Chapters 1 and 2 Study guide
Chapters 1 and 2 Study guide Chem 107
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Johnson on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 107 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Jacqueline Butler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Health Science in Chemistry at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Unit 1 Study Guide (Basic concepts that can be learned about more in depth in my notes or your own! Most of the major concepts also have worksheets on D2L you should use!) A. Chapter 1 a. Know the molecule composition of all three states of matter i. Solid densely packed to hold a specific shape ii. Liquid Loosely packed and are able to move around, take the shape of their container iii. Gas very spread out, take shape of their container via diffusion iv. All three are in constant motion unless at absolute zero (0° K) b. Know the difference between mixtures and pure substances i. Mixtures consist of multiple types of particles and can be heterogeneous or homogeneous. 1. Homogeneous uniform throughout 2. Heterogeneous shows all components ii. Pure substance are formed by one type of particle and is constant from one sample to another. 1. Elements one type of atom that cannot be broken down 2. Compound one or more types of atom that is able to be broken down c. Know how to differentiate between physical and chemical properties and changes i. Physical 1. Properties a. Does not change the identity of the substance and is the same in all samples 2. Change a. Original substance still exists in some form ii. Chemical 1. Properties a. How the substance reacts, look for words that indicate a change 2. Change a. A new substance has been created and you cannot get the old one back d. Know what is an intensive property and what it extensive i. Intensive is constant through all samples and has to do with the actual substance ii. Extensive is dependent on the amount of a substance e. What are chemical observations and what do they entail? i. Qualitative vs. Quantitative 1. Physical descriptions vs. numerical values/data ii. Accuracy vs. precision 1. Closeness to an accepted value vs. closeness to one another f. Know all about the guidelines of significant figure and how to calculate them i. Guidelines 1. 19 are always significant 2. Leading zeros are not significant 3. If a zero is surrounded by a 19, it is significant 4. Trailing zeros are only significant if followed by a decimal point ii. Addition/Subtraction rule LINE EM’ UP!! iii. Multiplication/Division Smallest amount g. Be able to convert to scientific notation h. Know what temperature is, how it can transfer, and how it is measured i. Temperature is a measurement of kinetic energy ii. It can transfer from high energy to low energy only iii. Measured in kelvin, Celsius, or Fahrenheit i. KNOW METRIC CONVERSIONS ONLY i. Giga, mega, kilo, BASE, deci, centi, mili, micro, nano, pico j. Know how to apply conversion factors and do dimensional analysis k. Know what density is and how to calculate it i. Density is the ratio of an objects mass to its volume ii. D=m/v iii. Units g/ml, g/cm , or g/L B. Chapter 2 a. Know the components of Dalton’s Atomic Theory are i. All matter is composed of atoms 1. 119 elements I which atoms are the building blocks ii. All atoms of one type are similar, but different from all other atoms iii. A pure substance is defined by the number and arrangement of atoms iv. Chemical changes include unions, separations, or rearrangements of atoms v. Only whole atoms are affected by chemical change b. Know that in regards to charges, opposites attract and same repel c. Know about modern atomic theory and how it lead to the periodic table i. Specifically, Proton/neutron/electron differences in location, charge, and weight ii. Table discovered by Mendeleev who organized elements by properties into groups (vertical) and periods (horizontal) iii. Each group has its own name to summarize its elements’ properties iv. Metals, nonmetals and metalloids are all divided into regions of the table 1. Know what properties each group shows and where they are located d. Know what the difference is between atomic numbers and mass numbers, where they are located in atomic notations and on the element square on the periodic table i. Atomic number number of protons or electrons in an elements ii. Mass number average atomic mass (protons+ neutrons) e. Know what an isotope is and how it works. Also how it fits into the Atomic theory of matter. i. What: a version of an element where the number of NEUTRONS has changed 1. Neutron gain or lose causes a drastic weight change 2. All elements for isotopes ii. Have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers (Atomic Theory of Matter) f. What is fractional abundance? i. The fraction of a sample of atoms that is composed of a certain isotope ii. Can help determine the average atomic mass (calculations in notes) g. Know how the color each element puts off is based on wavelengths and electron location h. Understand and be able to write out the Bohr model i. Each electron must have certain orbits based on energy amounts 1. Each energy level has a corresponding quantum number (n) that can be 17 2. Each energy level represents a period on the periodic table (17). 3. The lowest energy level is known as n=1 and increase along with the periods (this can increase infinitely, but does not reach above 7). ii. The amount of absorbed energy must be a specific amount for the electron to jump between energy levels. 1. The same amount will be emitted as the electron falls back down to its primary energy level ii. Example i. Understand the 4 types of orbitals i. S 1. One orbital level that fits 2 electrons ii. P 1. Three orbital levels that fit 2 electrons each for a total of 6 electrons iii. d 1. Five orbital levels that fit 2 electrons each for a total of 10 electrons iv. f 1. Seven orbital levels that fit 2 electrons each for a total of 14 electrons j. Know the three electron configuration principles/rules i. Pauli Exclusion Principle 1. No two numbers can have to same set of four quantum numbers ii. Aufbau Principle 1. Elements fill from the lowest energy levels to the highest iii. Hund’s Rule 1. When filling orbitals, each orbital level gets an electron before they will double up. k. Know how to write out atomic subshell levels using the above rules and know what a Z number is i. Exact order will be on top of test 1. Still know that S goes first and fits 2 electrons, etc ii. A z number is representative of that elements atomic number l. Know what a valence electron is and what it does i. The outermost electrons of an element that interact with other elements m. Know the difference between a cation and an anion and their properties i. Ion a charged atom ii. Cation a positive ion due to electron lose 1. Formed by metals 2. Add ion after element to get name iii. Anion a negative ion due to electron gain 1. Formed by nonmetals 2. Replace end of element with –ide to name iv. Neutral ions behave differently than charged v. Charged elements can look like a noble gas and are called ISOELECTONIC IONS n. Know the trends of the periodic table and why they occur i. Atomic radii 1. Decrease in size due to positive charge (smallest in top right corner) 2. Increase in size as the number of orbitals increases (largest in bottom left) ii. Ionic size 1. Grow in size as electrons are gained and charge becomes negative 2. Shrink in size as electrons are lost and the charge becomes positve
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