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BIOL 190 Unit 4

by: Stacy Downing

BIOL 190 Unit 4 BIOL 190

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > BIOL 190 > BIOL 190 Unit 4
Stacy Downing
GPA 3.94
Introductory Biology for health professions
preeti shah

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Studying helps for this exam!
Introductory Biology for health professions
preeti shah
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stacy Downing on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 190 at Towson University taught by preeti shah in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for health professions in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Unit 4 Review Metabolism Matter and Energl Kinetic Energy energy of motion mechanical electrical heat light 0 Potential Energy stored energy position arrangement Laws of Thermodvnamic 1St Law the quantity of energy in the universe if constant energy cannot be created or destroyed 2nCI Law the quality of energy in the universe is NOT constant energy transformation is not 100 ef cient Corollary of the 2nCI Law 0 Order to Randomness no energy required example diffusion o Randomness to order energy required example active transport Metabolism sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell Metabolic Pathways a series of chemical reactions in which the product of the rst reaction is the substrate of the 2nCI reaction etc o Linear may be branched example gycoysis o Cyclical example Krebs cycle Tvnes of Reaction Exergonic Reaction cataboic o Releases energy making energy available to cells 0 Energy 0 reactant is greater than energy of product 0 Order to random degradation breaking down Endergonic Reaction anabolic o Consumes energy requires energy input 0 Energy of reactants is less than energy of product 0 Random to order synthesis Energy Hill Diagram Counled Reaction 2 reactions are coupled if something from the 1St reaction is essentialneeded for 2nCI reaction Exergonic and endergonic reaction are connected in cells ATP ATP is the coupling molecule in the middle 0 First being made 0 Then being consumed Ego F9r Enzyme A biological catalyst helps reactions take place Lowers the EA Active Site Region on enzyme where substrate binds and are converted to products Directly participate in the makingbreaking bonds ls structurally complementary to the substrate Control of enzvme activitv Disrupt shape change or lose enzyme activity through heating extreme pH or salt concentration RATE OF SYTHESIS AND ITS RATE OF DEGRADATION CONTROLLED Start of stop making enzymes 0 Certain genes can be turned on or turned off 0 Lac operon in Ecoli in the presence of lactose Accessibility of substrate 0 The transfer of substrate from one compartment to another lsolate active enzyme in separate compartment 0 Con ned to a speci c location and works only there 0 Lysosomal Enzymes only in lysosomes because of acidic conditions Activation 0 Some enzymes are made in an immature inactive form and get activated wherewhen it s appropriate Enzyme Inhibitor Competitive inhibitor can bind on the active site as it resembles the substrate blocks active site NoncompetitiveAllosteric inhibitor binds to a different binding site change shape of active site 0 Example Feedback Inhibition Carrier Molecules e39H carrying coenzyme holds energy temporarily o NAD NADH and FADFADH2 0 Pick up HIGH ENERGY electrons within the cell 0 Delivered eH are used to produce ATP 0 Energy carrier molecule immediate energy molecule 0 ATPADP Red uctionOxidation Oxidation loss of electrons Reduction gain of electrons Reactions of Glucose Catabolism 1 C6H1206 6 02 gt 6 C02 6 H20 3638 ATP 60 lost in heat 0 ATP Synthesis 0 Endergonic reaction 0 Direct Phosphorylation substrate level phosphorylation o Requires an enzyme and a phosphate group donor 0 Source of 10 of cell39s ATP Chemiosmosis 0 Source of 90 of cell39s ATP Categories of cellular work 0 Chemical endergonic reaction DNA synthesis RNA synthesis Protein synthesis lipid synthesis 0 Mechanical muscle contraction motor proteins inside of cells 0 Transport active transport across membranes 0 A series of electron transport proteins inserted in the PL Bilayer of the inner mitochondrial membrane Energy from electron ow along ETC used to pump H across membrane Ends with oxygen as the nal electron acceptor Key Points about cellular energy 1 All life forms need to maintain a constant supply of energy in usable form 2nCI Law 2 In all cells the molecule that provides energy in the usable form is ATP energy carrier molecule 3 All cells use glucose as primary source of energy to maintain their supply of ATP 4 The source of glucose in nature is photosynthesis 5 Glucose is the high energy organic product of photosynthesis is the food that supports all life on earth Oxygen is the low energy inorganic by product of photosynthesis All cells break down glucose to extract energy and transfer it to ATP Glucose catabolism has 3 main stages that begin in the cytoplasm and ends in the mitochondria a Cytoplasm Glycolysis b Mitochondria cellular respiration i Krebs cycle anaerobic ii Electron transport chain 9 Oxygen is used by all cells to complete the aerobic catabolism of glucose It serves as the nal electron acceptor at the end of ETC 10Photosynthesis and glucose catabolism are complementary processes Process of Glucose Catabolism


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