Biol190 Unit 6
Popular in Introductory Biology for health professions
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stacy Downing on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 190 at Towson University taught by preeti shah in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for health professions in Biology at Towson University.
Reviews for Biol190 Unit 6
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/30/16
Unit 6 Review- Ecology and Evolution Biological Levels of Biological Organization Individual: one living creature Population: all the individuals of one species Community: sum of ALL population (=species) in a defined area Ecosystem: biological community plus abiotic physical environment Biome: Ecological association extending over a large geographic area o Ecological association extending over large geographical area o Very large geographic areas o Aquatic Biome Freshwater o Terrestrial Biome Rainforest, savanna, dessert, chaparral, grassland, temperate forest, taiga, tundra, polar ice caps Biosphere: sum of all ecosystems/ biome on earth Species: group of individuals that van interbreed and are reproductively isolated Population Ecology Ecology: the study of interactions of organisms with each other and with their environment 3 key factors that influence size/ growth rate o Exponential growth rate, r max o Population limiting factors (PLF) o Carrying capacity Maximal growth rate, r exponential growth rate, actual growth under ideal max conditions, different for each species depending upon reproductive cycles/yr. and # of young/cycle Exponential growth gives a J curve= population increases by multiplying factors each year Population Limiting Factors Environmental factors that limit population growth by decreasing birth rate or increasing death rate Abiotic factors o Seasonal changes in foliage, temperature, light/dark cycles, etc. o Hurricanes o Tsunamis o Earthquakes o Wildfires o Man-made disaster Biotic factors o Community interactions o Competition for resources o Predation o Parasite o Disease Effects of PLFs on population growth= J curve (exponential growth) and S curve (logistic growth) Limitations of resources in environment is a major source of PLFs Carrying Capacity Number of individuals of one species that an environment can support over the long term in terms of resources and absorbing water If population exceeds CC, the environment cannot support as many individuals Technology Technology: application of new scientific info to produce a product or process of benefit to humans Biotechnology: (subset of technology) use of a biological system to produce a product or process to benefit to humans Examples in Non-medical Agricultural Medical and examples examples Public Health o Seatbelt o Food o Eyeglasse o Weather supply s forecastin o Less o Antibiotics g costly o Vaccines o Communic o Higher o Surgeries ation yield o In vitro technolog o Improved fertilizatio y distributio n n Earth’s current CC for humans Ecological footprint: an area of land by individual/ nation globally to produce all needed resources and absorb all waste Ecological capacity: area of productive land Relationship between footprint and capacity o Footprint must be ≤ ecological capacity for population to remain below or at CC Evidence of exceeding our CC Overharvest of natural resources extinction Pollution Water shortage Global climate change coastal flooding and starvation Ecosystem What determines average temperate and water o angle of sunlight, uneven heating by solar radiation, ocean currents,, presences of mountains Diversity: number of different species that the biome can support Abundance: number of individuals of each species that the biome can support Variation in Environment o Over space Longitude, latitude, proximities to bodies of water o Over time Succession Techtronic plate movement Primary Succession: ecosystem development beginning in a virtually lifeless area with no soil Secondary Succession: re-establishment after a disturbance Biological Evolution Change in genetic make-up of a population over time Occurs at population level no endpoint, not goal oriented, not intentional Microevolution: short time frame, species/population level, small changes Macroevolution: geological time frame, species level, large and clearly viable changes Natural Selection Pre-existing genetic variation in all population Overpopulation of offspring (r max Competition for limited resources and escape from predation diseases (PLFs) Unequal reproductive success: some offspring’s are more successful than others 4 Sources of genetic variation in all population 1. Genetic variation from sexual reproduction: new combo of mat and pat alleles at each reproductive event 2. Gene Mutation: only source of new alleles 3. Chromosomal Aberration: multi-genetic changes in structure/ # of chromosomes 4. Immigration/ Emigration of individuals to/from a population Genetic Drift Taking place when a population evolves only due to this type of random errors Small populations: more vulnerable to effects of genetic drift Chance Event lucky ones survive What is needed for natural selection/ unequal reproductive success? Preexisting (and ongoing) phenotypic variation based on genetic variation PLUS Overproduction of offspring (r max) PLUS Limited resource, competition, predation, disease,etc. LEADS TO Unequal Survival (not random) LEADS TO Unequal Reproductive Success What is the outcome of Unequal reproductive Success? Unequal Reproductive Success: the only feature that gives evolutionary value to an individual LEADS TO Unequal Transmission of Alleles: only the alleles carried by individuals that do reproduce are transmitted RESULTS IN Changes in Allele Frequency in Gene Pool REPRESENTS Evolution: changes in population over time Three Patterns of Natural Selection 1. Stabilizing Selection a. Both of the extreme phenotype will be selected against so the middle phenotype will be selected 2. Directional Selection a. Happen in 1 specific direction, can be shifted to only one extreme phenotype that is selected 3. Disruptive Selection a. Selection against most common phenotype
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'