Survey of American History Study Guide for Exam 1
Survey of American History Study Guide for Exam 1 1903
Arkansas Tech University
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Justin A. Whitney
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Wisenbaker on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1903 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History in History at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
American history began with the Native Americans o with their oral history. o The problem: the story could have been different or exaggerated. o humans in America as far back as twenty-five thousand years ago. Europe was coming out of the dark ages. o The Pope had asked the Christians to invade the Middle East take back the Holy Land. known as the Crusades. Christians began to eat the local food. The people in Europe had never tasted spices. Muslims defeated the Christians, Christians retreated back to Europe. created a demand for Asian spices. The problem: long way over land to get the spices. birth of the spice trade. o Spices were very expensive because they had to go through so many people. In 1418 a Portugal prince named Prince Henry the Navigator want to tap into the spice trade o to import a greater quantity of spices for a cheaper price. o to develop a water trade route to cut out the middle man. opened up a Maritime Academy o to improve navigation on the open waters of the ocean. o They experimented with ship design, sail design, navigation equipment (Magnetic Coumpus) , astrolabe and staff (lets the sailors figure out where they are in the middle of the ocean). In 1488, Portugal had set sail to India they set up the first trade route. started trade with Africa. Christopher Columbus o born in the mid 1400’s in Genute, Italy. o apprentice to a sailor, grew up sailing. o a renaissance man. o master navigator o spoke many languages o reader o studied Aristotle (Math) o studied Marco Polo. Marco Polo’s family had traveled as far east as China, when he returned back to Italy he brought back riches that Khan had given him. o wanted to find another way to china without following Portugal’s trade route o believed that China was directly across the sea from Europe. In that time, everything from India to China was known as the Indies. o asked King Ferdinand and Queen Isabelle to fund his trip. promised that if they funded the trip that he would bring the Catholic Faith to the Indies. o In September of 1492 he set sail. o On October 12, 1492 , spotted land which was named San Salvador (modern day Bahamas). o then started sailing south to Hispaniola (Modern day Hattie and Dominican Republic). o first time Columbus saw people. first time in twelve thousand years that someone from Europe made contact with someone from America. The first Indians that Columbus encountered were the Taino thought were Indies. came into contact there was culture shock. The Europeans were fully clothed Indians were probably in little or no clothing. no way for them to communicate with each other o both spoke different languages. o next few months, Columbus discovered that the Taino Indians had gold and a working gold mine. o called the Taino’s “Children of Nature” that they were truly kind and peaceful people. o He then decided that they should be slaves in exchange to be taught the Catholic Faith. o After a few months, Columbus decided to go back to Spain. He left some of his men on Christmas Eve. o The sailors began to demand tribute from the Indians in the form of gold, food, and women. The Taino Indians rose up and killed some of the sailors. o Columbus came back with thousands of Europeans. saw what the Indians had done he slaughtered them. brought back with him guns, cannons, horse, swords, and dogs. The dogs that he brought over were Greyhounds o were trained for war. The Indians had no way to defend themselves. Conquering the new world o In the year 1508 the Europeans began to conquer Porto Rico. o In 1511 they conquered Cuba. In 1513, they made their way to Florida. o All the Spanish conquest were brutal. o Herman Cortez was a professionally trained Spanish soldier. o In 1505, Cortez went to the new world. He was involved in the conquest for Porto Rico and Cuba. He learned about the Aztec Empire from a slave girl. She told him that they had tons of gold. He did not have permission to go conquer the Aztecs. But he agreed to do another conquest in Cuba. Once he had won he threatened the caption of a ship and set sailed for Vera Cruse in 1519. He knew what he was doing was treason, when he got to Varecruse, he burned the ships. Cortez and his 500 men would later take over the Aztecs. The Aztec capitol was Techatclan (modern day Mexico City). They were very sophisticated. The Aztec Empire was bigger than the Roman Empire. Their capital was the biggest at the time (5-20 million people). The empire was ruled by Montazuma II. They did human sacrifices to the sun god. The Aztecs pyramids looked like boxes stacked ontop of eachother. Over a two year period, Cortez conquered the Aztec Empire with 500 men. His strategy was to recruit other Indian tribes to help him. He adopted the saying “ the enemy of my enemy is my friend”. The slave girl Cortez had brought with him, introduced him to the tribes that were enemies with the Aztecs. When Cortez got to the city, the emperor invited him in because Montazuma II thought he was an Aztec god. Cortez captured the emperor and used him as tool to more gold. When the Aztecs got tired of this the place people killed montazuma and tried to kill Cortez. When the Spanish came to the new world they brought with them diseases that the Indians were not immune to. One of these diseases was small pox. Biology worked in the favor of the Spanish. The disease spread though the whole village and 90% of the Native Americans died because of European diseases. By the year 1521 the Spanish launched their final attack on the Aztecs. After the attack Cortez made himself the emperor of the Aztecs. All the captions he made war lords and helped them raise up their own armies. Cortez was the model conquistador. He paid 20%of his gold to the Spanish country. o Desoto conquered form Florida to Memphis, Arkansas. o Cornado made it all the way to Kansas/ Nebraska. o The Spanish did not mean to not go further, but the Indians were different. All the Indians in the United States were nomadic Indians, which meant it was harder to hunt them down and attack them. All the Indians in the south were sedentary. The biggest reason the Spanish stayed in the south was because there was no gold in the north. It did not seem worth the expense to the Spanish, The English and the French soon came to America within the next 10 years of Columbus’s discovery. o But they made no effort to colonize till the 1580’. o Jaguque Cartie sailed the St. Laurence River to colonize, which would eventually fail. o The first established city by the French would be modern day Quebec by Samuel d’Champlain in 1609. o The third great empire established in the new world was the French. o Jacques Cartie was their explorer and he wanted to find the Northwest Passage. The Northwest Passage was the idea that there was a waterway through the new world. Instead of the passage, he found the St. Laurence River Valley. Cartie followed it to where modern day Quebec, Canada is. He eventually received permission to establish a settlement. It failed because it was established with convicts, it was cold, and there was mutiny. France did not establish a colony till Samuel De Champlain. o In 1609, Champlain received permission from the king to establish a colony and have a monopoly on the fur trade. o He established it in Quebec and later Montreal. He wanted to establish it based on the fur trade with the Indians. By the time Champlain came, European diseased had killed most Indians up in Canada. His business motto was “Let the Indians remain Indians” . The reasoning for this was because they could kill and make high quality fur. Champlain encouraged his traders to change to accommodate the Indian, like learn their language and culture. He also told his men to give the chiefs tons of gifts and to make friends with him and try to marry the chiefs daughter. This would keep strong ties with the tribe and the traders. This was very different from the Spanish approach, who wanted the Indians to become like Spanish. The only thing that Champlain insisted on is that the Indians hate the British. The French mainly did business with the Heron. The Herons became friends with the French and then proceeded to introduce them to their Indian allies. Champlain was very strict on who he let immigrate into the New France. To come to Canada you had to have a letter saying that you were a good person and a good citizen. At its height there were only 60thousand French citizens in New France. Yet the influence of the French spread all over Canada and eventually down to the Gulf of Mexico. English o The English were also looking for the Northwest passage. o They were the second big power in the New World in 1497. o John Cabot was an Italian navigator. He was supported by the king and found Newfoundland. Then he traveled up towards Canada and Maine. He got lost at sea on his second voyage. England did not attempt another voyage for 85 years. In those 85 years, King Henry married Catharine the princess of Spain when they were both young. Catharine never had a son so Henry wanted a divorce. Catharine was the niece of the Pope so the Pope did not agree to the thvorce. Henry the 8 wanted to marry one of his mistresses, Anne Boleyn. Because the pope would not let Henry divorce Catharine, Henry left the Catholic Church and started his own church, the Church of England. He named himself the head of the church and the first thing he said was that Catharine and him were divorced. This started a landside. This started the cold war which lasted 50 years and almost started a civil war between the English people. The civil war was between the Mary (Queen Catharine’s daughter) and Elizabeth the 1 (Anne Boleyn’s daughter). o In the 1580’s, Richard Hakluyt wrote a book called “Discourses on Western Planting”. This pamphlet became an argument on why England should colonize the New World. He said that it would first stop the Catholic faith from spreading. Second it would be a way to drain off the excess people in the city. He also thought it would be a revenue source. It would also be a way to keep an eye on the Spanish. o Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish a colony called Roanoke. The first attempt failed because he brought adventurers, not people who just wanted to colonize. He wanted to be an English modern day Cortez. He left when he was about to face a mutiny. The second attempt was in Virginia but was still named Roanoke. It also failed because a war between Spain and England broke out. When the war started a ship from Roanoke had been sent back to England to get more supplies. But they were not allowed to leave for three years because they didn’t want the ship to be captured by the Spanish Armada. When the ship finally did return in 1591 everyone and everything was gone. Coratian was the only proof that someone was there. It is know as the “lost colony”. Walter Raleigh had personal funned both failed trips. It showed England that no one person or small group could profit from colonization. o In 1604 a joint stock company, London Company, sold stock to investors. o In 1607, the London Company sailed three ships up the Chesapeake bay, up the James River, and established Jamestown in honor of King James II of England. This was the first permanent English colony. They established it in a swamp. Out of the 112 men that were brought to Jamestown only 12 were labors. They others listed their jobs a “gentlemen” also known as soldiers. They were not workers. There were very few farmers, carpenters. It was hard for them to survive. Jamestown was lucky because they quickly made contact with the Powhatan Confederacy. Powhatan was anxious to be friends with the English to establish a trade relationship in exchange for steel. o All of the tools that the Indians made were from stone. o The problem with this, is that it was easily broken. o They wanted what we would think of as a butchers knife. o One of the most popular trading items was a copper pot. o Indians loved soup, but it was hard to make without a pot and the supplies that they had available. o The British traded for food. The holy trinity of Indian agriculture was corn, beans, and squash. o They had different verities of the plants (squash, pumpkins, lima beans, and green beans). o The British thought that they were cultural elites, who were too good to grow and harvest of their own food. The British soon demanded tribute from the Indians. When the Indians did not give them what they wanted, the British began to kill, burn, and destroy them and their homes. By 1609 there was a full blow war. John Smith was out patrolling and got captured by Powhatan’s half brother, Opechancanough. Opechancanough was captured some time before by the Spanish. He was brought to Spain and was taught Spanish so that he could become a translator. When he was brought back he ran away back to Virginia. Opechancanough hated the English and he planned to kill Smith. Just at the last minute, Pocahontas jumped in front of smith to save him. Not out of love but probably as a political theatre. Meaning that the whole thing was staged. This would be a benefit to stop the war and start trading again. The Indians wanted to trade items as a way to be a middle man to sell to other Indians for profit. o When John Smith got back to Jamestown he made the policy “You don’t work, you don’t eat”. This meant that everyone had to help with all the work. The fort was finally completed because of this. o In 1609, Smith was badly burned and had to return to England to heal. o In the winter of 1609-1610, the gentlemen went back to their old ways. They started raiding Indian tribes. This time the Indians laid siege to Jamestown. They made it dangerous to leave the fort. There was around 500 men in the fort at the beginning of the winter. Diseases spread, no running water, starvation, they were very unhygienic, and the winter was extremely cold. This became known as the “winter of starving times”. In April of 1610 when the supply ships arrived there was only 60 people left. There is proof of cannibalism. o In 1610 there was another period of peace that lasted about 10 years. o Jamestown was a corporate colony, there to make a profit for the London Company. Crops o John Rolfe noticed that the Indians liked to smoke. The Indian tobacco was way too hard though. o In 1612, Rolfe started to experiment with tobacco. o In 1616, he planted what he thought would be the best tobacco yet. It ended up selling like crazy in Europe. o The people of Jamestown started to plant tobacco everywhere possible. o This demand of tobacco made it a staple crop. o It became so valuable it became a money source. o Tobacco led to the start of the plantation agriculture (cheap labor). Cheap labor was needed because it needed a lot of people, maximized profits, and was a labor intensive crop. o There was several steps to go from seed to supply. It starts in a “hot house” where each seed is planted in its own pot to germinate. Then after it germinates it has to be planted by hand in the field. Then watch it grow for months. Every flower bud has to be cut off so it doesn’t reproduce. For months farmers watch the plant and cut off the flower buds. At harvest time each leaf has to be cut by hand. The leaves are then put in a tobacco barn where it has to be cured. o Farmers got indentured servants for cheap labor. They were not slaves. They were contract workers. They signed a contract that said they would work for free passage and freedom dues for four to seven years. A freedom due usually consisted of new clothes, land, seed, live stock, and sometimes more money. The things a person would need to start their own farms. While they were indentured servants they did not get paid, they only got room and board. The servants were not slaves but they were treated like they were. They were at their master’s mercy; he could do whatever he wanted. Indentured servants became popular in Jamestown because of the head right system. It was instated in 1618, it was there to attract a better kind of colonist to Jamestown. It said if you had the money to buy a share of the company or buy a ticket to Jamestown through the London Company, you would get 50 acres. For every servant you brought with you, you would get an extra 50 acres. In the year 1619, a Dutch war ship showed up to sell 20 African servants. When the 20 Africans were sold they were not initially seen as slaves, but as indentured servants. As time passed, tobacco prices dropped, people in Jamestown were in deep dept, this is when the colonist became scared, greedy, and then pettie. They began to cut labor cost 20%-30%of the servants die because of the climate. So they were out about 60 pounds of tobacco per servant. The Africans were different, they weren’t Christians, didn’t speak the language, different values and culture. The masters began to keep the Africans and not pay them. They justified it because God marked them as black because they were bad. o They bore the “Mark of Ham”. o Slavery was justified by their fear. o Over the years slavery grew as a way of free labor. Slavery vs. Indentured servent o Indentured servants were the poor people of England. A lot of them were orphans or convicts. There contracts were four to seven year, but it was very easy for the contract to be extended. The contracts were extended if the servant did not obey their master or if property was damaged. They considered starting a family as damaging property. o Slavery came from a white-ideology. It was just justified because they looked different; they weren’t like the English in culture or religion. Two major reasons to keep slaves, was because the Africans could survive the seasoning process. They were use to the hot climate where as those who came from London were used to cooler climate. London sits on the same parallel as New York, so the weather and air was different to them. Many indentured servants died because of the climate from heat stroke or heat exhaustion. Most Africans slaves came from around the Equator line, so the heat did not bother them. The second reason was that they didn’t have to pay freedom dues which created competition. Increase supply means a decrease in demand Slavery made a slow transition from 1620 to 1680. In the 1670’s Virginia began to introduce the “slave codes”. They were a set of laws regulating the slave trade. It made the slaves a type of property. They became “Chattel”, which means human property. The laws defined what it meant to be black and white. o If you were white you were an indentured servant, if you were black then you were a slave. o It also said that if the mother was black and a slave then the child was a black slave. o The other Southern colonies began to popup in this time. Colonies o Maryland was established in 1634 as a southern colony. It was established by George Calvert (Lord Baltimore). It was established as a safe haven for Catholics. Immediately it became like Virginia (the staple crop was tobacco). o The Carolinas were originally one colony but there was distinct North and South region. It was started in 1650 but didn’t have its first town for 15 years later. The main thing manufactured in North Carolina was tar, pitch, and turpentine. South Carolina started off with a big city (Charleston). It was an urban/ cosmopolitan city. The people who settled there were from Bermuda. Their main crop was sugar cane. By the early 1700’s the families from Bermuda were 3re or 4 sons from wealthy families sent to the new world by their families to establish plantations. o When these sons arrived there was already a home built and furnished and all their slaves were there waiting for them. o These sons were very rich aristocrats. Because tobacco and corn did not grow very well in South Carolina, they grew rice. o The rice came from the slaves who grew it back in the homelands. The second cash crop was indigo, which is a purpleish blue flower that could be changed into a dye. South Carolina was the only colony that had two cash crops. It was also one of the only places were the slaves outnumbered the free. o Georgia was established around the 1700’s as colony for convicts. o In general the south was very aristocratic in nature. This was because of the plantations and the slaves. They tried to model their lives as a British aristocratic. The richest American was the poorest British. But they prided themselves as being as self sufficient as possible. The North When the North was established it was very different from the South. o The first Northern Colony was established by the pilgrims. They were religious zealous and traveled to the Holy sites. They were not puritans, they were separatists. They thought that the Church of England was still too influenced by the Catholic Church. The Pilgrims cut all ties with the Church of England, left England, and went to first Holland. They believed that their kids were become too Dutch. They then went back to England. By 1619, they left again to cleanse themselves from England. They sailed across the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower in 1620. They were blown off course by storms so it took them three months to make it to the New World. In December of 1620 they spotted Cape Cod, and settled there. They called it Plymouth Rock. The supplies that they had brought with them went bad while they were at sea. When the next group from England arrived they only found 50 of the 120 people. They next year 1621 was a better year for the pilgrims. The Wampanoag and Narragansett noticed them and ended up helping them survive. Somoset was the first Indian to talk to the pilgrims because he knew some English but not enough to understand what all was going on. Later he brought back Squanto. o He was the reason the pilgrims survived. o He also worked out a peace treaties with the surrounding tribes along with trade agreements. o He taught the pilgrims how to survive on Cape Cod. o He taught them how to catch fish then plant them so that they would neutralize the soil. At the end of the first successful harvest they had the first thanksgiving feast. They served fish and sea food (oyster and scallops), deer, corn , beans, and squash. The colony was called Plymouth Plantation. o In 1630 a second group landed around Boston, Massachusetts. They established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was settled by the Puritans. They were different from the pilgrims because they wanted to reform the Church of England. They wanted to purify the church. To do this they wanted to start their colony based on God’s Rules for Man. Their first governor was Jonathan Winthrop. He said that their colony would be a City on the Hill, that they would be a light to the world. Puritans were never thought to have a good time, they were thought to be buzz kills. They were thought to be judgmental and took every thing that God said very seriously. They story “The Scarlet Letter” shows how people thought of puritans. Puritans believe that God should be always on their mind. They believe should in the world but not of it, meaning that the world was good but not so good that it took away from God. They believed in moderation, it was ok to enjoy things but not just too much. Unlike the south were people settled as individuals, in Massachusetts people settled as communities. Sometimes they came over as whole congregations. Slowly as the communities grew, the people spread out as smaller communities and made new towns. The first thing that was built in the town was the church, the first thing that the town did was hire a preacher. The church was a place where the community could come together. The other big function for the church was because it doubled as a school. The Southern Colonies were established by individuals. o In the North, farming was a smaller enterprise, but they had smaller farm production. They had economic diversity, which meant that they had several sources of income besides farming. In the South the economy is based on the production of staple crops and slave trade. In the North there was a number of different businesses and jobs. Some of the jobs were: Farming, fishing, whaling, ship building and repairing, rigger, rope maker, lumber, store owners, brewers, distillers, lawyers, doctors, coopers, and wheelwright. There has always been more people in the North than in the South because there was more job opportunities. There was also a big shortage of women. Men would send money over to England to buy a wife. A good woman would be from 80 to 100 pounds of tobacco. There were also ship that would bring eligible women from England to be auctioned off to the highest bidder, but the women did have veto power. The North was appealing to find jobs, education, and start family. Eventually the North would outnumber the south 2 to 1. In the 1800’s it was 3 to 1. It attracted a larger immigration population. o In the 1630’s, New Hampshire became a colony. In 1635 Rhode Island was settled as Providence Plantation by Rodgers Williams. He started Providence Plantation because he was excommunicated from the Puritan colony. He was kicked out because he said that the king and the colony had committed the sin of coveting neighbor’s goods. He said that the king had stolen the land from the Native Indians. He also claimed that you cannot force someone to join the church. He took all of his followers and created Providence Plantation. o Pennsylvania was established by William Penn. He established it as a safe haven for Quakers. The Quakers were pacifist meaning that they did not believe in violence. They were known as the “Society of Friends”. They did not recognize social classes, they treated all classes the same with familiarity. William Penn was a noble’s son. His father was an admiral in the Navy. When his father died, William inherited all his dads wealth. The king owed the Penn family money, so when William went to collect it, the king just gave him the land of Pennsylvania. It was established in 1681. He worked out a treaty with the Indians and paid them for the land. He established it for true Religious Freedom, a safe haven for religious minority. Pennsylvania became a fright operation center because of where it was located on the bay. It also became the bread basket of America. They were able to grow plenty of wheat, barley, and oats. During this time of America there were many Indian Wars. o The main Indian War was the Metacom War in the north. One out of every ten people died. This war was so violent that they attacked settlements, out of the 90 towns the Indians attacked 50 of them. In the final battle the British attacked the Metacom village and killed their chief. They cut off this body parts and sent them to neighboring tribes as a way to say not to mess with them. They kept the head for themselves and had it on a spike in the center of Plymouth for 30 years. They sold his wife and kids into slavery. The Great Awakening began in 1747. o It began with George Whitefield, he was a trained Anglican preacher. He gave his speeches were giving outside in a campmeeting type environment. He preached from his heart and not from a book. He preached about personal experience. o Up until that point everyone had a Calvinist view, that God had already decided on how your life would go.
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