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BIOL 201 Dr. Margulies Chapter 2 Study Guide ANSWERS

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by: Maya Lee

BIOL 201 Dr. Margulies Chapter 2 Study Guide ANSWERS 201

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Maya Lee

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These notes cover all the information that will be on the Chapter 2 Examlet
Intro to Cell BIOL & Genetics
Dr. Margulies
Study Guide
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"Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this..."
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maya Lee on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 201 at Towson University taught by Dr. Margulies in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
BIOL201 Study Guide Unit 2: Molecules, Water, and Carbon 1. What is the difference between an atom, an element and a compound?   An atom is a small particle that makes up all matter, thus making it  the smallest part of an element. Elements cannot be broken down into  a simpler type of matter whether it be physically or chemically and  consist of only one kind of atom. On the other hand a Compound  consists of atoms of two or more elements that are bound together and can be broken down into a simpler type of matter chemically but not  physically.  2. What is an atomic number? How does that differ from the atomic mass of an  element? What subatomic particles contribute to the atomic number? To the  atomic mass?   An atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom and differs from the atomic mass because the atomic mass is the  number of neutrons and protons added together that are found in an  atom.  3. If an element has an atomic number of 6 and an atomic mass of 14, how many  protons and how many neutrons does it have?  It has 6 protons because the atomic number is 6 and the atomic  number tells you the number of protons an atom has and the atomic  mass equals the number of protons which in this case is 6 plus the  number of neutrons which you can find out is 8 by subtracting what  we know (6 protons) from 14. 8+6= 14 4. If you have three atoms with the following atomic masses and numbers, what is  the relationship between these atoms? Atom Atomic Number Atomic Mass A 6 11 B 6 12 C 6 14  The relationship between these atoms are that they are isotopes  because they have the same atomic number, but different atomic  masses. 5. What are isotopes of an element?  What subatomic particle gives rise to different isotopes? Isotopes of  an element are atoms of a single element that possess different  neutrons. Neutrons are the subatomic particles that give rise to  different isotopes because they have the same number of protons, but  different number of neutrons which causes their atomic masses to all  be different.  6. What is an ion? What subatomic particle gives rise to different ions?  An ion is when the number of electrons does not equal the number of  protons. The subatomic particle that gives rise to different ions is the  electrons.  7. What is radioactivity?   When the nucleus breaks up into elements with lower atomic  numbers. This nuclear break up emits a significant amount of energy  called radioactive decay and isotopes that decay in this fashion are  called radioactive isotopes.  8. How are elements arranged on the periodic table? How are different trends  arranged?  The chemical elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.  Elements with similar properties are arranged in the same column (called a  group) and elements with the same number of electron shells are arranged in the same row (called a period).  The octet rule:  one filled s orbital and three  filled p orbitals. Exception to this rule is He, which only needs two electrons  to fill the 1s orbital. 9. Draw the electron shell diagram of an atom based on the atomic number. Use that  information to predict the number of covalent and/or ionic bonds that atom will  form based on the atomic number. For example, do this for an atom with the  atomic number of 14. 10. How does the periodic table reflect the electron shell configuration of atoms?  Why do atoms in the same column exhibit similar reactivities? Valence electrons  are listed at the top of the columns on the periodic table showing their  electron shell configuration. They have similar reactivities because they have  the same number of valence electrons.  11. What are the differences between covalent, ionic, hydrogen and hydrophobic  bonds? Which are the strongest? Which are the weakest? Covalent is electron sharing. Ionic opposites attract. Hydrogen bonds to  oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine. Hydrophobic they are not attracted to water.  Makes bonds with water and repels the other atoms away. Covalent, Ionic,  Hydrogen, and Hydrophobic (listed from strongest to weakest) 12. What are the differences between polar and non­polar covalent bonds? How can  one distinguish between polar and non­polar compounds?  Polar covalent bonds are unequal distribution results in regions of partial  negative charge near the more electronegative atom and regions of partial  positive charge near the less electronegative atom. Nonpolar covalent bonds  arises when the electronegativities of the two atoms are equal creating equal  sharing of the bond electrons. To distinguish between polar and nonpolar  compounds. An electronegative atom pulls electrons to one side more than  the other because one side has a higher electronegativity than the other.  13. What are six emergent properties of water? Give one example of each. How does  the polarity of water, especially hydrogen bonding, provide for each of these  emergent properties? 1) Water’s high specific heat helps maintain temperature­ water is nonpolar  thus it can form hydrogen bonds these bonds are strong making water have  to boil at such a high temperature.  2) Water’s high heat of vaporization facilitates cooling­ 3) Solid water is less dense than liquid water 4) The solvent properties of water help move ions and polar molecules 5) Water organizes nonpolar molecules 6) Water can form ions 14. What is the relative density of water when compared to ice? Why is this  difference in density important for life on earth? Ice is less dense than liquid water because the hydrogen bonds in ice space  the water molecules relatively far apart. The buoyancy of ice is important  ecologically because it means bodies of water freeze from top to bottom and  not the bottom up. Because ice floats on the surface of lakes in the winter and the water beneath the ice remains liquid, fish and other animals keep from  freezing. 15. How does polarity effect solubility of a given solute in a particular solvent? What  kinds of compounds are soluble in water? In oil? Why? 16. What are the relative water solubilities of octane and glucose?   Octane is less soluble because it is nonpolar and glucose is polar thus  it can hydrogen bond and is soluble. 17. What is specific heat? Why it so important to life as we know it? Why is the  specific heat of water so much higher than that of other small molecules?  Specific heat is the specific temperature it takes to break apart bonds  in a substance. It’s higher than other molecules because it has lots of  strong hydrogen bonding.  18. What is the formal definition of pH? What range of pH defines an acid? A base?  A neutral substance? pH is stands for partial hydrogen as the negative  logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution: pH= ­log[H+].  Acid: 0­6 Base: 8­14 Neutral : 7.  19. What is a buffer? How does carbonic acid/bicarbonate work as a buffer? What  part of our body relies on this buffering system? A buffer is a substance that  resists changes in pH. Buffers release hydrogen ions when a base is added  and absorbs hydrogen ions when acid is added with the overall effect of  keeping [H+] relatively constant. The carbonic acid works as a buffer  because it controls the pH of the blood. The body relies on this system in the  blood.  20. Compare the relative H+ concentration in Coca Cola (~pH 4) to rain water (~pH  7). Which has a higher H+ concentration, and how much greater is it (1X, 2X, 3X, 10X, 100X or 1000X)?  Coca Cola has a higher H+ concentration and is 1000x greater than  rain water.  21. What is the pH of a solution with a H+ concentration of 1.0 x 10 M? ­5   pH= log[1.0x10^­5]= 5 22. If you place 0.01 moles of a strong acid into one liter of water, what will the pH  be? 23. If you add 1.0x10  moles of a strong acid to one liter of a solution containing 0.1  M buffer at pH 7, what will the new pH be (approximately)? 24. What are the following functional groups called: ­OH (Hydroxyl), ­SH (thial),  ­NH (2 ine), ­COOH (Carboxyl), ­PO (Phospha4e), ­CH (Methyl) ? Wh3t  kinds of biological molecules contain those groups? What two functional groups  are on an amino acid? How does each functional group interact with water; what  does that tell you about their relative water solubility, and why? 25. What is an isomer? What is a stereoisomer? A structural isomer? 26. What is a hydrolysis reaction? A dehydration reaction? How does each contribute  to biological chemistry?


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