Quiz 1 Review
Quiz 1 Review HIST 2051-001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Streckfuss Amy Brogan Quiz 1 Review Multiple choice, short essay, know some dates, know why each battle important and who was involved Colonial Period: King 1675 Indian leader led a revolt Colonists Settlers live Philip’s against the defeat the among the War colonists/English. Indians and Indians on Intercolonial armies had to end the war. New England adapt their battle skills to at the keep up with the Indian beginning and guerilla warfare. end of the war. King 1740 Charles VI dies, escalating This extended Colonists and George’s the conflict between France to North British War and England. America. regulars continued to be at odds with one another. Siege of 1744- French ships attacked Short victory, Colonists more Lewisburg 1748 merchant chips at and land and more at Lewisburg. A year later gained in the odds with William Pepperell led a siege is given British. successful siege and back to their overtook Lewisburg. IN previous 1748 the Treaty of Aix-la- owners. Chapelle was signed. French Starts in America before Land is given Great Britain and Europe. Indians play both back to France promises that Indian sides, but mostly side with at the end. Colonist taxes War the French. British “win”. will not go up. Battles of British have adapted too European Militia Louisburg using a light infantry, forces not volunteers are and scouts, camouflage (face entirely averse treated with Ticondero paint), and recruiting locals to adaptation kid gloves so ga for territory information; but to local they won’t they hold onto usual tactics conditions leave. (and bright red uniforms.) when necessary. Battle of British landing hindered by Worked within Quebec rain, so they have to scale one week. cliffs and fight without horses or cannons. Summery: Increased tensions between Different Muskets Spain, France, Britain, and tactics: (smooth their colonies. (After the Standard: barrels) being Armada is defeated, the canons in replaced by Spanish are on the decline.) front, lines of Rifles (spiraled army and barrels.) Rifles infantry are not really behind. popular till the Colony: Civil War. ambushes Leading up to the American Revolution: People: o LTC. G. Washington: failed in the French and Indian War at getting back land, but gained valuable experience with combat and how to deal with Militia men o Robert Rogers: organized the first ranger unit to fight guerrilla warfare (1755) o Native Americans: communities constantly shifted sides during the wars o Sons of Liberty: fight for fair taxes using the cry “No taxation without representation” Insurgency, Revolution, Civil War (Fill in the differing definitions) o Insurgency: ___________________________________________________________ o Revolution: ___________________________________________________________ o Civil War: _____________________________________________________________ Treaty of Paris – ends the French and Indian War Cost of War o The British said the mainland would pick up the cost of the French and Indian war, but since the national debt doubled (to 145 million pounds), they started to tax the colonists. o The colonists’ taxes (Which ones?) have to be repealed by Parliament to maintain control. In exchange for this, Parliament enforces the recognition that they have power in the colonies by later making more taxes. Colonial Discontent o Proclamation Line – no settlement is allowed west of this boundary and the land is reserved for Native Americans. But the colonists settle there anyway, angering the natives. Pontiac lead the destruction of several forts in 1763 and 1764. o Sugar Act – 1764 - ____________________________________________________ o Stamp Act – 1765 - ___________________________________________________ o Quartering Act - _ - legitimized housing troops o Boston Massacre – 1770 – Young troops were stationed and armed under supervised in civilian places. The colonists threw snowballs, sticks, and stones at a British squad, and their captain called for more troops. They were also attacked, and shots were fired into the crowd, killing three. Two more would die of their wounds. The soldiers were put on trial and defended by John Adams and Josiah Quincy II. Only two were charged with manslaughter. o Intolerable Acts – 1774 – Townshend Revenue Acts: _____________________________ Lead to the Boston Tea Party Colonists poorly disguised as Indians threw tea into the harbor, it wasn’t the only tea party, but the most famous one. The Patriots swept the deck after they were done. o Tea Act - _____ - monopoly with the East India Trading Company March on Lexington and Concord – 1775 o British attempt to break up and confiscate arms stocked by colonists. Paul Revere and William Dawes warned them and the militia formed together to deter the British. No one really knows who shot first, but the British were put into retreat and suffered several casualties. o “Shot Heard ‘Round the World” o Begins the Revolutionary War Bunker Hill – June 1775 o Several mistakes made by both sides (British sacrifices surprise, Americans violated unity of command and mass) and the battle is a draw. The Americans take it as a win because they were able to hold their own against the professional British army. American Revolution: Information Operations War The Bloody By Paul Print inaccurately depicted the Boston Massacre Revere 1770 Massacre Common Sense Thomas Pamphl Paine ets st 1776 Declaration of 1 A logical layout why the colonists Independence Continental were tearing away from Britain. Congress Included a list of grievances and a new concept: governments derive their powers from the people. List of Grievances: Standing armies in times of peace Quartering of troops Taxes Taking away their charters (their first attempts at self-government) Evolution of British Strategy: Phase 1: o 1775 – British are still treating the Revolution as a localized problem in major cities Phase 2: Begins with the Boston Tea Party 1776 – fighting is still concentrated in denser populated areas, but through several colonies New York Campaign – o initial idea was to attack New York to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies because it was the head of the radicals o Once war got underway: British sent 32,000 troops to New York with help from Navy, commanded by General Hall o Washington split his forces but was put on the run. The British got hung up, so the patriots escaped and regrouped in Manhattan. Hall did not take opportunity to take out the flank-able Patriots Retreat through New Jersey – British is run into New York by Washington’s pin- prick attacks o Washington needed to keep the revolution alive. The longer the war, the greater the colonists had the advantage. 1779-1781 – British moved south attacking population centers Campaign of 1777 – lack of coordination and command o No head commander, “right hand unknowing of the actions of the left” o Washington figured out where Hall was heading and left for Philadelphia Philly home for continental congress, closet thing to capital at the time Brandywine Creek – Hall defeats Washington and takes Philly; Washington loses at a German town, but Hall could not demolish the continental army Phase 3: o Saratoga – Sept-Oct 1777 -quickibility of local militia, giving the regular forces a problem and not easily defeated; McGowan surrenders at Saratoga Showed French that colonist strong enough to defeat British, but need help, so they obliged Enter the French (And the Spanish, but only in funds) British Command Climate: o LTG Henry Clinton: gain the hearts and subdue the minds of America o LTC Banastre Tarleton: Nothing will secure the people but fire and sword Faux pas of Pacification o Boots on the ground v. hearts and minds o Hired foreign mercenaries, fomented slave rebellions, incited Native American to raid frontier colonists Why did they start the slave rebellions? Why did they move south? o The Fall of Savannah - ___________________________________________________ War in Britain: Keeping the fight going in the colonies was expensive and needed the political support of Parliament. Edmund Burke was seen as a traitor for his opinions of a war fought against the will of the people. “People crushed by laws have no hope but will evade power. If the laws are their enemies they will be enemies to the law, and those who have the most to hope and nothing to lose will always be dangerous.” The other members of Parliament said he should not have bent to the will of colonial wishes. The National debt was enormous because the French and Indian War had also been expensive, and they knew they couldn’t pass the cost of this war (260 million pounds) onto the colonists to pay. Battles: (Fill in the dates) st Battle of Lexington 1 Strategic target British easily of the British defeat ad hoc minutemen Battle of Concord Americans used Defeated the Indian tactics British, increased moral Battle of Bunker British failed first 2Battle is a draw Hill attempts, received with each side 400 fresh troops claiming partial and succeeded the victory. British 3 time failed strategic vicory and sustained loss of 44% of forces. Considered America’s 1 st major win. Battle of Long Strategic British triumph Island importance of New and Americans York. Americans flee to Brooklyn. had advantage over terrain, but captured soldiers breached this. Long Island cont. X British continue to American morale capture land declines and they where they believe begin to lose faith. rebels are. Battle of Trenton Dec. 26, _____ Washington Hessians launches surprise surrender. attack, surrounds Confidence and Trenton. loyalty built in troops. Battle of Princeton British hunted Washington’s down the troops evacuate continental army, toward Princeton. but delayed by a Changed the tide skirmish, then of the war. they can’t cross the creek for another day. Final Battle: Yorktown – October 1781 British general Cornwalace is isolated and tries to rally by sea, but the French Navy sails into Yorktown and keeps them from retreat. He is forced to surrender, and his surrender leads to a loss in support for the war in Great Britain. The Revolutionary War ends. Question on the Day: How wathit the world’s preeminent economic and political superpower of the late 15 century was unable to win against a loose confederation of dysfunctional, divided, backward, and weak states? Guerilla war Mindsets of the Americans (this is out home and we must defend it) and the British (Easy war, from another continent that takes time, effort, and money to supply troops and to upkeep them) British dependent on their Navy, if the Americans did not gain the French Navy, we may not have won o French Navy also important because it forces the British to pay attention to the Caribbean; Americans not a threat out on the ocean; British have to dilute their forces to guarding the ocean Beginnings of Professionalism – 1783-1860 The British had a regular, standing army during the reign of Oliver Cromwell, but it was expensive. The young Americans were against such an army reflective of their former strong government. Support for the militia declined under this. Washington suggest a balanced solution, but it was rejected by Congress. Washington’s Plan: Regulars would protect the land and shore o More navy than army Uniformed militia would defend on the local level Federal government would supply weaponry and equipment Academies would train and instruct forces Articles of Confederation were weak, and the necessary army they built consisted of only 718 troops, partly because some states fell short in their enlisting. Daniel Shay, a farmer in Massachusetts, led a rebellion of former militia men who could not afford to keep their farms from debt collectors. They acted by closing down courthouses so they couldn’t be sued, they also captured weapons. Nationalists were petrified by the rebellion; Washington, who didn’t frighten easily, was “mortified beyond expression.” This crisis atmosphere led to Constitutional Convention. Second Continental Congress and the Bill of Rights The meeting was called the amend the articles of confederation, but hey ended up throwing out the whole thing and starting over. The second amendment (which was really the fourth, but was raised due to bills being cut) called for a well- regulated militia that could be replaced by the right of citizens to bear arms. They also distinguished between the army and the militia. Congress can summon a land force and a navy, can make regulations for state militia (which the state can either follow or disregard), and can activate the militia. 1789 – Department of War Calling Forth Act Delegated the power of First he had to ask the rabble (1792) calling the militia to the to disperse, then ask President permission of a judge before calling them. One called, they could not be out for more than three months in a year. Uniform Militia Act All able-bodied white men Uniformity problems between 18-45 to enroll; all re- states enrolled men to equip themselves and be trained by the state All this lead to a small standing army and a miniscule navy with costal forts. Statart believed iin state-of-the-art battleships and an industrial base to sustain them over long term, but Jefferson had small, one-gun ships built instead to patrol the coast combined with costal forts. Changes: Demographic: increasing population, and increasing land and water territories. Market: industrialization including the wide-spread use of power looms and the building of factories. Transportation: constructions of canals (Erie: Hudson to Great Lakes); steamboats (could go upstream, but needed frequent loading stations for coal); railroads (rails had to be the same size between states so whole cargos didn’t have to be unloaded; North had more railroads than the South, and thus a greater logistical advantage) Communication: Telegraph, Pony Express, newspaper expansion Army Problems: Nobody could decide who was paying for what (does the state pay for weapons, or the Federal government). The composition of the military was still being argued between a large army, navy, or combination thereof, as well as their mission. What was the purpose of the army going to be? As to leading the military and civilian militia, how much power was he going to have. The position of Commander in Chief had not been established yet. Also the British were irritated that they lost the war, so the US had to be prepared to fight their professional army in the future, while also having the skills to fight the guerilla style warfare of the Indians, who were being pushed out of their land. Washington claimed that they needed regular troops or they would face disaster, while Congress held onto the idea that standing armies were against the principles of a republican government. Federal arsenals and factories were established in 1794. West Point academy was originally established as an engineering school, but morphed into a military school that used its engineering roots to construct forts. The Northern Frontier (1783-1812) Josiah Harmer led regulars and militia in October of 1790 against Indians in western Ohio. The militia was not well trained, so much so that many could not even load their muskets. There were beaten and forced to retreat to Fort Washington. Sinclair led a similar combined force in 1791 and suffered a defeat at St. Clair’s. The Miami Indians inflicted about 900 casualties, the most suffered at the hands of natives up to this time. Washington’s War (1790-1795) Battle of Kekionga Oct. 20-22, 1050 Natives vs. 540 US Army (Harmer’s Defeat) 1790 Casualties: Natives, 120-150; Army, 129 KIA, 94 WIA Battle of Wabash (St. Nov. 4, 1791 1000 Natives vs. 1000 US Army Clair’s Defeat) Casualties: not equal Natives, 61; Army 623 KIA/POW, 250 WIA, +57 civilians and women KIA A confederation of Miami, Shawnee, Delaware, and Wyandot Indians defended the Ohio country strongly encouraged by the British. They were led by Blue Jacket of the Shawnee and Little Turtle of the Miami. In the army, nobody had a clear idea what the mission was, and the so-so results reflected this. The military leaders often had no military training and were elected. It was common for the town pastor or mayor to be in command. As Congress was unlikely to fund a broken military, Anthony Wayne was placed in command of a 5200-person force known as the “Legion of the United States.” He established new forts, and fort recovery at Maumee Rapids and St. Clair. He lead the defeat of the Native Americans in the Battle of Fallen Timbers (Aug. 20, 1794). The Indians were relying on backup from the British, which didn’t come. They were forced to sign the peace Treaty of Grenville (Aug. 3, 1795) and lost the territory of Ohio. They also abandoned the British forts in Ohio because of the failure of the British. *America had made it known they could make an army and defend their territory. War of 1812 British attacking All the way up till Attacking and Impressed captured merchant ships the war starts “searching” sailors into their American navy merchant ships for deserters. HMS Leopard June 22, 1807 Ship attacked Jump-starts need for engages USS and sailors action Chesapeake captured Embargo Act Dec. 1807 Commercial Did nothing to deter boycott of the attacks, and the British goods US economy suffered Fill in any extra information below: Part 1 Americans Britain occupied in achieve some France, so not success fighting in Canada US declares war of June 18, 1812 Britain USS Constitution Aug. 19, 1812 defeats HMS Guerriere Commander Perry Sept. 10, 1813 earns US victory at Lake Erie Part 2 Britain comes Britain dominates back British burn Aug. 24, 1814 Washington D.C and the White House Successful Sept 13-14, 1814 defiance of Fort McHenry Treaty of Ghent Dec. 24, 1814 War ends Signed Part 3 Andrew Jackson Jan. 8, 1815 War is over, but US saves face. The wins the Battle of communication war was a draw, but New Orleans hadn’t reached then Jackson made it Jackson yet. so the Americans could say they beat the British, twice. Lessons from 1812-1814: The Americans learned they had to work on joint operations, supplying force in the field, the flaws in their militia system. They realized they had an outstanding army, but a weak infantry. After the war they reorganize and make a stronger force of 10,000 men. They divide into districts, create a secretary of war, begin to form a general staff, and improve west Point and the costal forts. John C. Calhoun’s “Expansive Army” concept: Maintain a basic organization able to respond when necessary, but without big standing army in peace time, as long as we maintain a command structure down to small unit levels. The officer corps are seemingly bigger than we need in peacetime so we have the structure we need in times of war (pull in the enlisted men). Officers will know what they are doing, and do it quickly. This remains the concept (1819) through end of the 19th and beginning of 20th century. He was the commanding general for the army and called for several reforms such as: a depot system for supply, a surgeon general, general recruiting vs. regimental recruiting, weather updates, and other improvements and overall military education. American Military Thought (1815-1860) Professor Dennis Hart Mahan – naval theorist General Henry W. Halleck – army leader Jomini – deputy of Napoleon, major military thinker o Taught: concentration, interior line, unity of command, offensive, decisive point, surprise, levels of war, annihilation, logistics (lines of operation), timeless principles o His points become nine points of command Going West (Military and in general) Forts and Explorers – success of Lewis and Clark Protecting trade routes Enforcing federal authority More Indian Problems: Dragoons and calvary Black hawk Second Seminole war 1835-1842 Army as enforcers of policy Texas and Prelude to War Texas gained independence from Mexico in March of 1836. There were several difficulties in annexing Texas as a state. Mexico was still being problematic, and Texas was a slave state, which would have made the slave-to-free state ratio off-balance in Congress. Expansion Policies and the Presidential Election of 1844 The presidency was more and more caught up in the idea of manifest destiny and wanted to expand all the way to the Pacific. James K. Polk wins and is considered one of four or five of the most important presidents because he settles border disputes of Canada, picks the war with Mexico and winds up gaining the victory against Mexico and gaining the largest single piece of land after the Louisiana purchase.
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