Survey of World History to 1500- Study Guide One
Survey of World History to 1500- Study Guide One 10494
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carrington Johnson on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 10494 at Georgia State University taught by Rachel Ernst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Survey of World History to 1500 Study Guide One Look at the map on the copy of the study guide on Brighspace for the numbers: 1. Beringia 2. Clovis 3. Chavin de Huantar 4. Niger 5. The Great Rift Valley 6. Nile 7. Euphrates 8. Tigris 9. Fertile Crescent 10. Indus River Valley 11. Yellow River 12. Yangtze River Define and explain the significance of the following: • Hominin Split- As the jungles in Africa began to recede, a primate ventured out onto the encroaching grassland looking for food and stood up. This was the first bipedal and where the evolution of the hominin species began. • African Pump Theory- The environment began to become drier and cooler, with the desert expanding towards the south. This is when and why our Homo erectus ancestors left Africa and spread out across the continents. • Homo Erectus- The Homo erectus is the evolved form of the Homo habilis. The Homo erectus walked fully upright, used fire, had bigger brains, and had more advanced tools. The Homo erectus was also the first hominin to leave Africa, spreading out in a diaspora and evolving into several different subspecies of the archaic Homo sapiens. • Irrigation- Ditches or channels are dug to redirect the water from a river or other water source in order to water crops. Earlier societies would just rely on rainfall and chance to water and keep their crops alive. Over salinizing crops and fields is a problem that comes with irrigation. If there is too much salt, crops can be destroyed, and the area itself will be unable to yield anymore crops. This problem has led to the collapse of civilizations like that in Mesopotamia and why the Fertile Crescent doesn’t exist today. • Crop Rotation- In crop rotation, a crop is planted in a plot of land one year and another crop is planted in the same plot of land the next year. Crop rotation helps to maintain soil viability. • Field Rotation- In field rotation, crops are planted in a plot of land one year, but the next year crops are planted in a different plot of land. This model maintains soil viability, keeping the area from being used up. • Milpas- when you plant multiple crops in one field. This New World model of planting helps to keep the soil healthy while also growing key plants in a family or village’s diet. • Terra Preta de Indio- a very fertile soil made up of various materials, including smashed pottery and clay and manure. This was found in an area of the Amazon that was thought to be unable to sustain life because the land and soil that was found could not yield crops. This finding showed evidence of more advanced crop cultivation. • Artificial Selection- In artificial selection, the plant or crop with the most desired characteristics would be replanted. This method began to advance and soon there were whole groves and fields with fruits and other plants with which to feed people. This is also when people went from being nomadic to staying one place, although this was over a period of many years. This allowed for more variety in the diet but led to some things like malnutrition and cavities because people were getting what they wanted and not what they needed in their diet. People only relied on those few crops to feed them. • Slash-and-Burn- This method includes the cutting down of trees and the burning of any remaining plant life in order to make space for grazing and planting. Slash-and-Burn makes the soil rich in nutrients, and the lack of trees also lessens the likelihood of forest fires occurring. • Temple Model Government- In this model of government, there is a heavy emphasis on the society’s religion in running the government. A shaman or priest is at the head of the government because the people believe that the persons communicates with the gods themselves on their behalf. This model of government is usually seen in a society where the people are sustained with their annual yield of food, but there is no surplus in food. Also, the people in this society more than likely have not experienced a lot of hardship, war, or any other competition from other societies in the area. An example of this model of government is Chavin de Huantar. This society has this model of government for centuries until a large earthquake devastated the area. The people lost faith in their priest/shaman and left. • Kingship Model Government- In this model of government, there is a king who usually gets their power through military prowess and maintains their position with this prowess. They are also believed to be beloved by the gods by their people, but this is more how they maintain their power and not how they get it .This society is more developed than the Temple Model, meaning that there may be a surplus of food in this society. A surplus of food is the beginning of any hierarchal society. This society more than likely had the king, his advisors and nobles, and then the peasants or surfs. The society has a military that the king is in charge of and leads when there is conflict with other societies. An example of this mode of government is Pre-Dynastic Egypt, where there were military rulers. • Craft Production and Trade Model Government- In this model of government, the government is often ruled by a group of merchants or trade guild. This society is able to sustain itself on agriculture but trade as well. There are military convoys to protect the goods that are being traded. This model seems good, but there is yet to be seen a successful example of it. There are, however; examples of societies that closely resembled this model of government, including the Harappan in Pakistan and the legendary Xia Dynasty. Evidence of the Harappan culture showed a bunch of advanced cities that were very similar to each other, hinting at collaboration between the cities. The Xia Dynasty was comprised of multiple kings, who were the masters of different things, such as medicine. A kinship model is present in this society. There were no weapons found from this era, so whether or not this society was a legend remains unclear. • Venus Statues- These statues are usually depiction of women with large breast and hips. They stood for fertility and showed the reverence and importance of women as child bearers at this time. At this time, and even now, childbirth is very dangerous, but was the way for a civilization to continue. Essay Prompts: Because these are more along the lines of discussion questions, just refer to the notes I posted and to the PowerPoints for this class on Brightspace.
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