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Comm 250

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by: Sara Garvin

Comm 250 COMM 2500-003

Sara Garvin
GPA 3.2

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This was a notecard we were allowed to use on our midterm.
Interpersonal Communication
Betty Kennan
Study Guide
interpersonal communication, communication
50 ?




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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Garvin on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2500-003 at Radford University taught by Betty Kennan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at Radford University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Chapter 1: 3 models of communication: sending and receiving are usually simultaneous. Sometimes there is a gap between when the message  was sent & a response is given (asynchronous), but usually people are sending and receiving messages at the same time while body language,  tone, etc. help the communicator to understand the other person’s response. Meanings exist in and among people. Yes the words themselves have  meaning, but the nonverbal factors and the way things are said give words meaning. (interpretation is key) Environments and noise affect  communication. One’s environment could be physical, culture, ethnicity, or personal experiences. In the transactional model, A&B’s  environments overlap and this overlapping is what the two have in common. Commonalities make communication smoother and easier to  understand, without them there is noise which interferes with comm. Noise can be external, physiological, or psychological. Finally, the channels  used to communicate make a HUGE difference. Channels can be face to face, email, text, phone call. Why we communicate: Physical needs (we need to feel like we can speak one on one to other people, associate ourselves with friends, companionship and even sexual needs). Identity needs (through communication we learn who we are based on the way others define us and how we view ourselves as a person.). Social needs  (friendships are a key part of socializing and even in life. Social needs involve a longing for friendship, acceptance, and having fun. Practical  needs (being able to communicate effectively with others for everyday life.. doctor visits, speeches, & so on). 5 principles of communication:  communication is transactional (2 way), communication can be unintentional or intentional (nonverbal and verbal), communication is  irreversible, unrepeatable, & has a content & relational dimension (info being explicitly discussed & feelings for another person).  Misconceptions: not all communication seeks understanding. More communication isn’t always better. It will not solve all problems. Effective  communication is not a natural ability.Chapter 2: high vs. low context: high context cultures rely heavily on nonverbal cues to maintain social  harmony (Japan and Asian cultures bow). Nonverbal cues could be time, place, relationship, and situation. Try to avoid saying no directly. To  avoid being r ude it is polite to talk around the point before diving in. low context culture delivery information through verbal and direct  messages/communication. Self­expression and clear speech is admired so one can directly voice his/her opinion. Individualism vs. collectivist  culture: individualists (USA, Canada, UK) are independent and self­sufficient. Individual should take care of themselves and most friendships  are based off of similarities. High values on autonomy, change, youth, individual security, & equality. Collectivist cultures belong to extended  families or “in groups”. People should take care of their families first, be a part of family life and group decisions. High value on order, tradition,  age, group security & hierarchy. Uncertainty avoidance: the degree to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situations and  how much they try to avoid them. In countries like America, UK, Denmark, Sweden, & Hong Kong people are unthreatened by change.  Achievement vs. nurturing: societies that place a high value on material success and focus on the task at hand. Nurturing cultures regard the  support of relationships as an important goal. Chapter 3: Self­concept: self­esteem deals with how we see ourselves and the self­concept  develops based off of self­esteem, reflected appraisal & social comparison. The self­concept is subjective. We’re our own worst critics but we  also hold on to things people say about us, how popular we were or weren’t. A healthy self­concept is flexible. People change spiritually,  physically, emotionally and intellectually. The self­concept resists change. It takes a powerful force to change the way you see yourself. People  usually seek out others who will confirm or validate the way we see ourselves through our relationships. Identity mgmt.: we strive to construct  multiple identities (throughout the years we change and grow). Impression mgmt.. is collaborative. (we perform almost like actors with our  friends. It is collaborative bc the friendship is successful & enjoyable for both ppl). Impression mgmt.. can be deliberate or unconscious.  Deliberate is the way we act at a job interview or when we go on a first date. Much of our behavior is aimed at sending messages to others about  us. Unconscious is the way we act when no one is around. 4 alternatives: silence. If you don’t have anything nice to say, don’t say it at all.  Lying. Benevolent lies are not meant to be harmful and are sometimes considered helpful to the person being told. Lying can also help you save  face in a sticky situation. Equivocation. Statements that aren’t lies but avoid the truth. Calling something interesting instead of saying it was lame. Hinting. Trying on the low to tell another person something through hints. Evasion. Chapter 4: first­order realities are physically observable  qualities of a thing or situation (grandma gives you a hug). Second­order realities are the attached meanings we give to the first­order (grandma  loves me and I love her). Perception process: selection. Things we remember and attend to. Stimuli that are intense attract our attention.  Organization. The way we arrange information and things we come into contact with. Physical (classify ppl by appearance), role construct (use  social positions like if someone is a wife, student, doctor), interaction construct (social behavior is someone friendly, helpful, sarcastic),  psychological construct (internal state of mind… confidence, insecure, happy). Interpretation. Attaching meaning to data or info and how each  person processes that information and gives it a meaning individually. Personal experiences, personality, expectations & assumptions affect  interpretations. Negotiation One can hold on to their own view of a situation, or one can negotiate and try to consider someone else’s perspective  to create common ground. Punctuation­ the determination of causes and effects in a series of interactions. 4 influences: physiological the senses, age, health, biological cycles, hunger, neurological. Psychological mood (happy, sad, anxious) & self­concept (our personal views of ourselves  strongly influence how we interpret behavior). Social sex & gender roles, **standpoint theory – how a person’s position in society shapes their  view of society in general & specific individuals** occupational roles, & relational roles. Cultural types of speech, location, etc. 7 common  tendencies: we make snap judgements, we cling to first impressions (primacy effect, halo/horns effect, confirmation bias), we judge ourselves  more charitably than we do others, we are influenced by our expectations, we are influenced by the obvious, & we assume others are like us.  Chapter 5: Language is symbolic. Words are symbols that have meaning we give to them. Lang. is rule governed. Rules exist among languages  so ppl know how to use it. Phonological rules deal with sounds to form words, syntactic rules govern how symbols are arranged which gives  particular meaning to words. Semantic rules help us to know what each word means. Lang. is subjective. People attach different meanings to  words and symbols which can make communication difficult at times. Don’t want to risk offending someone by saying the wrong thing.  Meanings are in people, not words. Lang. reflects & shapes worldview. Linguistic relativity – lang reflects and shapes the worldview of those  who use it. Sometimes languages do not have words that can transfer over to a different language. Language responsibility: “It” statements. It  statements avoid responsibility for ownership of a message. “But” statements. Cancels the thought that precedes it. Can be a face saving strategy.  Gender differences: Significant differences: men and women are taught growing up completely different ways to act and speak. Men are more  likely than women to speak in sentence fragments, men typically talk about themselves with “I” references, and use judgmental language/make  distinctive comments. Women speak in longer sentences than men and their speech is more tentative, elaborate and emotional. Female speech is  often less assertive with statements of uncertainty, hedges(we kind of already decided what to do), and tag questions (do you think so?).  Women’s speech is less powerful but more inclusive than men’s. Minor differences: women more likely to use tentative speech, men are more  talkative (mostly during dyadic opposed to groups). Flaming language: usually has all caps, name calling, threats, curse words and lots of  explanation marks. Verbal play involves name calling, threats, etc. Inside flame results when the sender’s intent is to break norms and the  recipient knowns these are their intentions. Failed flame is usually a message meant to be rude or edgy, but no one reads into it or sees that there  is any aggression. Missed flame the intent of the message is clear, but the receiver may not notice anything different about the sender’s tone or  message. There is aloofness to it all. True flame the intent was to burn and it was successfully received.Chapter 6: 4 characteristics of  nonverbal comm.: All behavior has communicative value, nonverbal communication is primarily relational (allows us to demonstrate the kinds  of relationships we have or want to have with people), nonverbal communication is ambiguous (nonverbal cues are not always how we perceive  them, so analyze behaviors and interpret them carefully), nonverbal communication occurs in mediated messages (emoji’s), influenced by gender  and culture.  N/V Comm. Functions: creating and maintaining relationships, regulating interaction, influencing others, concealing/deceiving, &  managing impressions. Types of N/V Comm.: body movement (kinesics, face, posture, eyes, gestures (emblems=symbols for words like the ok  symbol)), touch (haptics), voice (paralanguage & disfluencies like “um” “er” “like”), distance (proxemics… intimate distance, personal distance  18 in. – 4 ft, social distance 4­12 ft.), territoriality, time (chronemics), physical attractiveness, clothing, & physical environment. 3 types of  territories: Primary. Secondary. Public. (my car, class desk, lunch table). Chapter 9: Exchange theory: economic model, we often seek out ppl  who can give us rewards (outcomes we desire that are greater than or equal to the costs we encounter in dealing with them. Rewards – Cost =  Outcome. Comparison level (CL)­ Your minimum standard of what behavior is acceptable from a relationship partner (abusive vs. respectful  relationship). Comparison level of alternatives (CLalt)­ A comparison between the rewards one is receiving in a present situation and those one  could expect to receive in others (if I leave him or her will I be okay with someone else? WILL I find someone else?). Knapp’s Model: Initiating  (interested in starting a relationship.. involves shaking hands, talking about weather), Experimenting(search for common ground, small talk,  becoming friends on social media), Intensifying(spending more time together), Integrating (take on an identity as a social unit, becoming  facebook official), Bonding (symbolic public gestures like marriage), Differentiating (needing space to reestablish their identities),  Circumscribing(partners reduce contact with each other, more areas of separation than integration), Stagnating (relationship becomes stagnant,  partners are unfamiliar, cold, and no feelings), Avoiding, Terminating. 7 reasons we develop/form relationships: appearance, similarity,  complementarity (partners characteristics satisfy the other persons needs), rewards, competency, proximity, & disclosure. Dialectical tensions:  INTEGRATION VS. SEPARATION Internal­ connection­autonomy (close to others, but we also seek interdependence) & External­ inclusion­ seclusion (desire to be included but also desire to be free and live your own life. STABILITY VS. CHANGE. I­ predictability­novelty (knowing  each other well vs surprises) E­ conventionality­uniqueness (your expectations like a happy family vs. being different and not the same as  everyone else). EXPRESSION VS. PRIVACY I­ openness­closedness  (intimate vs. keeping to yourself) E­ revelation­concealment (honestly  telling someone something vs. keeping your mouth shut).  Chapter 10: 


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