Orgo Study Guide Test 1
Orgo Study Guide Test 1 2750
Popular in Organic Chemistry
Popular in Chemistry
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by blyk12 on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2750 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Huo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Test 1 Study guide Chapter 1 Organic Compounds are defined as compounds that contain carbon. The nucleus contains positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons. Electrons are negatively charged. The atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus. The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons. The atomic weight is the average mass of its atoms. The quantum mechanics uses the same mathematical equations that describe the wave. Each shell contains subshells, atomic orbitals, Each atomic orbital has a characteristic shape and energy and occupies a characteristic volume of space. Degenerate orbitals are orbitals that have the same energy. Ground state electronic configuration describes the orbitals occupied by the electrons when they are all in the available orbitals with the lowest energy. Excited-state electronic configuration happens if energy is applied to an atom in the ground state, one or more electrons can jump into a higher- energy orbital. Aufbau Principle- an electron goes into the lowest energy that’s available in the orbital. ** The closer the atomic orbital is to the nucleus, the lower its energy.** i.e. because 1s is closer to the nucleus, it is a lower energy than 2s, 3s, and so on. Pauli exclusion principle: a. no more than 2 electrons can occupy each atomic orbital. b. The two electrons must be of the opposite sign. i.e. Hunds rule- when there are 2 or more atomic orbitals with the same energy, an electron will occupy an empty orbital before it will pair up with another electron. Core electrons are the electrons in the inner shells, they do not participate in chemical bonding. Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost shell. Question 1 How many valence electrons do the following atoms have? a. boron b. nitrogen c. oxygen Q4 Answers 1,3,2 Q5 Answers1. CH3OH 2. CH3NH3 ** An atom is more stable if its outer shell is either filled or contains eight electrons (octet rule).*** Ionic Bond is a bond formed as a result of the electrostatic attraction between ions of opposite charge. i.e. when an element on the left side of the periodic table transfers one or more electrons to an element on the right side of the periodic table. Covalent bond is a bond formed as a result of sharing electrons between two nuclei. –usually shown in pictures with a line Cl Cl Electronegativity is the measure of the ability of an atom to pull the bonding electrons toward itself. Polar covalent bond has a slight positive charge on one side and a slight negative charge on the other i.e. a dipole. Question 2 Which bond is more polar? a. H---CH3 or CH3---Cl (w/6 lone pair electrons) A molecular orbital describes the volume of space around an atoms nucleus where an electron is likely to be. The covalent bond that is formed when the two s orbitals overlap is called a sigma bond. The destructive combination of two atomic s orbitals is called a sigma* antibonding molecular orbital. **When two atomic orbitals overlap, two molecular orbitals are formed- one lower in energy and one higher in energy than the atomic orbitals. VESPR model is based on the predirection of molecular geometry based on the minimization of electron repulsion. Question 3 Indicate which kind of molecular orbital (sigma, sigma anti, pi, pi anti) that results when atomic orbitals are combined: a. Two 2p orbitals the first is green on top and blue on bottom, the second pair is blue on top and green on bottom. b. Two 2p orbitals the first is blue on top and green on bottom, the second pair is blue on top and green on bottom. Bond order describes the number of covalent bonds shared by two atoms. a. Single bond- is one sigma bond b. Double bond- is one sigma bond and one pi bond Q3 answers :a. Pi anti b. Pi Q2 answers: CH3----Cl ( with 6 lone pair electrons) c. Triple bond- is one sigma and two pi bonds Chapter 2 Acid- species that donates a proton. Base-species that accepts a proton. Lewis Acid- accepts a share in an electron pair. Lewis Base- donates a share in an electron pair. A Strong base has a high affinity for a proton; a weak base has a low affinity for a proton. The Stronger the ACID, the WEAKER its conjugate base. The strength of an acid is given by the acid dissociation constant (Ka) The STRONGER the acid, the smaller the pKa value. Curved arrows indicate the bonds that are broken and formed as reactants are converted into products. The strength of an acid is determined by the stability of its conjugate base; the more stable (weaker) the base, the stronger the conjugate acid. Hybridization affects acidity because sp hybridized atom is more electronegative than an sp2 hybridized atom, which is more electronegative than an sp3 hybridized atom. Delocalized electrons- electrons shared by more than 2 atoms- stabilize a compound. Henderson Hasselbach eq. gives the relationship between pKa and pH Buffer solution contains both weak acid and its conjugate base. Question 4 List the following alcohols in order from strongest acid to weakest acid based on Ka values. 1. Ka= 5.75x10^-13 2. Ka= 1.29x10^-13 3. Ka= 4.90x10^-13 Question 5 Name the conjugate acid that goes with the base. 1.CH3O^- 2.CH3NH2 Chapter 3 Q4 Answers 1,3,2 Q5 Answers1. CH3OH 2. CH3NH3 Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogens are called hydrocarbons. Constitutional isomers contain the same amount of Carbon and Hydrogens however an isomer may have a branch coming off 1 carbon. IUPAC- International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Common Name- a nonsystematic name. i.e. isobutene Primary Carbon- a Carbon bonded to only one other Carbon i.e. CH3CH2CH3 Secondary Carbon- a Carbon bonded to 2 other Carbons i.e. CH3CH2CH3 Tertiary Carbon- a Carbon that is bonded to 3 other carbons i.e. CH3CH2CH3 CH3 Q3 answers :a. Pi anti b. Pi Q2 answers: CH3----Cl ( with 6 lone pair electrons)
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