growing potential; formed by Rogers and Maslow 

o This form of psychology focused on the study of thriving people in society and  how to treat those who were not thriving to help them reach their full potentials ∙ Cognitive Psychology – investigates how humans perceive, process, and remember  information (includes thinking, memory, and intelligence)

o Cognitive Neuroscience – investigate how brain activity is related to cognition ∙ Today, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes

o Behavior – anything a creature acts

o Mental processes – internal, personal experiences individuals infer from behavior Contemporary Psychology

∙ Nature vs. Nurture Issue – debate over the influence genes and experience have on the  development of traits and behaviors

o Do traits come from genes at birth or do they develop from one’s environment?

Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts We also discuss several other topics like What is assertive listening?
If you want to learn more check out What is holism in philosophy?

∙ Natural Selection – nature creates traits that maximize an organism’s ability to survive  and reproduce in their given environment

∙ Evolutionary Psychology – study of how behavior and the mind has evolved from natural selection

∙ Behavior Genetics – studies the powers and limitations of genetics and environmental  influences on behavior

∙ Cultural Psychology – behaviors, beliefs, morals, and traditions of a group that are passed on through generations

∙ Gender Psychology – study of how behaviors vary by gender and the underlying causes ∙ Positive Psychology – aims to promote the strengths that make communities and  individuals thrive Don't forget about the age old question of What are the uses of microbes?

Psychology’s Levels of Analysis

Biological Level

∙ Genes

∙ Natural Selection

∙ Responses to 

Environment

Psychological

∙ Learned Expectations

∙ Emotion

∙ Cognition

∙ Biopsychosocial Approach –

Behavior

combines all levels of psychology

Perspective of Psychology

Function/Description

Neuroscience 

Study of how the body and brain control  emotions, memories, and sensory experiences

Evolutionary

Socio­Cultural

Study how traits influence genetic survival

Behavior Genetics 

individual differencesRelation with Others

Study how genes and environment promote 

Psychodynamic 

∙ Group Influence

Culture, Society, Family drives and conflicts

Study how behavior comes from unconscious 

Behavioral 

∙ Societal Models

Study how humans learn observable responses

Cognitive 

The encoding, processing, storing, and  retrieving of information

Social­Cultural 

Study how behaviors and mental processes  differ across situations and culture

If you want to learn more check out What was the outcome of mating between gaia and uranus?

Psychology’s Main Subfields

∙ Basic Research – science with the goal to increase the scientific knowledge base ∙ Applied Research – aims to solve practical problemsWe also discuss several other topics like What does allostasis focus on?

Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts 

∙ Counseling Psychology – Aims to help those with problems in living ∙ Clinical Psychology – studies, assesses, and treats those with disorders (also known as  Psychotherapy)

∙ Psychiatry – provides medical treatment and therapy to those with diseases ∙ Community Psychology – studies people’s interactions with their social environments  and how institutions or situations in society can affect the individuals or groups within it

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