NTDT200 Exam 3 Review
NTDT200 Exam 3 Review NTDT200
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebekah Schrier on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT200 at University of Delaware taught by Diane Oliver in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Concepts in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Review&for&Exam:&Ch.&759&&&18& Define&the&following:& •! Metabolism:&Release&of&energy,&water,&and&carbon&dioxide;&all&the&reactions&by&which& the&body&obtains&and&expends&the&energy&from&food;&the&sum&total&of&all&the&chemical& reactions&that&go&on&in&living&cells& •! Anabolism:&building&up;&requires&energy;&condensation&(connecting&2&molecules&to&build& body&compounds)& •! Catabolism:&breaking&down;&releases&energy;&hydrolysis&(breaking&down&glycogen&to& glucose,&triglycerides&to&fatty&acids&and&glycerol,&and&proteins&to&amino&acids)& •! Coenzyme:&organic&and&non&protein;&works&with&enzymes;&carries&hydrogens&and& electrons&to&ETC;&B&vitamins&(riboflavin&and&niacin)&& •! Glycolysis:&splitting&6&C&glucose&into&two&3&C&pyruvate;&hydrogen&atoms&carried&to&ETC;& uses&2&ATP&but&gets&4&(50%&efficiency);&1&glucose!2&pyruvate!2&Acetyl&CoA& •! Cori&Cycle:&lactate&in&muscle&to&liver&for&glucose&& •! TCA&Cycle:&when&ATP&is&low;&inner&compartment&of&mitochondria;&Acetyl&CoA&enters;& oxaloacetate&needed&in&first&step&and&produced&in&last&(made&from&pyruvate—need& carbs&in&diet);&carbon&dioxide&release;&hydrogen&atoms&and&their&electrons&carried&to&ETC& by&coenzymes&(Niacin&and&Riboflavin—B&vitamin&coenzymes)&& •! ETC:&Captures&energy&in&ATP;&series&of&proteins&(electron&carriers);&inner&membrane&of& mitochondria;&electrons&passed&to&next&carrier;&join&oxygen&at&end&of&chain—water& released;&ATP&synthesis&(H&pumped&across&membrane&to&outer&compartment&of& mitochondria;&rush&of&H&back&into&inner&compartment&powers&synthesis&of&ATP)&& Efficiency&of&theconversion of food energy to ATP energy in the body •! Coupled Reactions: reaction which uses energy while creating it; 50% efficiency; heat loss Pathways of the following in Meta bolism: •! CHO, Fats and Proteins : all eventually turn into Acetyl CoA •! Carbs!Glucose!Pyruvate!Acetyl CoA •! Fats!Glycerol and Fatty Acids; Glycerol !Pyruvate!Acetyl CoA; Fatty Acids !Acetyl CoA (Fatty acid oxidation: 2 C units at a time then join with CoA —ex. 16 C fatty acid becomes 8 Acetyl CoA) •! Protein!Amino acids (deamination of amino acids—Lose nitrogen); Glucogenic!Pyruvate!Acetyl CoA; Ketogenic!Acetyl CoA; Glucogenic!TCA Cycle •! Pyruvate: 3 C, can make glucose •! Anaerobic: quick energy needs; pyruvate!lactate; oxygen not required •! Aerobic: slower energy needs; pyruvate enters mitochondria, carbon removed (becomes CO2), 2 C join with CoA!Acetyl CoA (irreversible); oxygen required •! Acetyl CoA: 2 C, can’t make glucose; enters TCA cycle when ATP is low (broken down to CO2 and H atoms); ETC (transports electrons from H to O and makes ATP and water) ; makes fat when ATP is abundant •! Lactate: limited oxygen; anaerobic; Cori Cycle: lactate in muscle !liver to make glucose •! Oxaloacetate: needed to start TCA Cycle; produced in last step of TCA Cycle; made from pyruvate (need carbs from diet) Body’s reactions to feasting and fasting Feasting: excess carbs, protein, and fat converted to fat Fasting: draws on stores of glucose, glycerol, and fatty acids —glycogen and fat are released; carbs, fat, and protein all used for energy; once liver glycogen is depleted after several hours of fasting (low blood glucose levels), fat is broken down and amino acids are released from muscles (gluconeogenesis); Ketone bodies formed from fat to fuel brain; metabolism slows, body reduces energy output, weight loss (not fat), lean muscles shrink to conserve energy The benefits of drinking alcohol and who it benefits: 35 years or older; reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis Binge drinking: 4-5 drinks; stop breathing, cardiac arrest Define the following: •! Physiological fuel value : amount of energy that the body derives from food (different from the number of kcalories determined by calorimeters —body is less efficient) •! Neuropeptide Y: neurotransmitter produced by the hypothalamus that is responsible for carb cravings, initiating eating, decreasing energy expenditures, and increasing fat stores •! BMR – when does it increase/decrease : Basal metabolic rate; 2/3 of the calories from food consumed is burned by the BMR •! Increase: exercise, lean muscle, men higher than women because of higher muscle mass, height, weight (not obese though), growth (kids and pregnant women), fever, stresses (diseases and drugs), heat and cold •! Decrease: age, less muscle mass, fasting/starvation, malnutrition •! BMI – know the values that represent underwt, healthy wt, overwt, obesity and morbidly obese •! Under: <18.5 Healthy: 18.5-24.9 Over: 25-29.9 Obesend>30 Morbidly obese: >40 •! >70% obese suffer from at least one other disease ; obesity is 2 largest factor contributing to premature death (1 largest is smoking tobacco) •! Overweight and obese=68% US adults, 34% kids •! Underweight affects no more than 2% of US adults Body Fat % for male and female 20 -39 yo, body fat distribution and its risks Male: 18-21%; fat mostly around abdomen (visceral); greater central obesity and risk for chronic diseases Female: 23-26%; fat mostly around breasts, hips, and thighs; less risk for chron ic diseases (heart disease) Relationship between metabolic syndrome and inflammation : fat accumulation and elevated blood lipids leads to inflammation Metabolic syndrome : cluster of health risks—central obesity, diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), atherogenic (high fat; elevated LDL cholesterol) blood lipids; markers of inflammation and thrombosis (blood clot that closes off blood vessel) Characteristic of amenorrhea: loss of menstrual period; diminished hormones; bone mineral losses; 66% of female athletes Treatment of anorexia nervosa: goal is to stop weight loss; multidisciplinary approach (physicians, nurses, therapists, psychiatrists, dieticians —work to solve food and weight issue s along with relationship issues); establish regular eating patterns (1200 kcal/day at least) Define the following: •! Fat cell development: late childhood and early puberty fat cell numbers increase; high triglycerides=increase in size (cell proliferation —creation of new fat cells); energy out > energy in, fat cell size decreases; no change in number •! Lipoprotein lipase: LPL—enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides and removes triglycerides from blood to storage; obese people have more; individualized (men hav e more LPL in abdomen while women have more LPL in breasts, hips, and thighs) •! Body's set point: the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls •! Ghrelin: (gain) triggers desire to eat; decreased by physical activity, gastric bypass surgery, and weight gain; increased with lack of sleep •! Leptin: (lean) protein produced by adipose tissue; hormone in hypothalamus; suppresses appetite; increases energy expend iture; levels increase as BMI increases •! NEAT: non-exercise activity thermogenesis (shaking leg while sitting, etc.); 350 extra kcal burned per day DRI for Physical Activity : 60 min of moderate activity every day (to prevent weight gain) Reason that the FDA has banned the sale of products containing ephedrine: increase risk of heart attack and seizure; caused 100 deaths FDA approved drugs that cause modest weight loss: Orlistat & Phentermine (Off -label) Know the characteristics: •! Liposuction: cosmetic procedure that removes fat; little weight loss and no health benefits •! Eating breakfast: inversely related to obesity (eating breakfast correlates to less obesity) •! Spot reducing: abdominal fat is usually first to go •! Fad diets: outrageous claims; no requirements to prove the claims; distorted research; tend to ignore dietary recommendations; tend to work for short time; fail to produce long -lasting results Define: •! Phagocytosis: neutrophils and macrophages; process by which phagocytes engulf and digest antigens (pacman) •! Phagocytes: type of white blood cell; scavengers of immune system; first to arrive at the scene of an invader; secrete cytokines (activate the metabolic and immune responses to infection) •! Lymphocytes: white blood cells; B cells divide and produce antibodies; T cells travel directly to invasion site; multiply and release chemicals to destroy antigens •! Antigens and antibodies •! Antigens: a substance that elicits the formation of antibodies or inflammation reaction from the immune system (ex. Bacteria, food allergies) •! Antibodies: proteins that protect the body from foreign invaders (antigens); produced by lymphocyte B cells; stick to surfaces of antigens and kills or inactivates them (stops infection in path); makes it easy for phagocytes to ingest •! Acute inflammation : phagocytes engulf microbes and release oxidative products to kill them; inflammation fights off infection and promotes recovery •! Chronic inflammation : harmful; leads to chronic diseases •! Aneurysm: ballooning of artery wall •! C-reactive protein: released during the acute phase of infection or inflammation that enhances immunity promoting phagocytes; indicates inflammation •! Blood Clots o! Thrombus: stationary clot o! Thrombosis: closes off blood vessel o! Embolus: clot breaks loose o! Embolism: clot is stuck •! Free Radicals: an unstable molecule with one or more unpaired electrons; causes damage to cells •! Insulin resistance: insulin and cells don’t communicate (type 2 diabetes) •! DASH diet: Dietary approach to stop hypertension; lowers LDL and total cholesterol; eat more nuts and legumes (less saturated fat) •! Metastasize: cancerous tumor moves to other parts of the body •! Benign tumors: not cancerous Know the different ranges for definin g blood glucose levels: Normal: 70-99 mg/dl Prediabetes: 100-125 mg/dl Diabetes: >126 mg/dl Know the risks for developing CHD and having a stroke: CHD (Coronary heart disease) usually caused by atherosclerosis (plaque in arteries); Risks: increasing age, male gender, family history, high LDL, low HDL, high blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, atherogenic diet (high sat fat, low veggies, fruits, and whole grains) ; by age 20, half of the adults have at least one risk factor Angina: pain and pressure around heart Stoke (Transient ischemic attack (TIA): high blood pressure best predictor of stroke ; restricted blood flow to the brain Ways to decrease one’s risk of develop ing cancer: no smoking, less processed foods, sunscreen, less pollutants, physical activity, healthy diet (less sat fat, more fish —omega-3 fatty acids, veggies, phytochemicals, cruciferous (cauliflower, broccoli, brussel sprouts), fruits, whole grains, fiber) 20-50% of cancers are diet related 4 of top 10 leading causes of death in the US are nutrition related Clicker Questions: Supplies some of the fuel needed by the brain after body has been fasting for a while: Ketones Feature of smoking and weight maintenance: People who give up smoking gain an average of 10 lbs. in their first year Smoking a cigarette overrides feelings of hunger Smokers tend to weigh less than nonsmokers Smokers tend to gain weight when they stop smok ing ? Why is it easier to store fat from fat than st oring fat from sucrose (carbs)? The body uses less steps to convert corn oil (fat) into fat than to convert sucrose (carbs) into fat Test Questions: Air displacement plethysmography: common method used to assess body fat Turkey (meat): most satisfy feeling of hunger Carcinogen: initiates cancer Majority of deaths in US women: coronary heart disease Peripheral resistance blood encounters in the arterioles Diuretics act to lower blood pressure by increasing fluid loss & &
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