Continuation from Friday’s Lecture
• Political system
o Communist party dictatorship
o Democratic centralism
• In practice: the people at the top would chose the people immediately below them.
o Nomenklatura system
• A standard practice in any Communist party state.
• The way by which personnel decisions are made as to who controls the communist party system.
• Removing older leaders who potentially challenge Stalin's position
• A way in which control was exerted (Gulag camp - prison)
• They created a sense of institutionalized paranoia
o Institutionalized paranoia
• Russia was cut off from the outside world in many regards.
• They were often self-sufficient
• People were encouraged to inform on each other, this was a way to prove loyalty Don't forget about the age old question of Why did the siege of lewisburg happen?
o Information control
• No ability to get outside media
• During the Cold War, the US broadcasted into Russia
• Absolute dominance over the information sphere
o Absolute power in Stalin's hands
• Economic System
o This was a planned economy Don't forget about the age old question of What are real value functions?
• The state owned and allocated all productive assets
▪ Land, raw materials, factories, etc. were owned by the state Don't forget about the age old question of What is gregor mendel's known work?
▪ They made claims on the citizen of the state to allocate these materials ▪ The state assigned all college graduates to a job
• No markets, state set prices
▪ Allocated on the basis of physical commodities
• Collective agriculture
▪ Villages, and groups of people were organized into a farm that had to meet a supply target
▪ Through this, the state orchestrated control over the agricultural sector ▪ Very few private plots of land
• Priority for heavy and defense industries
▪ Concentrating efforts in one brief period to over-fulfill quotas
▪ If you didn't meet the quota, you could be sent to the prison camp
• Physical targets (not profits)
▪ No emphasis on profits
• Remaking the Soviet society
o New culture
• Spreading literacy (1910s: Russia was 80 percent illiterate)
o New elites
• People went through technical education and rose through the factory system to become political leaders
• They dominated the system after Stalin's death Don't forget about the age old question of What are the ethiopian dynasties?
o Mass education
• Expansion of higher education
Challengers to Capitalism III: Social Democracy
• Less a conscious ideology than fascism or communism
• Energized by concerns about inequality, deprivation, unfairness, "arbitrariness" of life • It emerged particularly in Sweden, but also in Britain and the United States • An attempt to reduce the amount of risk in society
• As a movement
o A movement in democratic society. Not anti-liberal, not anti-Western, no fully anit capitalist; not fully anti-socialist either. It came to power as an electoral movement, acceptance of the rules of democracy. Requires majority support in legislative bodies We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of protozoans?
o Given particular force by the Depression.
• Social elements
o Social insurance (unemployment, retirement, health, disability)
o Market Regulation
• Regulatory agencies established
o Economic Intervention by state
• Countercyclical spending (significant deficit spending)
• States should compensate and run budget deficits
• Political elements
o Big expansion of role, size, and nature of national governments.
o Higher taxes.
World War II
Monday, January 25, 2016
Why World War II?
• General explanations
o Anarchy/ Power Transition
• The lack of a supreme authority in the international system to enforce the law • Power Transition Theory: Status order
o National Politics
• The desire to regain control of the German population
• Would Germany nearly as aggressive if Hitler hadn't come to power?
• Could there have been no war without Hitler?
o Failure of the League of Nations (Japan and Italy) We also discuss several other topics like What is the basic functional units of all living things?
o Weakness of the West and International Order generally
o Distrust among Britain, France, and the Soviet Union
o Autarky without self-sufficiency
• In the case of Japan: they lacked raw materials so they couldn't pursue self sufficiency
• It contributed essentially to the war
The Steps to War (and War)
• 1931: Japanese seizure of Manchuria
o In northeast China
• 1935: Italian invasion of Ethiopia
• 1936: Hitler exerts control over the Rhineland; Japan and Germany sign Anti-Comintern Pact
• 1937: Germany takes over Austria, Japan invades China
• 1938: Germany takes over part of Czechoslovakia, then the whole country in 1939. Appeasement
o Britain and France promise to defend Poland
o Germany and the Soviet Union sign non-aggression pact
o Germany invades Poland; Britain and France go to war. Soviets invade Poland too. o Japan and Soviet Union combat on Mongolia, Chinese and Soviet border • 1940:
o Germany conquers Western Europe
o Axis Pact signed of collaboration for alliance between Germany, Italy and France o US puts increasing pressure on Japan to withdraw from China; lend-lease support for Britain
o Soviet Union attacks Finland, takes over Baltic states
o Japan occupies Indo-China
o Italy tries to takeover Balkans, needs German help
o Germany invades the Soviet Union
o US imposes severe sanctions on Japan
• Japan got most of its energy coal but they had to import all of its petroleum • The US was Japan's major supplier of petroleum
o Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, US, allied positions in Asia
o Germany declares war on the US
World War II Effects
• Much greater slaughter than World War I
• Distinctions between combatants and civilians totally breaks down
o There were laws of war that had gradually evolved.
• Increasingly, bombing civilian personnel were seen as part of the war effort • Genocide, ethnic cleansing, barbarity
• Economic Devastation of most Europe west of the Ural Mountains
• Nuclear Weapons
• US even more preeminent of the world
Avoiding World War III: Lessons from 1914-1941
• Unconditional surrender demands, occupation of defeated enemies • Revive efforts at collective security (United Nations)
• Connections between economics and peace
o Build international institutions to address global economic issues
• Decolonization, Human Rights, Democracy
• War Crimes Tribunals
o Victor's justice
The World in September 1945
• US economically, technologically preeminent country of the world
o The only nuclear power, largest navy, largest air force
• Soviet army controls Manchuria, northern Korea, almost all of eastern Europe, much of Germany
• United Kingdom, France; economically and militarily exhausted
• Many colonial possessions pushing for independence
Trying to Recreate World Order
Wednesday, January 27, 2016
The Mistakes of the Past
• The mistakes of the WWI settlement
• Failure of collective security and the League of Nations
• Mismanagement of global economy
• US isolationism
• The mistakes of the past were on the minds of the leaders
New Things to Consider
• The existence of nuclear weapons (US monopoly 1945-1949)
• Devastation, Exhaustion of Japan, Europe
• Communist insurgencies, popularity in many places --> resistance movements • US overwhelming primacy
• "Civilized" states engaging in genocide
o Total dislocation
o Human rights was a major issue
• Active independence movements in colonies
What to do?
• Revive and improve the League of Nations - the United Nations
o 2 Houses: the General Assembly and the Security Council
o In the General Assembly, we accept that all countries are equal
o Security Council: the great powers have more power than everyone else; power is reflected in special privileges
• Stabilize the International Economy
o The International Monetary Fund
o The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
• It was originally created to provide capital for reconstruction. As those economies recovered, it supported capital and investment for new nation states.
o The International Trade Organization
• It was supposed to prevent tariffs between countries.
• It was designed to regulate and negotiate tariffs in order to promote trade. • The ITO didn't end up coming into existence.
• Hold those accountable for the war responsible (war crime tribunals) • Promote Human Rights (the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, etc.) o This was negotiated by all the members of the states in the UN.
• Take Decolonization and Self-Determination as real norms
• 1945-1949 was a remarkable period in the construction of a truly global community. o So much was done during this period but also so much was not completed.
The Failure of the Settlement to Hold
• The intended global order essentially came apart less than two years later. • Distrust between the Soviet Union and the US.
o Soviet security concerns
• Heightened by the US monopoly on nuclear weapons
o Soviet opportunism
o US nuclear monopoly
o Misunderstanding of earlier agreements
o Ideologies and claims to universalism
• A world order based on freedom and liberty.
• The state will play a larger role in the new world order.
o Western Europe in even worse condition than anyone had anticipate or thought • The Original World War II Settlement lasts two years
The Onset of the Cold War
Friday, January 29, 2016
Bretton Wood Addition
Cold War Setting ~ 1946
• The Soviet Army was in Eastern Europe, Northern Iran, NE China, and Northern Korea • There were strong communist movements in France and Italy.
• Economic dislocation and elections in Western Europe expected in 1947 • Soviet Opportunism in Turkey, Iran, China
• Communist Guerilla movement in Greece backed by Yugoslavia
• Very rapid US demobilization
o Much smaller army, navy and military.
• British can't afford to support Greece and Turkey
o Extended aid package to Turkey
• Communist movements in Asia (Burma, Indonesia, Philippines, Indo-China, China) • There's not real commitment of US troops at this time, it's all about providing money and advice.
Why a Cold War?
• International Systematic Factors
o Anarchical international system
o Conflicting National Identities United States/Soviet Union
o Ever deepening mistrust
• Soviet Perspectives
o The nature of capitalism/socialism/Soviet nationalism
• Capitalism will cause war.
• The Soviet Union represents an alternative type of representation
• They must survive this onslaught coming from the capitalist left.
• Russian nationalism
o Germany/security/never again
• The emergence of a powerful Germany was worrisome to the Soviets. o US nuclear monopoly
• US Atomic Bomb
o From Roosevelt to Truman
• Truman was perceived to be much more negative and hostile to the Soviet Union
• American Perspectives
o The nature of communism and broken Soviet promises
o US nationalism/"preponderance" of power
o US values as universal
• Cultivate the exceptional way of life in America
• The US wouldn't exert very much effort to spread the model
• The US sees itself as embodies itself with ideas around freedom
• It fell on the United States to defend global freedom
• The US saw human rights as universal
o Never again - but leadership or isolation
• After WWI, the US made a bad mistake
• Deep suspicions grew about Stalin's intentions and personality
Going into the Cold War, the Soviet Union is no where near strong enough to challenge the United States
• This can be demonstrated in their low levels of GDP, illustrating the poor nation
US Actions/ Reactions 1947-1949
• The Truman Doctrine:
o Universalizes the conflict in Greece as the struggle between two ways of life and argues that the US should come protect freedoms and human rights.
o With this speech and its acceptance, the US becomes the banker of democracy, they begin to spend money against the Soviet Union
o The US wants this to be more systematic
• The Marshall Plan
o The US government would supply large loan to Western European states to allow for rapid economic recovery
o The world bank wasn't doing things fast enough.
o The US wanted to stimulate rapid economic recovery.
• The National Security Act
• Unified the department of the navy and army to create the Department of Defense • Created the CIA, National Security Agency.