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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stacy Downing on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 190 at Towson University taught by preeti shah in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for health professions in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Unit 1 Review DNA Deoxvribose Nucleic Acid DNA 0 2 strand 0 Each made up of repeating nucleotide subunits DNA Nucleotide 0 Containing P04 sugar and base 0 Strands oriented in opposite directions antiparallel Mr J 0 Twisted into a double helix 0 Base Pair link strand to each other 0 Big base small Base EigH a H 0 Hydrogen Bond DEED EH r a 1 W O AT 2X quot quotErPaquot v 7 NHET EEEE EIMS o CG 3x A 0 Bases of DNA PhPE FWEE H 7 39 gruup O Thymine Cytosine Pyrimidines Small Single Ring EH H 0 Adenine Guanine Purine Big Double Ring 7 Emfgr 0 Sugar Phosphate Backbone O 5 3 0 Directly held together by Covalent bond 0 Neighboring bases are indirectly held together by the P04 sugar backbone 0 Complementary Base Pairing 0 AT 2 hydrogen bonds 0 CG 3 hydrogen bonds 0 Scientist 0 Hershey and Chase 0 Watson and Crick 0 Franklin Chargaff Hershey and Chase Experiment 0 Which type of molecule DNA or Protein contains the genetic information in a cell 0 Used virus T2 phage that reproduces by infecting bacterial cell 0 What atoms are present in each molecule 0 DNA CHONP phosphorus present 32P 0 Protein CHONS sulfur present I 35S 0 Method 0 Infected Bacterial Cell 0 Blender shake off any virus that didn t enter the cell Virus leftovers 0 Centrifuge Cellpellet Virus left over liquid They examined the radioactivity in the pellet and in the liquid of the test tube 0 Conclusion 0 DNA is the genetic material 0 32p was found in the pellet which means DNA must have entered the cell and Protein must have stayed outside of the cell bc it remained in the liquid portion of the test tube Watson and Crick 0 Made a 3D model of DNA 0 Utilized information given from FranklinWilkin XRay of DNA which found out that DNA had a width of 2nm and Chargaff AT and CG 0 Franklins resultsl they concluded which nucleotide were purine and pyrimidine DNA replication Heredity Function 0 The 2 ways cells use the genetic information stored in DNA 0 CONTROL DNA controls cells structure and function I Proteome different Proteins in the cell I Genome an organisms genetic material I Epigenome in uences which gene is expressed 0 HEREDITY copy of genetic material is transmitted to next generation 0 DNA replication is part of heredity function of DNA 0 Cell division lparent cell 2 daughter cells genetically identical 0 Copying occurs during the S phase 0 DNA Replication Cell Division Heredity 0 DNA replication aka DNA synthesis 0 DNA replication is semiconservative 0 One old strand parent strand one new strand daughter strand 0 Leading Strand continuous 0 Lagging Strand discontinuous 0 ENZYMES 0 Helicase at the origin helps DNA strands unwind and separate 0 DNA Polymerase helps free nucleotide covalently link to the template strand proofreads removes mismatched nucleotides 0 DNA Ligase helps separated fragments covalently link together Gene Expressjon Control Function 0 In uence of genetic information in DNA on cell structure and function 0 Through production of Protein 0 Genes are segments of DNA in each chromosome 0 REQUIRES 2 PROCESSES 0 DNA transcription 0 mRNA translation DNA Tr scription 0 How is it different 0 occurs in the G1 and G2 of the cell cycle 0 RNA Polymerase 0 One strand of DNA is the template 0 Utilizes nucleotides AUGC 0 Only individual genes transcribed 0 Products formed detaches from DNA and goes into the cytoplasm 0 RNA polymerase binds to a promoter on the template strand 0 RNA polymerase unwinds DNA locally no helicase needed 0 Free RNAtype nucleotides base pair with DNA template strand 0 Processes stops at terminator region 0 RNA comes off goes into cytoplasm through nuclear pores 0 ONLY A GIVEN GENE TRANSCRIBES 0mRNA tRNA rRNA are all made by DNA transcription and are all need for protein synthesis mRNA Messenger RNA 0 processed in nucleus leaves as a messenger of genetic info 0 5 cap and polyA tail are added for mRNA stability 0 Goes out to cytoplasm 0 Introns cut out and extrons spliced together tRNA Tr sfer RNA 0 Amino acid and tRNA attach at amino acid binding site 0 Interprets the message which allows protein synthesis to begin 0 ANTICODON of each tRNA complementarily pairs to a specific codon in mRNA rRNA ribosomal RNA 0 rRNA and protein form a small and large ribosomal subunit 0 creates the structure of ribosomes Codon 0 3 adjacent nucleotides 0 AUG is start 0 UAA UAG UGA is Stop mRNA Translation 0 Initiation 0 Small ribosomal unit attaches to the mRNA and finds the start codon AUG 0 Elongation 0 tRNA anticodons complementary base pair with the codons of mRNA forming amino acids that covalently bond which create a polypeptide chain and then translocate from the A site to the P site and then to the E site 0 Termination 0 The tRNA anticodon finds a STOP codon UAA UGA UAG and releases the polypeptide chain How can gene expressjon change in g cell 0 Using vs not using the information 0 Reversible 0 Cell can turn expressing gene on or off depending on needed condition 0 Changing the information 0 Mutation permanent change to the DNA base sequence result of errors or damage 0 Not reversible Francis Jacob and Jacques Monod 0 Observed E Coli Lactose was absent all 3 enzymes are absent 0 Proposed the idea of operon 0 Promoter where RNA polymerase binds 0 Operator where a receptor protein binds 0 Controlled by regulatory gene elsewhere in the genome
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