Chapter 1 & 2 Study Guide
Chapter 1 & 2 Study Guide ENVS 1205K
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mekaila Notetaker on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENVS 1205K at Columbus State University taught by Daniel E. Holt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Sustainability and Environment in Science at Columbus State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Natural Resources Renewable resource -Replenished naturally -Forests, grasslands, fresh air, fertile soil Sustainable yield -Rate you can use resource while still allowing it to renew Nonrenewable resource -Never regenerate or require geological time scales to renew -coal, oil, metals, mineral resources -reduce, reuse, repurpose, recycle Measuring Natural Resource Use Economic growth - nation’s growth (good and service ) - Resources consumption fuels growth Measured as gross domestic product (GDP) -Annual value of all goods and services by all business, foreign and domestic, operating within a country -Ignores environmental cost and resource degradation Are we living sustainably? - How do we affect our earth? - Overconsumption- deplete capital - Degradation- pollute on diminish natural resources and ecosystem services - Happening at an accelerating rate Pollution - Something put into the environment at a level that is directly or indirectly harmful to humans or other organisms - Point sources (you can pin point the source) vs non-point source (maybe hard identifying) - Biodegradable (other organisms breaking it down using it for nutrient) vs non-degradable Tragedy of the Commons - Every individual tries to reap the greatest benefit from a given resource. As the demand for the resource overwhelms the supply, every individual who consumes an additional unit directly harms others who can no longer enjoy the benfits Avoid Tragedy of Commons - Everybody cooperate and work together voluntarily to live sustainably - Divide up and privatize the resource and assume people will take care of what belongs to them - Government Oversight -Tax -Polluter pay per unit pollution -Subsidies -Government gives many to organization to help them met a standard -Permit Trading -Government caps amount of pollution and sells permits for pollution allowance Economic Growth, Natural Capital, and Economic Development - Economic Growth: measure of a nation output (GDP) - Remember, how is thin linked to national capital - Economic Development: uses policy and economic growth to increase standard of living for a population (Ex. Saudi Arabia struggles with a wide range of living standards) Countries Differ in Resource Use - More-developed countries (USA, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and most European Countries - Less developed countries(Africa, Asia, Latin America) - More developed countries have 17% of population, use of 88% of resources, and produce 75% of world’s pollution Measuring Our Impact - Impact = Population * Affluence * Technology - Ecological footprint = the amount (measured in global hectares) of biological productive land and water needed per year to supply resources and cleanse wastes - Ecological deficit occurs when footprint is larger than biocapacity of the area available to that population Cultural Changes Can Grow or Shrink Our Ecological Footprints - Major Cultural Changes - Agricultural revolution - Industrial Revolution – growth of mass production – machinery sparked by the ability to burn fossil fuels - Information/Globalization revolution - Sustainability revolution - All but sustainablilty rev. allowed for larger population and increased resource consumption Environmental Problem - Population growth - Unsustainable resource - Poverty Chapter 28 – Science, Matter, Energy & Systems What is Science? - Effort to figure out how the world works. - Based on assumption that events occur due to cause-and-effect patterns that can be understood Doing Science: Scientific Method - General Series of steps taken by scientists to answer a question - Controls gives you something to compare treatments to. - Treatments-restaurants where we switch biscuits to - Controls-restaurants where we don’t switch biscuits What is stuff? - Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, Plasmas - Elements: Hydrogen, most common element - Chemical Reaction : Way elements interact with one another. 2 or more elements either form bonds or break bonds. Electrons dictate the reactivity of elements - Atoms: Proton, Neutrons, Electrons - Molecule: 2 or more atoms bond together with chemical bonds - Isotope: atom has the wrong number of protons - Ions: wrong number of electrons - Radioactive Decay – when isotopes gain or lose neutrons, they release high-energy, which can damage organic molecules - Ionizing radiation-Energy from decay can strip or add electrons of nearby molecules, producing ions cause burns, mutator Nuclear Power - Uranium 235 (92 Protons, 143 Neutrons) - When hit with a neutron, shatters and sheds neutrons, releasing energy - Causes chain reaction Dangers of Nuclear Power: Is It Worth it? - Chernobyl, exploded and uninhabitable, totally abandoned - Fukishma Energy - Absolutely necessary to build and maintain organization - Potential – stored energy - Kinetic – energy that it possesses due to its motion What two laws govern energy? -1 law of thermodynamics – energy can’t be created or destroyed -2ndlaw – energy always changes state from more ordered to less-ordered (unless acted upon by external energy) -Disordered energy can’t do work Quality measured as ability to be converted into useful work. Concentrated energy is high quality energy The Story of Energy -Energy flows through ecosystems -90% of energy lost as heat at each tropic land Biochemical Cycles -Nutrient cycle through living systems -Nutrients/chemicals also cycle through non-living systems -Reservoir – chemical not available to organisms -Exchange pool- Chemical available to organisms
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