HDF 110 Exam 1 Study Guide COMPLETE study guide
HDF 110 Exam 1 Study Guide COMPLETE study guide HDF 110
Popular in Roots and Impact on Human Development
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Carlesimo on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDF 110 at Central Michigan University taught by Monica Miller Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Roots and Impact on Human Development in Human Development at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Correlation between health and wealth (health gradient) o The wealthier you are, the healthier you are o Wealth is the strongest predictor of health o Children living in poverty are 7 times more likely to have poor health Impact of stress on health o The more stress you have in your life, the worst your health is o The more stress, the weaker your immune system Key research findings/facts discussed on Unnatural Causes o The U.S life expectancy compared to other countries th U.S is in 29 place o 15 years is the greatest difference in life expectancy observed between U.S counties o There are 4 times as many supermarkets in white neighborhoods compared to Black or Latino’s o The biggest predictor of health is whether you are wealthy or not/ class pyramid o The gap between white and blacks infant mortality is greater than it was in 1950. o The child poverty rate in the U.S is 21.2% o The Top 1% of American Families own more wealth than the bottom, 90% combined Link between race and health o Oppressed races have lower health and lower life expectancy o Recent Latino Immigrants had the best health, but the longer they stay in American they worse their health due to poor living conditions and insufficient health care o Social reforms increased life expectancy by 30 years Role of individualism in oppression o Mass hides the role that social forcers play in people success and failure and the way that contributes to maintain oppressive roots. o Outcome of success and failure is due to individual choices o Blaming the Victim (if you are poor, you’re a drug addict) o Keeps people uninvolved o Limits broad social change, focuses on individual solutions Health/Social policies differences between U.S. and other countries o The U.S is the only industrialized country not to require that employers offer paid sick leave by law o California is the only U.S state that offers any paid family leave, and San Francesco is not the first city in the country to adopt a paid sick leave law o The U.S is the only industrialized country that does not guarantee paid days off by law o Citizens in different countries have longer life expectancies and better health because they are more EGALITARIAN (free, democratic) o Social policies like living wage jobs, paid sick and family leave, paid vacations, universal preschool and guaranteed health care are mandated by law in many other countries, but not the U.S Suggestions for improving health made by Unnatural Causes o Improve Income and reduce wealth inequalities Raise the minimum wage to a livable level o Improve social inclusion Decrease social inequality, equalize funding for schools, build diverse neighborhoods o Promote Racial justice o Promote better working conditions o Improve conditions for children Increase social support for families, paid family leave, low cost preschool o Improve physical environment Create more parks, sidewalks, fresh food markets o Improve schools Environmental racism/injustice (what is it, impact, who is at greatest risk) o Environmental Injustice refers to the unequal distribution of environmental hazards. These contaminants have tremendous impact on the health and well being of residents o Factors most related: RACE, and SES (in this order) o Who is at risk: Minorities, Black communities, low SES neighborhoods Traditional environmental groups vs. environmental justice groups. o Traditional: Focus on wildlife, land, etc. o Environmental: Focus on living environments for people (inner cities, etc.) Poverty rates (overall and by race) o Poverty rates somewhat stabilized after several years of increase with no statistical significant difference from 2011 with 46.5 million people or 15% of the people in the U.S live in official poverty o U.S has the highest poverty rate of an industrialized (wealthy) nation o Lowest poverty rates exist for white White9.7% Blacks27.2% Hispanics25.3% o 39% of black children and 35% of Hispanic children or more than 1 in 3 live in poverty compared to 12% of white children or 1in 10 Limitations of current poverty measures o Doesn’t realize the living wage o Formula was designed in the 1960’s o Hasn’t changed with the change of our economics o Housing, health care, and transportation cost SIGNIFICANTLY more, food costs less Using the 1960’s model food costs were estimated to be 1/3 of families budgettoday its closer to 1/7. o Poverty Threshold: is used to determine eligibility for various government programs (food, free lunches, etc) o There are MANY more poor people than identified by poverty measures Living wage vs. minimum wage in the U.S. o Living wage: is the amount of money that is considered sufficient for you and your family to cover basic costs of living (basic needs like in project) o Minimum wage: established by the federal government law, sets the lowest wage an employer may legally pay their workers. Set at $7.25 This is NOT a living wage Working minimum wage means $15,080 assuming 40 hours a week for 52 weeks (NO vacation time, getting sick…) Cradle to prison pipeline (what? who? why?) o 1 in 3 black and 1 in 6 Latino boys are at risk of imprisonment during their lifetime o Government spends 3 times more money per prisoner compared to public school pupil o Campaign is to reduce detention rates by increasing preventative supports such as proving childcare, health care, etc. “Triple Whammy” experienced by single mothers o Single mother experience 3 things that make it more likely for them suffer from poverty. o 41% of single mothers live in poverty o 1) Far lower wages than men even with equal education and experiences (currently .77 to the 1.00 for full time year round) o 2) Must juggle paid and unpaid work (children’s school, childcare, sick children) in a work place this is unsupported o 3) Unlike married women, they do not have support from a partner for economic and or childcare responsibilities Myths and Realities about class in America discussed by Mantsios o Myth 1: The united states is fundamentally a classless society o Reality 1: There are enormous differences in the economic standing of American Citizens. 60% of American population holds less than 6% of the nation’s wealth During economic boom of the 1990’s, 4 out of 5 Americans saw their share of net worth decline o Myth 2: We are, essentially, a middle class nation o Reality 2:The middle class in the United States holds a very small share of the nations wealth and that share is declining steadily The gap between the rich and poor and between the rich and the middle class is larger than it has ever been o Myth 3: We are all getting richer o Reality 3: Even ignoring the extreme poles of the economic spectrum, we find enormous class differences in the lifestyle among the haves, havenots, and the havelittles. o Myth 4: Everyone has a equal chance to succeed o Reality 4: from cradle to grave, class standing has a significant impact on our chances of survival The lower ones class standing, the more difficult it is to secure appropriate housing, the more time is spent on routine tasks of everyday life… o Reality 5: Class standing has a significant impact on chances for educational achievement Class standing, and life changes sadly are determined at birth o Reality 6: All Americans do not have an equal opportunity to succeed. Inheritance laws ensure a greater likelihood of success for the offspring of the wealthy o Reality 7: Racism and sexism compound the effects of class in society In other words, being female and being nonwhite are attributes in our society that increase the chances of poverty and lower class standing Distribution of wealth in U.S. including changes in recent years o Gap between those at top and those at bottom widens o In 2010, the bottom 40% of the population combined has only .3% of wealth, while the top 20% possess 84% o The average annual earnings of the top 1% of wage earners grew 156% from 19792007 o Workers in the bottom 90% had the weakest wage growth, at 17% from 1979 2007 o In 1978 average CEO made 35 times as much as average worker in 2010 average CEO made 243 times as much as average worker Paradox of the American Dream o The American dream is to have a good education since everyone is entitled to public education, but not everyone has equal opportunities for success o Premises of American Dream Equality of opportunity Reasonable anticipation of success Individual responsibility for success Success as virtue. Failure as sin. o Democratic Capitalism o These two ideas collide, which contributes with the problem o Democracy: is a political system in which supreme power is vested in the citizensgovernment by THE PEOPLE, justified by the principle of SOCIAL EQAULITY o Capitalism: is an economic system based on the pursuit of PROFIT and private ownership, resulting in pervasive economic inequality. Capitalism is organized on social class relations of dominance and subordination SES and race differences in education o Education is different SES prepares working class students for working class jobs, and wealthy families for higher paying and prestigious careers o School funding is based on local property tax, so schools in lower SES are not being funded as much as the higher SES. o Anyon’s study of impact of class on Education Working class schools Taught to follow orders and perform routine and mechanical work Teachers focus on discipline and controlling the class Middle and Upper class schools Middle: taught to get the right answer, not to be creative or critical thinkers Uppermiddle: Focused on creativity in problem solving, working independently Elite: Encourage to develop their analytical intellectual powers. Much more freedom for children o These schools had… Increased preparation by teachers More materials More support from teachers and other counselors Better student acceptance o Kozol Observations of low income schools Highly racial segregated Highly structured Forced activities Little room for creativity Positive attitudes by teachers for the future of their children SES and parenting (“concerted cultivation” vs. “accomplishment of natural growth”) o Middle and Upper class families focus on “concentrated cultivation” Actively trying to socialize their children to learn how to interact with the world, interact with peer and other adults Involve their children into extra activities o Disadvantages and advantages Engage in reasoning, and conversation Positive influence on language development along with reasoning skills Child is in control of their environment, have a sense of entitlement (right and ability to pursue their own preferences) Build confidence and lets them feel they are in control of their environment and have a right to have their desires met Learn CULTRUAL CAPITAL—which will help them navigate the world around them o Low income and working class families focus on “ accomplishment of natural growth” Parents do not feel the need to involve the children in extra activities— children will develop on their own with own interactions Spend a lot of unstructured time with family and friends Less exposed to reasoning skills, and expected to obey parents without questioning them Develop a sense of constraint, and do not learn to skills necessary to interact effectively Less language development More likely to rebel against institutions or defer Two ways segregation still exists in the US 1) Between schools or residential segregation Public education is organized around neighborhoods, reflecting class, SES, and often facial segregation Working class children tend to go to school with other working class children, and not wealthy children o 2) within schools via Tracking Tracking is also known as the “ability group” Academic aptitude used to determine tracks is typically measured by test scores on tests that measure only one type of intelligence and that are race and class biased Favor dominant group, and dominant group, and higher SES children is more likely to be in higher track Ways the current education system contributes to the reproduction of racial and socioeconomic inequality o Residential segregation o Financial requirements of private schoolsmainly white because of price o The legacy of a history by law of racial segregation that lasted until the 1960’s o School funding is only provided through property tax, which is keeping those public schools in lower SES poor. o Tracking—benefits is to allow teacher to tailor the needs to their level of intelligence, but there is an increasing gap between advantaged and disadvantaged Educational reform strategies: strengths and limitations of each No Child Left Behind: Focus on improving teacher qualifications Limitations: “qualified” is only based on degree and not their approach More testing Limitation: Penalizing schools where children don’t do good, but these children are already suffering…can result in the opposite effect School of choice Limitations: this is more of a “myth” because yes, they are given the option to choose a school, but less than 1% are successful. If there is not space, then they don’t have to or cant take other children and become selective and choose higher students over lower Some states are beginning to try and work on funding equitymet with much resistance Michigan Proposal A: 1994 o Put more STATE control on funding, but always loopholes because you can’t ask tax payers to pay more o Helped some, but has not equalized funding across the state Weber’s perspective on tracking o Promotes Detracking and Desegregation*eliminate unequal allocation of resources to schools and particular groups (tracks) including school funding based on property tax o Opposed to the testing to track kids, because the Dominant group controls what is on those tests, and on dominant group perspective Those in higher track (mainly dominant group) are given more resources and help compared to kids on lower track Factors contributing to the reproduction of social class in U.S. o Once children grow up, they are most likely to stay in the SES they grew up in o Those children in low social class are not receiving the education like the higher class, and puts them in a cycle of not being able to succeed o Students end up in occupations and earning incomes based with their IQ and the educations received (CYCLE) o Children in upper tracks become more success compared to lower track students o Flaws in the system o The economy, and cultural ideology also contribute
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