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Biol190 Unit 6

by: Stacy Downing

Biol190 Unit 6 BIOL 190

Stacy Downing
GPA 3.94

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Studying helps alot of this exam
Introductory Biology for health professions
preeti shah
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stacy Downing on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 190 at Towson University taught by preeti shah in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for health professions in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Unit 6 Review- Ecology and Evolution Biological Levels of Biological Organization  Individual: one living creature  Population: all the individuals of one species  Community: sum of ALL population (=species) in a defined area  Ecosystem: biological community plus abiotic physical environment  Biome: Ecological association extending over a large geographic area o Ecological association extending over large geographical area o Very large geographic areas o Aquatic Biome  Freshwater o Terrestrial Biome  Rainforest, savanna, dessert, chaparral, grassland, temperate forest, taiga, tundra, polar ice caps  Biosphere: sum of all ecosystems/ biome on earth  Species: group of individuals that van interbreed and are reproductively isolated Population Ecology  Ecology: the study of interactions of organisms with each other and with their environment  3 key factors that influence size/ growth rate o Exponential growth rate, r max o Population limiting factors (PLF) o Carrying capacity  Maximal growth rate, r exponential growth rate, actual growth under ideal max  conditions, different for each species depending upon reproductive cycles/yr. and # of young/cycle  Exponential growth gives a J curve= population increases by multiplying factors each year Population Limiting Factors  Environmental factors that limit population growth by decreasing birth rate or increasing death rate  Abiotic factors o Seasonal changes in foliage, temperature, light/dark cycles, etc. o Hurricanes o Tsunamis o Earthquakes o Wildfires o Man-made disaster  Biotic factors o Community interactions o Competition for resources o Predation o Parasite o Disease  Effects of PLFs on population growth= J curve (exponential growth) and S curve (logistic growth)  Limitations of resources in environment is a major source of PLFs Carrying Capacity Number of individuals of one species that an environment can support over the long term in terms of resources and absorbing water If population exceeds CC, the environment cannot support as many individuals Technology  Technology: application of new scientific info to produce a product or process of benefit to humans  Biotechnology: (subset of technology) use of a biological system to produce a product or process to benefit to humans  Examples in  Non-medical  Agricultural Medical and examples examples Public Health o Seatbelt o Food o Eyeglasse o Weather supply s forecastin o Less o Antibiotics g costly o Vaccines o Communic o Higher o Surgeries ation yield o In vitro technolog o Improved fertilizatio y distributio n n Earth’s current CC for humans  Ecological footprint: an area of land by individual/ nation globally to produce all needed resources and absorb all waste  Ecological capacity: area of productive land  Relationship between footprint and capacity o Footprint must be ≤ ecological capacity for population to remain below or at CC Evidence of exceeding our CC  Overharvest of natural resources  extinction  Pollution  Water shortage  Global climate change coastal flooding and starvation Ecosystem  What determines average temperate and water o angle of sunlight, uneven heating by solar radiation, ocean currents,, presences of mountains  Diversity: number of different species that the biome can support  Abundance: number of individuals of each species that the biome can support  Variation in Environment o Over space  Longitude, latitude, proximities to bodies of water o Over time  Succession  Techtronic plate movement  Primary Succession: ecosystem development beginning in a virtually lifeless area with no soil  Secondary Succession: re-establishment after a disturbance Biological Evolution  Change in genetic make-up of a population over time  Occurs at population level no endpoint, not goal oriented, not intentional  Microevolution: short time frame, species/population level, small changes  Macroevolution: geological time frame, species level, large and clearly viable changes Natural Selection  Pre-existing genetic variation in all population  Overpopulation of offspring (r max  Competition for limited resources and escape from predation diseases (PLFs)  Unequal reproductive success: some offspring’s are more successful than others 4 Sources of genetic variation in all population 1. Genetic variation from sexual reproduction: new combo of mat and pat alleles at each reproductive event 2. Gene Mutation: only source of new alleles 3. Chromosomal Aberration: multi-genetic changes in structure/ # of chromosomes 4. Immigration/ Emigration of individuals to/from a population Genetic Drift  Taking place when a population evolves only due to this type of random errors  Small populations: more vulnerable to effects of genetic drift  Chance Event lucky ones survive What is needed for natural selection/ unequal reproductive success?  Preexisting (and ongoing) phenotypic variation based on genetic variation  PLUS  Overproduction of offspring (r max)  PLUS  Limited resource, competition, predation, disease,etc.  LEADS TO  Unequal Survival (not random)  LEADS TO  Unequal Reproductive Success What is the outcome of Unequal reproductive Success?  Unequal Reproductive Success: the only feature that gives evolutionary value to an individual  LEADS TO  Unequal Transmission of Alleles: only the alleles carried by individuals that do reproduce are transmitted  RESULTS IN  Changes in Allele Frequency in Gene Pool  REPRESENTS  Evolution: changes in population over time Three Patterns of Natural Selection 1. Stabilizing Selection a. Both of the extreme phenotype will be selected against so the middle phenotype will be selected 2. Directional Selection a. Happen in 1 specific direction, can be shifted to only one extreme phenotype that is selected 3. Disruptive Selection a. Selection against most common phenotype 


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